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Joint Funding Councils of the United Kingdom

1996 Research Assessment Exercise: The Outcome

Contents

Part I: Background to the Ratings

Annex A - Definition of Research

Annex B - Units of Assessment

Annex C - Interpretation of the Ratings - the Rating Scale

Ratings by institution

(Not available in the printed version.)

Part II: Ratings by Unit of Assessment

No.Title
1 Clinical Laboratory Sciences
2 Community Based Clinical Subjects
3 Hospital Based Clinical Subjects
4 Clinical Dentistry
5 Pre-Clinical Studies
6 Anatomy
7 Physiology
8 Pharmacology
9 Pharmacy
10 Nursing
11 Other Studies and Professions Allied To Medicine
12 Biochemistry
13 Psychology
14 Biological Sciences
15 Agriculture
16 Food Science and Technology
17 Veterinary Science
18 Chemistry
19 Physics
20 Earth Sciences
21 Environmental Sciences
22 Pure Mathematics
23 Applied Mathematics
24 Statistics and Operational Research
25 Computer Science
26 General Engineering
27 Chemical Engineering
28 Civil Engineering
29 Electrical and Electronic Engineering
30 Mechanical, Aeronautical and Manufacturing Engineering
31 Mineral and Mining Engineering
32 Metallurgy and Materials
33 Built Environment
34 Town and Country Planning
35 Geography
36 Law
37 Anthropology
38 Economics and Econometrics
39 Politics and International Studies
40 Social Policy and Administration
41 Social Work
42 Sociology
43 Business and Management Studies
44 Accountancy
45 American Studies
46 Middle Eastern and African Studies
47 Asian Studies
48 European Studies
49 Celtic Studies
50 English Language and Literature
51 French
52 German, Dutch and Scandinavian Languages
53 Italian
54 Russian, Slavonic and East European Languages
55 Iberian and Latin American Languages
56 Linguistics
57 Classics and Ancient History
58 Archaeology
59 History
60 History of Art, Architecture and Design
61 Library and Information Management
62 Philosophy
63 Theology, Divinity and Religious Studies
64 Art and Design
65 Communication, Cultural and Media Studies
66 Drama, Dance and Performing Arts
67 Music
68 Education
69 Sports-Related Subjects

Institutional Profiles

Index: Units of Assessment to which Submissions were made by each Institution


Research Assessment Exercise 1996: The Outcome

ReferenceRAE96 1/96
Publication DateDecember 1996
Enquiries toHEFCE - RAE Team (0117 931 7315)
(or by e-mail: rae@hefce.ac.uk)
SHEFC - Richard Hancock (0131 313 6587)
(or by e-mail: rhancock@shefc.ac.uk)
HEFCW - Ann Hughes (01222 682 221)
DENI/NIHEC - John Coote (01247 279 333)

PART I: BACKGROUND TO THE RATINGS

Summary

1. This circular contains the results of the 1996 Research Assessment Exercise (RAE), conducted jointly by the four higher education funding bodies in the UK: the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE), the Scottish Higher Education Funding Council (SHEFC), the Higher Education Funding Council for Wales (HEFCW) and the Department of Education for Northern Ireland (DENI). All higher education institutions (HEIs) funded by these bodies were eligible to participate in the exercise.

2. The form and conduct of the exercise, described in Circular RAE96 2/95 (November 1995), are summarised briefly below. A more detailed account will be published in March 1997. For ease of reference the definition of research adopted for the exercise is set out at Annex A to this circular; and the descriptions of the subject units of assessment (UOAs) at Annex B. Annex C gives the rating scale used across all subjects, and some guidance on interpreting the ratings which are set out in Part II.

3. The funding bodies will use the ratings to inform the distribution of grant for research to HEIs from 1997-98. Their arrangements for the funding of research, and the grant allocations, will be announced separately in due course.

4. This exercise is concerned only with the assessment of research quality. Separate arrangements exist for assessing the quality of teaching in HEIs.

Conduct of the Exercise

5. Assessment was by informed peer review, with 60 subject panels considering submissions for assessment in 69 UOAs. Membership of the assessment panels is listed in Circular RAE96 2/96. The panel members were selected, following nominations from learned societies, subject associations and other interested bodies, on the basis of their eminence and experience as practising researchers in their field. Some also had experience of commissioning and using research in commerce and industry.

6. Submissions were made in writing and in common form for all subjects. They included:

  • a. The names of the active researchers, working at the HEI on the census date (31 March 1996), whose work it had selected to put forward for assessment in that UOA.
  • b. Details of up to four publications or other forms of research outputs produced by each of these researchers during the specified period (1 January 1990 to 31 March 1996 for humanities and arts subjects; 1 January 1992 to 31 March 1996 for other subjects).
  • c. Information about numbers of research students and studentships in the department, and its research income, during the assessment period.
  • d. A statement of the department's research achievements, arrangements for supporting and promoting research, indicators of external recognition, and any other relevant information that the HEI wished to draw to the attention of the panel.

7. The definition of research used in the exercise (Annex A) was broad and inclusive. It encompassed the full range of basic, strategic and applied research, including work relevant to industrial, business, and other users of research, with no distinction in esteem between them. Research falling within the definition and leading to outputs in forms other than published texts was also admitted. The exercise covered the full range of academic subjects, and was designed to accommodate interdisciplinary and other research not falling clearly within a single traditional subject definition. HEIs themselves decided within which UOA a particular researcher or group of researchers should initially be submitted.

8. The assessment panels met first in 1995 to agree their individual criteria for assessment and working methods. These were published, with detailed guidance on submissions, in November 1995, some six months before the closing date for submissions. (Circulars RAE96 2/95 and RAE96 3/95.) The criteria statements varied in detail, reflecting the panels' differing views on what was the key evidence for research quality in their subject and on the relative significance of different parts of the submissions. However, all assigned particular importance to the panel's collective judgement of the quality of research being done in a department and reported in the cited outputs.

