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RAE96 2/94 Research Assessment Exercise Consultation Paper

Conduct of the 1996 Research Assessment Exercise: 
Panel Membership and Units of Assessment

To	Heads of HEFCE, SHEFC, HEFCW and DENI funded Institutions

Summary	This Consultation Paper invites comments on the list of bodies 
to be invited to make nominations for membership of assessment panels, 
and on the number and definition of units of assessments, for the 1996 
Research Assessment Exercise.

Reference	RAE96 2/94

Publication Date	June 1994

Response by 	By 1 August 1994

Enquiries to	HEFCE - David Price (0272 317315)
			SHEFC - Morag Campbell (031 3136567)
			HEFCW - Ann Hughes (0222 761861)
			DENI - John Coote (0247 279279)


1.	The higher education funding councils (HEFCs) published a common 
consultation paper in June 1993 inviting the higher education sector to 
comment on a number of broad issues concerning the future conduct of 
research assessment. The consultation helped to establish the framework 
and data requirements for the next Research Assessment Exercise (RAE), to 
be held in 1996, which have been announced in a circular accompanying 
this document. 

2.	Responses to that paper have suggested that further consultation is 
required on two aspects of the conduct of the RAE:

a.	The list of bodies (subject associations, learned societies, 
professional bodies and those representing industrial, business and other 
users of research and other interested parties) to be invited to propose 
candidates for membership of assessment panels.

b.	The number and definition of units of assessment (UOAs).

3.	The circular accompanying this consultation document explains that 
the 1996 RAE will be a UK wide exercise. Comments on the proposals 
contained in this paper are invited by HEFCE, SHEFC, HEFCW and DENI.


Nominations for Panel Membership

4.	In previous RAEs, panel members were chosen after consultation with 
subject associations, appropriate learned societies, professional bodies 
and other bodies concerned with research. Responses to the 1993 
consultation strongly supported this procedure. However, the funding 
bodies are aware that there were some omissions in the list of bodies 
consulted on panel membership for the 1992 RAE. 

5.	The funding bodies now wish to draw up the list of bodies to be 
invited to propose candidates for panel membership. Comments are invited 
on the list at Annex A (which is based on the list of organisations from 
whom nominations for panel membership were sought from in the 1992 RAE), 
and, in particular, on:

a.	The names and addresses of any organisations not on the list, which 
should be consulted. In the light of the recent science and technology 
White Paper Realising our Potential (CM 2250), the funding bodies would 
be particularly interested in names of organisations representing or 
involving users of research. 

b.	Those organisations which no longer exist or have been amalgamated, 
possibly as a result of the merging of the former UFC and public sectors.
Number and Definition of UOAs

6.	Responses to the 1993 consultation endorsed the 72 UOAs used in the 
1992 RAE as an appropriate framework for the next RAE. This selection of 
UOAs offers institutions a reasonably close fit between UOAs and research 
groupings. However, some small alterations to the framework may be 
desirable to reflect concerns in certain subjects, to capture properly 
the current layout of the research "map" and to reflect emerging 

7.	Drawing upon the results of the consultation, the funding bodies 
propose the following changes to the list of UOAs used in the 1992 RAE:

a.	Biological Sciences, Genetics and Microbiology should be merged into 
one UOA. There is broad support for this action which would recognise the 
cross-disciplinary nature of much research conducted in these subjects.

b.	American Studies should be expanded to include Latin American Area 
Studies while Latin American Languages should remain part of the Spanish 
UOA. The volume of research in Latin American Studies prohibits the 
creation of a separate UOA yet this subject needs to be separately 
identified to ensure that similar submissions are returned to the same 
UOA. In the 1992 RAE Latin American Studies was included under the 
Spanish UOA. Assessment proved problematical as, while the latter subject 
is language-based, the same is not always true of the former. 

c.	Physical Education and Sports Science should be expanded to include 
Leisure, Recreation and Sports Studies.  In the 1992 RAE the Physical 
Education and Sports Science UOA was narrowly defined in terms of 
research relating to scientific disciplines (physical, biological and 
behavioural) and did not specifically include work relating to economics, 
sociology and other non-scientific disciplines. The UOA should also 
incorporate hospitality management and tourism which were formerly 
covered under the Business and Management UOA.