9. The deadline for return of submissions was 30 April 1996. The panels met again between May and November of that year to make the assessments in accordance with their criteria statements. Their members read selectively from the research outputs listed in the submissions. Wherever they felt it necessary to ensure a full assessment, they sought the advice of other panels, or of outside specialist advisers, on particular aspects of the research described in a submission.

10. A total of 2,896 submissions for assessment were received from 192 HEIs across the UK. These listed 55,893 individual active researchers.

Checking and Audit

11. The submissions were subject to checking and audit. In virtually all cases the data were returned to the funding bodies electronically, using software developed for the exercise. Once the information had been entered in a database, printed copies were returned to HEIs to check that it had not been corrupted in processing and was free of serious errors of fact. The submissions were then audited. A sample were selected for routine audit checks - for example, to verify that staff returned as research active were indeed employed as academic staff by the HEI on the census date. All submissions underwent a number of mechanical checks for detectable inaccuracy or internal inconsistency. Finally, a number of questions raised by the panels about the factual accuracy of individual submissions were taken up with the HEIs concerned. The outcome of all of these checks was reported to the panels as necessary.

12. The checks revealed that the submissions contained a number of minor inaccuracies, and a smaller number of quite significant errors, but in no case was there evidence to suggest deliberate misrepresentation or widespread misunderstanding of the guidelines.

Ratings

13. The ratings are listed by unit of assessment. They should be read with the notes on interpretation at Annex C. In some cases an HEI, with the prior agreement of the funding bodies, made more than one submission to a particular UOA; in such cases each submission was given an individual rating. A small number of ratings for submissions made jointly by two HEIs are identified as such.

14. The ratings are followed by a series of charts showing a research quality profile for each HEI. There is also an index identifying all the UOAs in which each HEI made a submission.

Comparability of 1992 and 1996 Ratings

15. The rating scale used in 1996, reproduced at Annex C, maps directly onto the scale used in 1992. The definition of the scale points is the same as in 1992 except that point 5 on the 1992 scale has been extended to create a new 5* rating, and point 3 has been subdivided into points 3a and 3b. Nonetheless, comparisons between the ratings awarded in 1992 and 1996 should be made with some caution. In some cases the definition of the subject units of assessment has changed; and an HEI may have chosen, as a result of staff changes or for other reasons, to submit different groups of researchers in the two exercises within the same UOA.

Comparability within the 1996 Exercise

16. Within the 1996 Exercise, considerable stress was laid on the need for a common approach. In particular this meant all panels interpreting the rating scale in the same way, and adopting criteria which were different only where subject-related considerations clearly required it. This should mean that the 1996 ratings are comparable between subjects. However, these judgements have been made in different subjects by different panels against different criteria and it would therefore be unsafe to assume that what a particular rating indicates about a department is the same across all subjects.

Appeals

17. There is no provision for formal appeals against ratings.

Further Copies of the Ratings

18. The ratings are available electronically (/rae/rae_dynamic.cfm?myURL=http://www.niss.ac.uk/education/hefc/rae96/ ). Further copies in book form are available from External Relations, HEFCE (telephone 0117 931 7339, fax 0117 931 7463) or from Research Funding and Policy Branch at SHEFC (telephone 0131 313 6560, fax 0131 313 6501) priced at £15. This copy may be photocopied freely, but the individual ratings or tables should always be presented in the context of the note on interpretation at Annex C.

Further Enquiries

19. Further enquiries should be addressed to:

HEFCE - the RAE Team (0117 931 7315)
(or by e-mail: rae@hefce.ac.uk)
SHEFC - Richard Hancock (0131 313 6587)
(or by e-mail: r.hancock@shefc.ac.uk)
HEFCW - Ann Hughes (01222 682 221)
DENI/NIHEC - John Coote (01247 279 333)

Annex A

Definition of Research

'Research' for the purpose of the RAE is to be understood as original investigation undertaken in order to gain knowledge and understanding. It includes work of direct relevance to the needs of commerce and industry, as well as to the public and voluntary sectors; scholarship*; the invention and generation of ideas, images, performances and artefacts including design, where these lead to new or substantially improved insights; and the use of existing knowledge in experimental development to produce new or substantially improved materials, devices, products and processes, including design and construction. It excludes routine testing and analysis of materials, components and processes, eg for the maintenance of national standards, as distinct from the development of new analytical techniques.

* Scholarship embraces a spectrum of activities including the development of teaching material; the latter is excluded from the RAE.


Annex B

Units of Assessment

1 Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Including histopathology, clinical microbiology and virology, chemical pathology, clinical biochemistry, clinical immunology, clinical physics, medical genetics, forensic medicine and forensic pathology

2 Community-based Clinical Subjects
Including psychiatry, general practice, public health/community epidemiology, medical statistics, occupational and industrial medicine.

3 Hospital-based Clinical Subjects
All other clinical subjects based wholly or chiefly in hospitals and not included under Clinical Laboratory Sciences (UOA 1) or Community based Clinical Subjects (UOA 2).

4 Clinical Dentistry
All clinical dental subjects including dental materials science.

5 Pre-Clinical Studies
May include behavioural sciences (psychology and sociology as applied to medicine) and basic dental sciences.

6 Anatomy

7 Physiology

8 Pharmacology

9 Pharmacy

10 Nursing
Including midwifery and health visiting

11 Other Studies and Professions Allied to Medicine
Including biomedical sciences, nutrition, optometry, occupational therapy, speech and language therapy, art therapy, music therapy, drama therapy, physiotherapy, health promotion and other professions allied to medicine.

12 Biochemistry

13 Psychology
Includes all aspects of contemporary psychology across the range of experimental, developmental, biological, social and applied psychology. Covers clinical, educational, health and occupational psychology and cognitive science where the focus of work lies within the discipline of psychology rather than within medicine, education, ergonomics/management, or computing/linguistics.

14 Biological Sciences
Biological sciences encompasses animal and plant sciences, molecular biology, cell biology, animal and plant physiology, behaviour, ecology, population biology, systematics, taxonomy, biophysics, biotechnology, neuroscience, marine biology, botany, zoology and paristology. Includes genetics: molecular genetics, microbial genetics, plant and animal genetics, developmental genetics, population and ecological genetics. Also includes microbiology: microbial genetics, microbial development and differentiation, microbial physiology and microbial ecology.

15 Agriculture
The utilisation of rural resources for the purpose of food and non-food production. It includes the production of animals and animal products, including their breeding and nutrition, but does not include studies relating to the diagnosis and control of animal diseases (see Veterinary Science (UOA 17). It includes the supporting sciences of botany, zoology, genetics, and economics, where these are studied in the context of the production and processing of food and non-food products. Includes horticulture and soil science. Includes forestry and aquaculture.

16 Food Science and Technology
Includes the sciences related to the processing of food post farm-gate and catering.

17 Veterinary Science
The group of animal related subjects which comprise and contribute to the professional practice of veterinary medicine. This may include the preclinical veterinary sciences where these are studied in this context, but does not include them where the main thrust is towards Agriculture (UOA 15) or Food Science and Technology (UOA 16). Includes para clinical veterinary science and tropical animal health.

18 Chemistry
Organic, inorganic, physical, analytical and theoretical chemistry, including biological chemistry, catalysis, colour chemistry, applied chemistry, organometallic chemistry, surface chemistry and laboratory based atmospheric chemistry. Includes synthetic, structural, physico-chemical studies and computer modelling and calculations.

19 Physics
Including theoretical physics, condensed matter (solids and liquids), high energy physics, nuclear physics, astronomy, astrophysics, classical and quantum optics, lasers, cryophysics, applied physics and medical physics.

20 Earth Sciences

21 Environmental Sciences
Includes environmental sciences, meteorology, oceanography, polar studies, environmental technology and ecology.

22 Pure Mathematics

23 Applied Mathematics
Includes biomathematics, engineering mathematics, mathematical physics and theoretical mechanics.

24 Statistics and Operational Research
Including probability as well as statistics of a specialist applied nature (such as actuarial, demographic, medical, management and social) and Operational Research.

25 Computer Science
Computer Science includes, but is not limited to, the theoretical and practical study of algorithms, programming languages, programming systems and applications, computer hardware, networks, operating systems and artificial intelligence.

26 General Engineering
Embraces those departments that offer courses which integrate two or more of the main branches of engineering - electrical, civil, mechanical and chemical. Includes offshore technology, industrial studies, medical engineering and bioengineering.

27 Chemical Engineering
Including chemical and process engineering, biochemical and bioprocess engineering, fuel technology and energy engineering and environmental protection.

28 Civil Engineering
Including, marine technology, transportation and traffic engineering.

29 Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Including instrumentation and analytical science and acoustics.

30 Mechanical, Aeronautical and Manufacturing Engineering
Including mechanical and manufacturing engineering, sound and vibration research.

31 Mineral and Mining Engineering

32 Metallurgy and Materials
Including corrosion science and engineering, paper science, polymer science and technology, textiles and materials science.

33 Built Environment
Including architecture, building, construction management, landscape and surveying.

34 Town and Country Planning
Includes land-use planning units associated with the professional activities of the Royal Town Planning Institute; general and rural estate management units associated with the professional activities of the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors; the work of research based units dealing with planning related matters, and housing units associated with the activities of the Institute of Housing. Also includes transport studies.

35 Geography

36 Law

37 Anthropology
Social, cultural, physical and biological anthropology.

38 Economics and Econometrics
Includes economic history where its orientation is towards economics.

39 Politics and International Studies
National and comparative politics; public administration and policy studies, including science and technology policy; political theory; international relations, including strategic, war and peace studies.

40 Social Policy and Administration

41 Social Work

42 Sociology
Quantitative and qualitative, empirical and theoretical study of the structures and cultures of advanced and developing societies, including styles and material standards of living, opinions, values and institutions. Includes social theory and social research methodology. Includes women's studies and gender studies. Overlaps demography, criminology, social studies of science, medicine and health, social statistics, social history, human geography, philosophy of social science, social psychology.

43 Business and Management Studies
Covers the full range of single and multidisciplinary research which may be undertaken in Business and Management Schools and Departments, including human and organisation behaviour, accounting, banking and financial management, marketing, operations management, management sciences, information management, public sector management, business policy and strategic management, economics, international business and management, small businesses, business history (except where its orientation is clearly towards history), arts management, industrial relations, management development and related areas. Also includes hospitality management and tourism.

44 Accountancy
Covers the 15 categories of Accounting and Finance research used in The British Accounting Register, ie accounting history, accounting profession, accounting theory, auditing, business finance and financial markets, computing, education, financial accounting and reporting, government, public sector and other not for profit organisations, industries and specific organisations, international aspects, management accounting, methodology and methods (including quantitative method), taxation, other aspects of accounting and finance practice, theory and research.

45 American Studies (Canada, the Caribbean, Latin America and the USA)
Including non-language based Latin American Studies, Canadian studies and Caribbean studies.

46 Middle Eastern and African Studies
Including Arabic, Persian and Turkish, Hebrew and other languages of the Bible, and Sub-Saharan Africa (Bantu, Swahili, Hausa etc.) and central Asian languages of the former Soviet Union with the exception of Mongolian which should be returned to UOA 47. Also includes non-language based area studies of these regions.

47 Asian Studies
Includes Chinese, Japanese, and Korean, Southeast Asian languages (Thai, Burmese, Mon-Khmer, Indonesian etc.), Indian languages (Sanskrit, Pali, Prakrit, Hindi, Urdu, etc and Tibetan) and Mongolian. Also includes non-language based area studies of these regions.