8.	The following suggestions have been considered, but subject to the 
results of this consultation, the funding bodies do not propose to make 

a.	Creating a new Biomedical Sciences UOA. Although Biomedical Sciences 
has emerged as a discipline in its own right it is felt that the majority 
of departments undertaking such research would choose to submit within 
existing UOAs rather than to a new UOA solely dedicated to the subject. 
However, the panels responsible for assessing Biomedical Sciences will 
need to take appropriate advice when judging submissions containing such 

b.	Broadening Veterinary Science to incorporate animal-related science 
as such work is not intrinsic to the work of veterinary schools. 

c.	Merging Pure, Applied Mathematics and Statistics and Operational 
Research to form one UOA. This was not widely supported by institutions 
responding to the consultation. 

d.	Merging Social and Economic History and History to form one UOA. 
Although some institutional organisational structures do not distinguish 
between Social and Economic History and History, the different techniques 
and approaches to research in these disciplines suggest that there should 
be separate UOAs. 

e.	Separating Politics from International Relations. It is difficult to 
see a way in which this can be done in a manner consistent with 
organisational structures in the majority of institutions.

f.	Sub-dividing Business and Management Studies. With the exception of 
hospitality management and tourism, (which it is suggested are 
incorporated into the Physical Education, Leisure, Recreation and Sports 
Studies UOA) it is difficult to see how this could be realised in a way 
consistent with institutional organisation.

g.	Creating a new UOA for Area Studies and Development Studies. It is 
believed that research which might be returned within such a UOA is best 
assessed within existing UOAs (in the main American Studies, Middle 
Eastern and African Studies, East South Asian Studies, European Studies 
and Celtic Studies, and on occasion, Geography and Environment Studies). 
The creation of a new UOA to which a wide variety of disciplines and 
topics of research might be submitted would prove difficult for the 
resulting panel to assess. 

h.	Creating two UOAs from Art and Design in order to separate 
engineering based design from fine art, craft and design for 
communication. This distinction can be achieved by requiring the former 
to be returned to the Civil Engineering UOA.

9.	Comments are invited on the list of UOAs for the 1996 RAE at Annex 
B, and, in particular on: the proposed changes, listed in paragraph 7; 
and the suggestions, covered in paragraph 8, that have not been 

10.	Annex B, in addition to listing proposed UOAs, also provides 
descriptions of the types of research that could be returned in 
submissions to the UOAs. This will help to ensure that research of a 
similar nature is submitted consistently to the same UOAs and assessed by 
the same panels. These descriptions are not intended to be definitive. 
Some revision may be necessary to mark more clearly the boundaries 
between particular UOAs, and to cater for emerging subjects and 
disciplines not referred to in the guidance issued for the 1992 RAE. 
Comments on these descriptions are also invited.


11.	Responses to this consultation paper, on the list of organisations 
to be invited to propose candidates for assessment panels, and the number 
and definition of UOAs, for the 1996 RAE, should be made by 1 August 1994 
to the HEFCE who will receive replies on behalf of all the funding 

Please address your responses to:
	David Price,
	Policy Division
	Northavon House
	Coldharbour Lane
	BS16 1QD.

Annex A

List of Subject Associations, Learned Societies Professional Bodies and 
Other Bodies Concerned with Research