48 European Studies
Submissions from departments covering a wide range of European languages and also a variety of disciplines (history, politics, literature, linguistics etc).

49 Celtic Studies

50 English Language and Literature
The study of the English language and of written and (so far as accessible) spoken English discourse of all periods (from Old English to Present English) and in all parts of the world. Includes literature of Great Britain and Ireland, of North America, of the Commonwealth, and of former Commonwealth countries in English. Also includes related subjects mainly taught within English, for example, Old Icelandic.

51 French
Including Provencal

52 German, Dutch and Scandinavian languages

53 Italian

54 Russian, Slavonic and East European languages
Including Finnish and Hungarian.

55 Iberian and Latin American Languages
Including Spanish, other Iberian languages and Latin American languages (both indigenous languages and those of European origin).

56 Linguistics
All areas of theoretical, descriptive and applied linguistics, including syntax, morphology, semantics, pragmatics, phonology, phonetics, sociolinguistics, psycholinguistics, computational linguistics, historical linguistics, stylistics, text linguistics and research in second language acquisition.

57 Classics, Ancient History, Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies
Greek and Latin language, literature and documentation including epigraphy and papyrology; ancient philosophy and history of thought and religion in antiquity; ancient history. Also includes Byzantine studies and Modern Greek.

58 Archaeology
The study of ancient societies through the examination of their physical remains and the application of general social theories. British, European and World Archaeology including such regional or chronological subject areas as medieval archaeology, classical archaeology, prehistoric archaeology, New World archaeology, Assyriology, and Egyptology. Scientific archaeology (including palaeodemography, palaeoecology etc) using laboratory-based techniques. Landscape archaeology and cultural resource management.

59 History
Includes the main historical divisions, such as medieval, early modern and modern history; British, Irish, European and world history; cultural, social, scientific, diplomatic, local history, history of medicine and history of science. It includes economic history where its orientation is towards history; other related areas are Politics and International Studies (UOA 39) and Classics (UOA 57). Includes palaeography.

60 History of Art, Architecture and Design
Principally western art and architecture, from classical antiquity to the present, but to include non-western art and architecture such as Islamic, Oriental, Byzantine, Indian, Oceanic, Latin American. Also museum studies and conservation.

61 Library and Information Management
Including librarianship, library and archive studies.

62 Philosophy
History of philosophy, logic and philosophical logic, metaphysics, moral and political philosophy, applied ethics (eg in environmental areas), theory of knowledge and philosophy of mind: also ancient philosophy, philosophy of language, aesthetics, philosophy of religion, modern continental philosophy, philosophy of mathematics, philosophy of history, philosophy of the social sciences, philosophy of law and philosophy of science.

63 Theology, Divinity and Religious Studies
Under these headings are included research in the following (and related areas): systematic theology, historical and contemporary; philosophical theology; the theology of Old and New Testaments; ecclesiastical history; historical studies in the developments of creeds, doctrine, liturgy; pastoral care; ethics and religion. Biblical studies, exegetical, interpretative, linguistic etc. Comparative religion; studies in religious traditions world-wide.

64 Art and Design
Fine art, applied arts, and design for communication. Includes fashion design, theatre design, typography and graphic communication. It does not include engineering-based design which should be returned to the appropriate engineering UOA (UOAs 26-32).

65 Communication, Cultural and Media Studies

66 Drama, Dance, and Performing Arts
Excludes Music (UOA 67).

67 Music
Includes ethnomusicology.

68 Education
Theory and practice of Education at all stages including pre-school, school, post-school, continuing, further, adult and higher education, but not physical education and sports sciences (see UOA 69). Where the nature of the research justifies it, work may be submitted to other units (eg certain types of mathematical education might be more appropriate to mathematics).

69 Sports-Related Subjects
Includes physical education, sport science, leisure, recreation and sports studies.


Annex C

Interpretation of the Ratings

1. The following points should be taken into account when reading the individual ratings:

  • a. The ratings reflect the panel's judgement as to the quality of the research submitted only. They are not a guide to any other aspect of an institution's work in the subject area concerned. It was for each HEI to decide which active researchers to submit for assessment and within which subject Unit of Assessment they should be returned.
  • b. This is a peer review exercise and the ratings reflect the professional judgement of a panel of practising researchers in the subject. Each panel's criteria for assessment and working methods were published in Circular RAE96 2/95.
  • c. The HE funding bodies have made entirely separate arrangements for assessing the quality of teaching in HEIs.

2. The ratings are expressed in terms of a standard numerical scale defined as set out below.

3. Alongside each rating is shown the following information:

  • a. Proportion of staff selected: this is the proportion of all the HEI's staff, employed on academic contracts and working within the subject area, who were put forward for assessment ('Category A' staff). The letters indicate the following bands:

    A: 95 - 100% staff submitted
    B: 80 - 94%
    C: 60 - 79%
    D: 40 - 59%
    E: 20 - 39%
    F: below 20%

  • b. Category A Research Active Staff (FTE): the number (FTE) of academic staff employed by the HEI put forward for assessment in the UOA. This does not include 'Category C' staff - researchers not employed as academic staff by the HEI, but for whom the department is the focus of their research. Such staff may also have been put forward for assessment and contributed to the rating.

4. In some cases there is an entry under the heading 'flagged research groups'. These entries identify cases where the panel wished to draw attention to a body of work within the submission which it judged to stand out by virtue of its higher quality.

Distribution of Research Active Staff

5. These charts show, for each participating HEI:

  • a. How many academic staff it employs in total and the proportion of these returned as 'Category A' research active in the RAE.
  • b. The number and proportion of these selected staff in departments rated at each point of the rating scale.

In both cases the figures are taken from the institution's submissions and reflect its staffing on the census date (31 March 1996).

The Rating Scale

5* Research quality that equates to attainable levels of international excellence in a majority of sub-areas of activity and attainable levels of national excellence in all others.
5 Research quality that equates to attainable levels of international excellence in some sub-areas of activity and to attainable levels of national excellence in virtually all others.
4 Research quality that equates to attainable levels of national excellence in virtually all sub-areas of activity, possibly showing some evidence of international excellence, or to international level in some and at least national level in a majority.
3a Research quality that equates to attainable levels of national excellence in a substantial majority of the sub-areas of activity, or to international level in some and to national level in others together comprising a majority.
3b Research quality that equates to attainable levels of national excellence in the majority of sub-areas of activity.
2 Research quality that equates to attainable levels of national excellence in up to half the sub-areas of activity.
1 Research quality that equates to attainable levels of national excellence in none, or virtually none, of the sub-areas of activity.

Notes

1. The concept of a 'sub-area' of research activity is applicable to the work of individual researchers as well as to that of groups. A sub-area is a coherent sub-set of a unit of assessment, and could refer either to the research of a group of staff in a submission, for example high energy physics in a submission from a physics department, or to the disparate research interests of an individual, for example an individual studying both cosmology and high energy physics. The sub-areas relate only to the individual submission and will vary between submissions.

2. 'Attainable' levels of excellence refers to an absolute standard of quality in each unit of assessment, and should be independent from the conditions for research within individual departments.

3. The international criterion adopted equates to a level of excellence that it is reasonable to expect for the unit of assessment, even though there may be no current examples of such a level whether in the UK or elsewhere. In the absence of current examples, standards in cognate research areas where international comparisons do exist will need to be adopted. The same approach should be adopted when assessing studies with a regional basis against 'national' and 'international' standards.

4. For the Research Assessment Exercise, 'national' refers to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.


Part II: Ratings by Unit of Assessment


Index: Units of Assessment to which submissions were made

(This list is also available with links to the individual Unit of Assessment tables.)

Anglia Polytechnic University: 10, 11, 21, 33, 34, 35, 36, 41, 42, 43, 48, 50, 59, 62, 64, 67, 68

Aston University: 09, 11, 25, 26, 29, 43, 48, 68

University of Bath: 09, 14, 18, 19, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27, 29, 30, 32, 33, 38, 40, 41, 42, 43, 48, 61, 68

Bath College of HE: 11, 14, 35, 42, 43, 50, 59, 61, 63, 64, 67, 68

University of Birmingham: 01, 02, 03, 04, 06, 07, 08, 10, 12, 13, 14, 18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27, 28, 29, 30, 32, 35, 36, 38, 39, 40, 41, 43, 45, 46, 48, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 57, 58, 59, 60, 62, 63, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69

Birkbeck College: 13, 14, 18, 19, 20, 24, 25, 35, 36, 38, 39, 43, 50, 51, 52, 55, 56, 59, 60, 62

Bolton Institute of HE: 13, 28, 29, 30, 32, 43, 50, 59, 62, 64

Bournemouth University: 01, 16, 21, 24, 25, 26, 29, 32, 36, 43, 58, 64, 65, 66

University of Bradford: 09, 11, 21, 23, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 35, 39, 41, 42, 43, 48, 58, 62

Bretton Hall: 50, 64, 66, 67, 68

University of Brighton: 09, 10, 11, 19, 25, 28, 29, 30, 33, 35, 40, 43, 56, 60, 61, 62, 64, 68, 69

University of Bristol: 01, 02, 03, 04, 07, 08, 12, 13, 14, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 28, 29, 30, 35, 36, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 44, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 57, 58, 59, 60, 62, 63, 66, 67, 68

Brunel University: 02, 13, 14, 18, 19, 23, 24, 25, 26, 29, 30, 32, 36, 37, 39, 40, 42, 43, 44, 64, 68

Brunel University College (formerly West London Institute): 11, 35, 41, 45, 50, 63, 66, 67, 69

Buckinghamshire College of HE: 10, 30, 32, 40, 43, 64, 69

University of Cambridge: 01, 02, 03, 06, 07, 08, 12, 13, 14, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 42, 43, 45, 46, 47, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 62, 63, 67, 68

University of Central England in Birmingham: 10, 11, 26, 33, 34, 43, 50, 60, 61, 64, 67, 68

University of Central Lancashire: 10, 11, 13, 14, 18, 19, 21, 22, 23, 29, 33, 36, 42, 43, 44, 45, 48, 59, 60, 61, 64, 68

Central School of Speech and Drama: 64, 66, 68

Canterbury Christ Church College: 11, 21, 35, 59, 63, 64, 67, 68

Cheltenham and Gloucester CHE: 20, 34, 35, 40, 43, 50, 59, 63, 64, 68, 69

Chester College of HE: 11, 14, 23, 25, 35, 50, 59, 63, 64, 66, 68, 69

Chichester Institute of Higher Education: 50, 59, 63, 64, 66, 67, 68, 69

City University: 10, 11, 13, 23, 24, 25, 26, 28, 29, 30, 36, 38, 42, 43, 61, 65, 66, 67, 68

Coventry University: 10, 11, 13, 14, 18, 23, 24, 25, 29, 30, 32, 33, 35, 36, 39, 42, 43, 48, 64, 65, 66, 67

Cranfield University: 14, 15, 26, 30, 43

Dartington College of Arts: 64, 66, 67

De Montfort University: 02, 09, 10, 13, 14, 15, 18, 23, 24, 25, 26, 29, 30, 33, 34, 36, 38, 39, 41, 43, 47, 48, 50, 56, 59, 60, 61, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69

University of Derby: 11, 13, 18, 20, 21, 23, 25, 29, 30, 35, 36, 42, 43, 50, 59, 60, 63, 64, 68

University of Durham: 13, 14, 18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 35, 36, 37, 39, 42, 43, 46, 47, 50, 51, 52, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 62, 63, 67, 68

University of East Anglia: 11, 14, 18, 19, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 35, 36, 38, 39, 41, 43, 45, 50, 51, 52, 56, 59, 60, 62, 65, 66, 67, 68