Aberdeen Research Consortium
Advisory Board of Library and Information Studies 
Agricultural Development and Advice Service
Agricultural Economics Society
Architectural Registration Council of the United Kingdom
Association for Contemporary Iberian Studies
Association for the Study of Modern and Contemporary French
Association of Applied Biologists
Association of Art Historians
Association of British Chambers of Commerce
Association of Banking Teachers
Association of British Pharmaceutical Industry
Association of Bursars of Church and Associated Colleges
Association of Dutch Language Teachers
Association of Heads of Computing in Polytechnics
Association of Heads of Psychology Departments.
Association of Hispanists of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Association of Learned Societies in the Social Sciences
Association of Management and Business Education
Association of Polytechnic Teachers in Economics
Association of Social Anthropologists
Association of the Study of Animal Behaviour
Association of University Departments of Theology
Association of University Professors of French
Association of University Professors of Social Work
Association of University Teachers
Association of University Teachers of Economics
Association of University Teachers, Scotland
Biochemical Society
Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council
Brain Research Association
British Academy
British Academy of Management
British Accounting Association
British Association for American Studies
British Association for Applied Linguistics
British Association for Canadian Studies
British Association for Chinese Studies
British Association for Information and Library Education and Research
British Association for Irish Studies
British Association for Jewish Studies
British Association for Slavonic and East European Studies
British Association for the Advancement of Science
British Association for the Study of European Languages
British Association of Academic Phoneticians
British Association of Art Therapists
British Association of Japanese Studies
British Association of Sports and Exercise Sciences
British Cartographic Society
British Comparative and International Education Society
British Computer Society
British Council of Physical Education
British Ecological Society
British Education Research Association
British Federation of Women Graduates
British Film Institute
British Institute of Management
British International Studies Association
British Library
British Nutrition Foundation
British Ornithologists Union
British Psychological Society
British Society for Dental Research
British Society for Gerontology
British Society for Parasitology
British Society for Population Studies
British Society of Animal Protection
British Sociological Association
British Universities Committee of Optometry
British Universities Finance Officers Research Group
British Universities Industrial Relations Association
British Veterinary Association
Building Employers Confederation
Cabinet Office
Caledonian Research Foundation
Centre for the Exploitation of Science and Technology
Chartered Association of Certified Accountants
Chartered Institute of Bankers
Chartered Institute of Building
Chartered Institute of Management Accountants
Chartered Institute of Public Finance and Accountancy
Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineering
Chartered Insurance Institute
Chiefs of Planning Schools
Chief Scientific Adviser, Cabinet Office
Co-ordinating Council of Area Studies Association
Committee for Engineering in Polytechnics
Committee of Heads of Accounting in Polytechnics
Committee of Heads of Environmental Sciences
Committee of Heads of Polytechnic Chemistry Departments
Committee of Heads of Polytechnic Law Schools
Committee of Heads of Scottish Earth Sciences Departments
Committee of Heads of University Chemistry Departments
Committee of Heads of University Geoscience Departments
Committee of Heads of University Law Schools
Committee of Heads of Veterinary Schools
Committee of Professors and Heads of Information Systems
Committee of Professors of Operational Research
Committee of Professors of Statistics
Committee of Scottish Higher Education Principals
Committee of University Professors of Food Science and Technology
Committee of Heads of Scottish Professors of Physics
Committee of Vice Chancellors and Principals 
Confederation of British Industry
Conference of Heads of Geography Departments
Conference of Heads of Surveying
Conference of Heads of University Departments of Economics
Conference of Professors of Accounting
Conference of Professors of Applied Mathematics
Conference of Professors of Computer Science
Conference of Small Physics Departments
Conference of Teachers of Regional and Local History
Conference of University Management Schools
Conference of University Teachers of German
Consortium of University Research Libraries
Construction Industry Council
Co-ordinating Council for Area Studies Associations
Council for Academic Autonomy
Council for British Geography
Council for Professors of Building Engineering
Council for University English
Council of Academic and Professional Publishers
Council of Building Engineering Professors
Council of University Classical Departments
Countryside Commission
Countryside Commission for Scotland
Countryside Commission for Wales
Deans of Arts
Department of Employment
Department of Energy  
Department of the Environment 
Department of Health
Department of National Heritage
Department of Social Security
Department of Trade and Industry 
Department of Transport 
Design Council
Design Council Scotland   
Design History Society
Development Studies Association
Director General of Research Councils
Economic History Society