University of East London: 08, 11, 13, 14, 20, 22, 28, 29, 30, 32, 33, 34, 36, 38, 42, 43, 56, 64, 65, 68

Edge Hill College of HE: 21, 35, 40, 50, 59, 63, 64, 67, 68

Institute of Education: 68

University of Essex: 13, 14, 18, 19, 22, 24, 25, 29, 36, 38, 39, 42, 44, 50, 56, 59, 60, 62

University of Exeter: 02, 03, 13, 14, 15, 18, 19, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 31, 35, 36, 38, 39, 41, 42, 43, 44, 46, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 57, 58, 59, 63, 66, 67, 68

Falmouth College of Arts: 60, 64

Goldsmiths College: 11, 13, 22, 23, 24, 25, 37, 40, 41, 42, 50, 51, 52, 55, 59, 60, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68

University of Greenwich: 11, 13, 20, 21, 24, 26, 30, 32, 33, 39, 42, 43, 68

Harper Adams Agricultural College: 15, 43

University of Hertfordshire: 08, 10, 11, 13, 19, 21, 25, 30, 43, 50, 56, 59, 60, 62, 64, 67, 68

Homerton College, Cambridge: 68

University of Huddersfield: 11, 16, 18, 25, 29, 30, 32, 33, 35, 36, 39, 41, 43, 50, 51, 52, 59, 64, 66, 67, 68

University of Hull: 02, 03, 10, 13, 14, 18, 22, 23, 25, 29, 30, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 43, 44, 45, 47, 48, 50, 51, 52, 53, 55, 59, 62, 63, 66, 67, 68

Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine: 01, 02, 03, 05, 12, 14, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 43, 59

Imperial College - National Heart and Lung Institute: 03

Keele University: 02, 03, 07, 13, 14, 18, 19, 20, 23, 24, 25, 26, 36, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 45, 50, 51, 52, 54, 57, 59, 62, 64, 67, 68

University of Kent at Canterbury: 13, 14, 18, 19, 21, 23, 24, 25, 29, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 48, 50, 57, 59, 60, 62, 63, 66

Kent Institute of Art & Design: 60, 64

King Alfred's College, Winchester: 13, 14, 45, 50, 58, 59, 63, 65, 67, 68

King's College London: 01, 02, 03, 04, 05, 09, 10, 11, 14, 18, 19, 22, 23, 25, 29, 30, 35, 36, 39, 43, 50, 51, 52, 55, 57, 59, 62, 63, 67, 68

King's College - Institute of Psychiatry: 02

Kingston University: 11, 19, 20, 25, 28, 30, 32, 33, 35, 43, 48, 50, 59, 60, 64, 67, 68

Lancaster University: 13, 14, 19, 21, 22, 24, 25, 26, 35, 36, 39, 41, 42, 43, 50, 51, 52, 53, 56, 59, 62, 63, 64, 66, 67, 68

La Sainte Union College of HE: 23, 50, 51, 59, 61, 63, 64, 68

University of Leeds: 01, 02, 03, 04, 07, 08, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 34, 35, 36, 39, 42, 43, 46, 47, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 57, 59, 60, 62, 63, 65, 67, 68, 69

Leeds Metropolitan University: 11, 16, 25, 26, 32, 33, 34, 39, 40, 43, 61, 64, 65, 68, 69

University of Leicester: 01, 02, 03, 05, 08, 12, 13, 14, 18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 25, 26, 35, 36, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 50, 51, 52, 53, 58, 59, 60, 65, 68

University of Lincolnshire and Humberside: 13, 16, 40, 43, 48, 64, 68

University of Liverpool: 01, 02, 03, 04, 06, 07, 08, 10, 13, 14, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 28, 29, 30, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 38, 39, 41, 42, 44, 45, 48, 50, 51, 52, 55, 57, 58, 59, 62, 67, 68, 69

Liverpool Hope College: 13, 14, 42, 50, 59, 63, 64, 67, 68

Liverpool John Moores University: 09, 10, 11, 12, 14, 18, 19, 21, 25, 26, 29, 30, 33, 34, 35, 39, 40, 41, 43, 46, 50, 59, 61, 64, 65, 66, 68, 69

Institute of Advanced Legal Studies: 36

British Institute in Paris: 51

Institute of Cancer Research: 01, 09, 10, 14

Charing Cross and Westminster Medical School: 02, 03, 05

Institute of Classical Studies: 57

Institute of Commonwealth Studies: 39, 59

Courtauld Institute of Art: 60

Institute of Germanic Studies: 52

Institute of Historical Research: 59

Institute of Latin American Studies: 45

University Marine Biological Station, Millport: 14

Institute of United States Studies: 45

Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine: 01, 02, 03, 06, 07, 08, 12

School of Slavonic and Eastern European Studies: 39, 54, 59

UMDS Guy's and St Thomas's Hospitals: 01, 02, 03, 04, 05

Warburg Institute: 59

Institute of Zoology: 14

London Business School: 43

London School of Economics and Political Science: 22, 24, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 42, 43, 44, 59, 62

London Guildhall University: 13, 23, 25, 35, 36, 38, 39, 40, 42, 43, 51, 59, 64, 65

London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine: 01, 02

The London Institute: 60, 64, 65, 66

Loughborough University: 11, 13, 18, 19, 23, 25, 27, 28, 29, 30, 32, 33, 34, 35, 38, 42, 43, 48, 50, 61, 64, 66, 68, 69

Loughborough College of Art & Design: 60, 64

University of Luton: 13, 14, 20, 21, 25, 26, 33, 36, 40, 41, 43, 50, 56, 59, 65

University of Manchester: 01, 02, 03, 04, 05, 09, 10, 12, 13, 14, 18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 28, 29, 30, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 42, 43, 44, 46, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 59, 60, 62, 63, 66, 67, 68

UMIST: 11, 14, 18, 19, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27, 28, 29, 30, 32, 33, 43