Economic and Social Research Council
Edinburgh Mathematics Society
Engineering Council
Engineering and Physical Science Research Council
Engineering Professors' Council
English Association
English Nature
Ergonomics Society
Experimental Psychology Society
Federation of Small Businesses
Foreign and Commonwealth Office
Forestry Commission
Genetical Society
Geological Society
Heads of Biological Sciences
Heads of Geography Departments Conference
Heads of Physiology Departments
Heads of University Centres of Biomedical Sciences
Heads of University Departments of Mathematics and Statistics
History at the Universities Defence Group
Home Office
Horticulture Research International
Institute of Biology
Institute of British Geographers
Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales
Institute of Chartered Accountants in Ireland
Institute of Chartered Accountants in Scotland
Institute of Chartered Foresters
Institute of Directors
Institute of Energy
Institute of Environmental Health Officers
Institute of Food Science and Technology
Institute of Housing
Institute of Information Scientists
Institute of Management
Institute of Marine Engineers
Institute of Marketing
Institute of Materials
Institute of Personnel Management
Institute of Physics
Institution of Chemical Engineers
Institution of Civil Engineers
Institution of Electrical Engineers
Institution of Mining and Metallurgy
Joint University Council
Law Society of England and Wales
Law Society of Scotland
Leisure Studies Association
Library Association
Linguistics Association of Great British
Linnean Society of London
London Mathematical Society
Marketing Education Group
Medical Research Council
Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food
Ministry of Defence
Modern Humanities Research Association
Museums and Galleries Commission
National Association of Fine Art Education
National Association of University Music Staff
National Association of Nursing, Widwifery and Health Visiting
National Committee for Philosophy
National Council for Educational Technology
National Council for Modern Languages in Higher and Further Education 
National Foundation for Educational Research
National Postgraduate Committee
Natural Environment Research Council
Natural History Museum
Northern Ireland Office
Nutrition Society
Office of Population Censuses and Surveys
Office of Science and Technology
Operational Research Society
Ordnance Survey
Overseas Development Administration
Overseas Development Institute
Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council
Philological Society
Physical Education Association
Phytochemical Society
Political Studies Association
Polymer Engineering Group
Professors of Computer Science
Professors and Heads of University Departments of Sociology
Public Sector Heads of Psychology Departments
Regional Studies Association
Royal Academy of Engineering
Royal Anthropological Institute
Royal Astronomical Society
Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons
Royal Commission for the Exhibition 1851
Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts
Royal Economic Society
Royal Entomological Society of London
Royal Geographical Society
Royal Historical Society
Royal Institute of British Architects
Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors
Royal Irish Academy
Royal Meteorological Society
Royal Microscopical Society
Royal Scottish Geographical Society
Royal Society
Royal Society of Arts
Royal Society of Chemistry
Royal Society of Edinburgh
Royal Statistical Society
Royal Town Planning Institute
Royal Zoological Society of Scotland
Science Policy Support Group
Scottish Committee of Professors of English
Scottish Council for Research and Education
Scottish History Society
Scottish Office
Scottish Standing Conference on Arts and Social Sciences
Standing Conference of Heads of European Studies
Standing Conference of Professors of English
Select Committee on Science and Technology
Social History Society of the United Kingdom
Social Policy Association
Social Research Association
Society for Experimental Biology
Society for General Microbiology
Society for Italian Studies
Society for Research into Higher Education
Society for the Promotion of Byzantine Studies
Society of Antiquaries
Society of Education Officers
Society of Public Teachers of Law
Sports Council
Sports Council for Northern Ireland
Sports Council for Wales
Standing Committee of Heads of Modern Languages
Standing Committee of University Drama Departments
Standing Committee of University Professors and Heads of Architecture
Standing Committee of University Teachers of Turkish
Standing Committee on Modern Greek in Universities
Standing Committee on University Studies in Africa
Standing Conference of Arts and Social Sciences
Standing Conference of Directors of Latin American Studies
Standing Conference of Heads of Economics
Standing Conference of Heads of Schools of Architecture
Standing Conference of National and University Libraries
Standing Conference of Physics Professors
Standing Conference of Principals 
Standing Conference on Arts and Social Sciences
Standing Conference on University Teaching
Steel Construction Institute
Technology Board for Northern Ireland
HM Treasury
United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority
United Kingdom Higher Education Standing Conference on Leisure, 
Recreation and Sport
United Kingdom Environmental Mutagen Society
Universities' Council for Continuing Education
Universities' Council for Modern Languages
Universities' Power Engineering Conference
University Association for Contemporary European Studies 
University Council for the Education of Teachers
Wellcome Trust
Welsh Office
Women's Studies Association
Zoological Society of London

Annex B
Units of Assessment

UOA Number	Title and Description	Mapping onto 
								1992 UOAs

1 	Clinical Laboratory Sciences				1
	Including histopathology, clinical microbiology and
	virology, chemical pathology, clinical biochemistry,
	clinical immunology, clinical physics, forensic 
	medicine and forensic pathology.

2	Community based Clinical Subjects			2
	Including psychiatry, general practice, public 
	health/community epidemiology, medical statistics,
	occupational and industrial medicine.

3	Hospital based Clinical Subjects			3
	All other clinical subjects based wholly or chiefly in
	hospitals and not included under Clinical Laboratory 
	Sciences (UOA 1) or Community based Clinical 
	Subjects (UOA 2).

4	Clinical Dentistry					4
	All clinical dental subjects including dental
	materials science.

5	Pre Clinical Studies					5
	May include behavioural sciences (psychology and 
	sociology as applied to medicine) and basic dental 

6	Anatomy							6

7	Physiology						7

8	Pharmacology						8

9	Pharmacy						9

10	Nursing							10

11	Other Studies Allied to Medicine			11
	Including biomedical sciences, nutrition, optometry,
	speech therapy, art therapy, music therapy, drama 
	therapy, physiotherapy and other professions allied 
	to medicine.

12	Biochemistry						12

13	Psychology						13
	Includes all aspects of contemporary psychology 
	across the range of experimental, biological, social 
	and applied psychology. Covers clinical, educational 
	and occupational psychology and cognitive science 
	where the focus of work lies within the discipline of 
	psychology rather than within medicine, education, 
	ergonomics/management, or computing/linguistics.

14	Biological Sciences, Genetics and Microbiology		14, 15, 16
	Biological sciences encompasses animal and plant 
	sciences, molecular biology, cell biology, animal and 
	plant physiology, behaviour, ecology, population 
	biology, systematics, taxonomy, biophysics, 
	biotechnology, communication and neuroscience,
	marine biology, botany and zoology. Genetics 
	encompasses molecular genetics, microbial genetics,
	plant and animal genetics, developmental genetics,
	population and ecological genetics. Microbiology 
	encompasses microbial genetics, microbial 
	development and differentiation, microbial 
	physiology and microbial ecology. Biological or 
	physical anthropology should also be returned to 
	this unit.

15	Agriculture						17
	The utilisation of rural resources for the purpose of 
	food and fibre production. It includes the production 
	of animals and animal products, including their 
	breeding and nutrition, but does not include studies
	relating to the diagnosis and control of animal 
	diseases (see Veterinary Science UOA 17). It includes 
	the supporting sciences of botany, zoology, genetics, 
	and economics, where these are studied in the 
	context of the production and processing of food and
	fibre. Includes horticulture and soil science.

16	Food Science and Technology				18
	Includes the sciences related to the processing of 
	food post farm-gate and catering

17 	Veterinary Science					19
	The group of animal related subjects which focus on
	the animal itself. It includes the preclinical veterinary 
	sciences where these are studied in this context, but 
	does not include them where the main thrust is 
	towards Agriculture (UOA 15) or Food Science and 
	Technology (UOA 16). Includes para clinical 
	veterinary science and tropical animal health.

18	Chemistry						20
	Organic, inorganic, physical, analytical and theoretical
	chemistry, including biological chemistry, catalysis, 
	colour chemistry, applied chemistry, organometallic
	chemistry, surface chemistry and laboratory based 
	atmospheric chemistry. Includes synthetic, structural,
	physico-chemical studies and computer modelling 
	and calculations.

19	Physics							21
	Including theoretical physics, condensed matter 
	(solids and liquids), high energy physics, nuclear 
	physics, astronomy, astrophysics, classical and 
	quantum optics, lasers, cryophysics and applied 

20	Earth Sciences						22

21	Environmental Studies					23
	Includes environmental sciences, meteorology, 
	oceanography, polar studies, environmental
	technology and ecology.

22	Pure Mathematics					24

23	Applied Mathematics					25
	Includes biomathematics, engineering mathematics,
	and theoretical mechanics.

24	Statistics and Operational Research			26
	Including probability as well as statistics of a specialist
	applied nature (such as actuarial, demographic, 
	medical, management and social) and Operational 

25	Computer Science					27
	Computer Science includes, but is not limited to, the
	theoretical and practical study of algorithms, 
	programming languages, programming systems and 
	applications, computer hardware, networks, 
	operating systems and artificial intelligence.

26	General Engineering					28
	Embraces those departments that offer courses 
	which integrate two or more of the main branches 
	of engineering - electrical, civil, mechanical and 
	chemical. Includes offshore technology, industrial 
	studies, medical engineering.

27	Chemical Engineering					29
	Including fuel and energy, chemical, process 
	engineering, bioengineering, energy studies

28	Civil Engineering					30, 67
	Including construction management, surveying,
	marine technology, transportation and traffic 
	engineering and engineering based design and 
	design for production.

29	Electrical and Electronic Engineering			31
	Including instrumentation and analytical science 
	and acoustics.

30	Mechanical, Aeronautics and Manufacturing 		32
	Including mechanical and manufacturing 
	engineering, sound and vibration research.

31	Mineral and Mining Engineering				33
32	Metallurgy and Materials				34
	Including corrosion science and engineering, 
	paper science, polymer science and technology,
	textiles and materials science.
33	Built Environment					35
	Including architecture, building, and transport studies.