Manchester Metropolitan University: 10, 11, 13, 14, 16, 18, 19, 21, 23, 25, 29, 30, 32, 33, 34, 36, 38, 39, 41, 42, 43, 45, 47, 48, 50, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 66, 68, 69

Middlesex University: 10, 13, 21, 23, 25, 29, 30, 35, 39, 40, 41, 43, 44, 48, 50, 59, 60, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 68

Natural Resources Institute: 15, 16, 21

Nene College: 11, 13, 29, 32, 35, 43, 50, 59, 68

University of Newcastle upon Tyne: 01, 02, 03, 04, 07, 12, 13, 15, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27, 28, 29, 30, 33, 34, 35, 36, 38, 39, 40, 43, 44, 50, 51, 52, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 63, 64, 67, 68

Newman College: 32, 63, 64, 68, 69

University of North London: 11, 14, 18, 19, 22, 24, 25, 29, 32, 33, 35, 40, 42, 43, 45, 48, 50, 59, 65, 68

North Riding College: 21, 59, 64, 66, 68

University of Northumbria at Newcastle: 11, 13, 18, 23, 24, 25, 29, 30, 33, 35, 36, 38, 39, 40, 42, 43, 48, 50, 59, 60, 61, 64, 66, 68

Norwich School of Art & Design: 50, 64

University of Nottingham: 01, 02, 03, 06, 08, 09, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 38, 39, 42, 43, 45, 50, 51, 52, 54, 55, 57, 58, 59, 60, 62, 63, 67, 68

Nottingham Trent University: 13, 14, 18, 23, 24, 25, 29, 30, 32, 33, 35, 36, 38, 39, 42, 43, 50, 51, 59, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68

Open University: 13, 14, 18, 19, 20, 22, 24, 25, 26, 32, 35, 39, 40, 42, 43, 50, 57, 59, 60, 62, 63, 64, 67, 68

School of Oriental and African Studies: 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 46, 47, 56, 59, 60, 63, 67

University of Oxford: 01, 02, 03, 06, 07, 08, 12, 13, 14, 18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 32, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 42, 43, 46, 47, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 62, 63, 64, 67, 68

Oxford Brookes University: 10, 11, 13, 14, 20, 21, 23, 24, 25, 26, 28, 33, 34, 35, 37, 39, 42, 43, 48, 50, 53, 59, 60, 64, 67, 68

School of Pharmacy: 09

University of Plymouth: 13, 14, 15, 21, 23, 24, 25, 28, 29, 30, 33, 35, 39, 42, 43, 48, 50, 60, 64, 68

University of Portsmouth: 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, 20, 23, 25, 28, 29, 30, 33, 35, 38, 40, 42, 43, 44, 45, 48, 54, 59, 64, 68

Queen Mary and Westfield College: 01, 02, 03, 04, 05, 08, 14, 18, 19, 22, 23, 24, 25, 28, 29, 30, 32, 35, 36, 38, 39, 50, 51, 52, 54, 55, 56, 59

RCN Institute: 10

University of Reading: 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 29, 30, 33, 34, 35, 36, 38, 39, 42, 43, 50, 51, 52, 53, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 62, 64, 66, 67, 68

College of Ripon & York St John: 11, 35, 50, 56, 59, 63, 64, 66

Roehampton Institute: 01, 13, 21, 37, 42, 50, 51, 59, 63, 64, 66, 68, 69

Royal Academy of Music: 67

Royal College of Art: 60, 64

Royal College of Music: 67

Royal Holloway, University of London: 13, 14, 19, 20, 22, 23, 25, 35, 40, 42, 43, 50, 51, 52, 53, 57, 59, 66, 67

Royal Northern College of Music: 67

Royal Postgraduate Medical School: 01, 03

Royal Veterinary College: 17

St George's Hospital Medical School: 01, 02, 03, 05

College of St Mark & St John: 11, 50, 63, 67, 68

S. Martin's College: 05, 10, 11, 35, 40, 50, 59, 63, 66, 68

St Mary's College: 35, 42, 50, 57, 59, 63, 69

University of Salford: 14, 18, 19, 24, 28, 30, 33, 38, 42, 48, 61

Salford College of Technology: 11, 43, 64, 66, 67

University of Sheffield: 01, 02, 03, 04, 10, 13, 14, 18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 28, 29, 30, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 39, 40, 43, 47, 50, 51, 52, 54, 55, 56, 58, 59, 61, 62, 63, 67, 68, 69

Sheffield Hallam University: 11, 21, 25, 29, 30, 32, 33, 34, 36, 40, 43, 50, 59, 64, 65, 68, 69

University of Southampton: 01, 02, 03, 10, 11, 13, 14, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 28, 29, 30, 35, 36, 38, 39, 41, 42, 43, 50, 51, 52, 55, 56, 58, 59, 60, 62, 64, 67, 68

Southampton Institute: 21, 26, 28, 33, 36, 39, 43, 44, 60, 64, 65, 69

South Bank University: 16, 25, 27, 28, 29, 30, 33, 34, 40, 43, 48, 68, 69

Staffordshire University: 13, 14, 18, 19, 21, 23, 25, 26, 29, 30, 33, 35, 36, 38, 39, 41, 42, 43, 50, 58, 59, 64, 65, 69

University of Sunderland: 09, 14, 21, 25, 26, 40, 48, 50, 59, 62, 63, 64, 65, 68

Surrey Institute of Art and Design: 60, 64, 65

University of Surrey: 10, 11, 13, 14, 16, 18, 19, 23, 24, 27, 28, 29, 30, 32, 38, 42, 43, 48, 66, 67, 68

University of Sussex: 13, 14, 18, 19, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 42, 45, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 56, 59, 60, 62, 65, 67, 68

University of Teesside: 11, 13, 18, 23, 25, 27, 28, 29, 30, 36, 39, 42, 43, 50, 59, 64, 68, 69

Thames Valley University: 10, 13, 36, 40, 43, 44, 48, 56, 59, 61, 65, 67, 68

Trinity & All Saints: 42, 43, 50, 51, 55, 59, 68

University College London: 01, 02, 03, 06, 07, 08, 11, 12, 13, 14, 18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27, 28, 29, 30, 33, 35, 36, 37, 38, 46, 50, 51, 52, 53, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 64

University College London - Institute of Child Health: 03

University College London - Eastman Dental Institute: 04

University College London - Institute of Neurology: 03

University College London - Institute of Ophthalmology: 03

University of Warwick: 13, 14, 18, 19, 22, 24, 25, 26, 36, 38, 39, 41, 42, 43, 50, 51, 52, 53, 57, 59, 60, 62, 65, 66, 68

Westhill College: 11, 59, 63, 64, 68

University of Westminster: 02, 13, 14, 25, 28, 29, 34, 36, 39, 43, 47, 50, 51, 53, 55, 56, 59, 64, 65

Westminster College, Oxford: 50, 63, 68

University of West of England, Bristol: 11, 14, 18, 23, 24, 25, 29, 30, 33, 34, 36, 42, 43, 48, 50, 59, 61, 64, 65, 68

Wimbledon School of Art: 60, 64

University of Wolverhampton: 07, 11, 13, 14, 15, 18, 21, 25, 26, 33, 36, 39, 43, 48, 59, 64, 65, 68, 69

Worcester College of HE: 13, 35, 42, 50, 59, 66, 68, 69

Writtle College: 15

Wye College, University of London: 15

University of York: 02, 13, 14, 18, 19, 22, 23, 25, 29, 33, 35, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 50, 56, 58, 59, 62, 67, 68

University of Aberdeen: 01, 02, 03, 07, 13, 14, 15, 18, 20, 22, 24, 25, 26, 34, 35, 36, 38, 39, 42, 43, 44, 49, 50, 51, 52, 55, 59, 60, 62, 63, 68

University of Abertay Dundee: 13, 14, 18, 23, 24, 25, 26, 28, 33, 38, 43, 48

University of Dundee: 01, 02, 03, 04, 06, 08, 12, 13, 14, 23, 24, 25, 26, 28, 33, 34, 35, 36, 38, 39, 41, 44, 50, 59, 62, 64, 68

University of Edinburgh: 01, 02, 03, 06, 07, 08, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27, 28, 29, 30, 33, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 62, 63, 67, 68

Edinburgh College of Art: 33, 34, 64

University of Glasgow: 01, 02, 03, 04, 06, 07, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 28, 29, 30, 34, 35, 36, 38, 39, 40, 42, 43, 44, 45, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 57, 58, 59, 60, 62, 63, 66, 67, 68, 69

Glasgow Caledonian University: 10, 11, 13, 23, 26, 27, 29, 33, 39, 40, 43, 59, 64, 65

Glasgow School of Art: 33, 60, 64

Heriot-Watt University: 16, 18, 19, 23, 24, 25, 27, 28, 29, 31, 33, 38, 43, 48, 68

Moray House Institute of Education: 68, 69

Napier University: 11, 21, 23, 24, 25, 28, 29, 32, 33, 64

Northern College of Education: 68

University of Paisley: 13, 14, 18, 19, 21, 23, 25, 26, 28, 29, 34, 43, 44, 48, 68

Queen Margaret College: 11, 43, 61, 65, 66

Robert Gordon University: 09, 10, 11, 16, 21, 23, 25, 26, 33, 39, 43, 61, 64

Scottish College of Textiles: 32, 64

University of St Andrews: 13, 14, 18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 35, 37, 38, 39, 43, 50, 51, 52, 54, 55, 57, 59, 60, 62, 63

St Andrews College of Education: 68

University of Stirling: 13, 14, 15, 19, 21, 22, 25, 38, 39, 41, 43, 44, 47, 50, 51, 52, 59, 62, 63, 65, 68

University of Strathclyde: 09, 11, 12, 13, 18, 19, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 33, 34, 35, 36, 38, 39, 42, 43, 44, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 59, 61, 68, 69

University of Glamorgan: 23, 25, 29, 33, 36, 40, 43, 49, 59

North East Wales Institute of Higher Education: 10, 18, 33, 41, 64, 68

University College of North Wales, Bangor: 13, 14, 15, 18, 21, 22, 23, 29, 40, 43, 49, 50, 51,

52, 54, 56, 59, 63, 67, 68, 69

University of Wales, Swansea: 10, 13, 14, 18, 19, 22, 24, 25, 27, 28, 29, 30, 32, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 41, 43, 45, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 57, 59, 62, 68

Swansea Institute of Higher Education: 25, 26, 64, 68, 69

Trinity College Carmarthen: 50, 58, 63

University of Wales, Aberystwyth: 14, 15, 19, 22, 23, 25, 35, 36, 38, 39, 44, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 55, 59, 61, 64, 66, 68

University of Wales, Cardiff: 05, 09, 11, 13, 14, 18, 19, 20, 22, 25, 28, 29, 30, 33, 34, 35, 36, 42, 43, 48, 49, 50, 58, 59, 62, 63, 65, 67, 68

University of Wales Institute, Cardiff: 11, 16, 25, 43, 60, 64, 68, 69

University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh and Celtic Studies: 49

University of Wales, Lampeter: 35, 49, 50, 51, 52, 57, 58, 59, 62, 63

University of Wales College of Medicine: 01, 02, 03, 04, 10

University College of Wales, Newport: 30, 40, 58, 64

Armagh Observatory: 19

The Queen's University of Belfast: 01, 02, 03, 04, 06, 07, 09, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20, 22, 25, 27, 28, 29, 30, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 44, 46, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 55, 57, 58, 59, 61, 62, 67, 68

University of Ulster: 10, 11, 13, 21, 25, 26, 32, 33, 36, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 49, 50, 51, 52, 59, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69.