35	Town and Country Planning				36
	Includes land-use planning units associated with the 
	professional activities of the Royal Town Planning 
	Institute; general and rural estate management units 
	associated with the professional activities of the Royal 
	Institute of Chartered Surveyors; the work of research 
	based units dealing with planning related matters, and 
	housing units associated with the activities of the 
	Institute of Housing.

35	Geography						37

36	Law							38

37	Anthropology						39
	Social and cultural anthropology

38	Economic and Social History				40

39	Economics and Econometrics				41

40	Politics and International Studies			42
	National and comparative politics; public 
	administration and policy studies, including science 
	and technology policy; political theory; international 
	relations, including strategic, war and peace studies. 
	Women's studies and gender studies should also be 
	returned to this unit.

41	Social Policy and Administration			43

42 	Social Work						44

43	Sociology						45
	Quantitative and qualitative, empirical and 
	theoretical study of the structures and cultures of 
	advanced and developing societies, including styles 
	and material standards of living, opinions, values 
	and institutions. Includes social theory and social 
	research methodology. Overlaps demography, 
	criminology, social studies of science, social statistics,
	social history, human geography, philosophy of 
	social science, social psychology.

44	Business and Management Studies				46
	Covers the full range of single and multidisciplinary
	research which may be undertaken in Business and 
	Management Schools and Departments, including
	human and organisation behaviour, accounting, 
	banking and financial management, marketing, 
	operations management, management sciences, 
	information management, public sector management,
	business policy and strategic management, economics,
	international business and management, small 
	businesses, arts management, industrial relations, 
	management development and related areas.

45	Accountancy						47
	Covers the 15 categories of Accounting and Finance 
	research used in The British Accounting Register, i.e. 
	accounting history, accounting profession, 
	accounting theory, auditing, business finance and 
	financial markets, computing, education, financial 
	accounting and reporting, government, public sector 
	and other not for profit organisations, industries and 
	specific organisations, international aspects, 
	management accounting, methodology and methods 
	(including quantitative method), taxation, other 
	aspects of accounting and finance practice, theory 
	and research.

46	American Studies 					48
	Including non-language based Latin American Studies

47	Middle Eastern and African Studies			49
	Including Arabic, Persian and Turkish, Hebrew and 
	other languages of the Bible, and Sub-Saharan Africa 
	(Bantu, Swahili, Hausa etc.). Also includes non-
	language based area studies of these regions.

48	East, South, and Central Asian Studies			50
	Includes Chinese, Japanese, and Korean, Southeast
	Asian languages (Thai, Burmese, Mon-Khmer, 
	Indonesian etc.), Indian languages (Sanskrit, Pali, 
	Prakrit, Hindi, Urdu, etc. and Tibetan) and non-Indo 
	European languages of the former Soviet Union 
	(Mongolian, Uighur etc.). Also includes non-
	language based area studies of these regions.

49	European Studies					52
	Submissions from departments covering a wide range 
	of European languages and also a variety of 
	disciplines (history, politics, literature, linguistics etc.)

50	Celtic Studies						53

51	English Language and Literature				51
	The study of the English language and of written 
	(and, so far as accessible) English discourse of all 
	periods (from Old English to Present English) and in 
	all parts of the world, including English literature of 
	the British Isles, of North America, of the 
	Commonwealth, and of former Commonwealth 
	countries, as well as of related subjects mainly taught 
	within English, for example, Old Icelandic.

52	French							54
	Including Provencal

53	German, Dutch and Scandinavian languages		55

54	Italian							56

55	Russian, Slavonic and East European languages		57
	Including Finnish and Hungarian.

56	Spanish							58
	Including other Iberian languages and Latin 
	American languages.

57	Linguistics						59
	Theoretical linguistics, semantics and pragmatics, 
	phonetics, applied linguistics, sociolinguistics,
	historical linguistics, computational linguistics.
	Including, where appropriate, theoretically-oriented
	work on the English language.

58	Classics and Ancient History				60
	Greek and Latin language, literature and 
	documentation including epigraphy and papyrology;
	ancient philosophy and history of thought and 
	religion in antiquity; ancient history. Also includes 
	Byzantine and Modern Greek.

59	Archaeology						61
	The study of ancient societies through the 
	examination of their physical remains and the 
	application of general social theories, including 
	such regional or chronological subject areas as 
	medieval archaeology, classical archaeology, 
	prehistoric archaeology, European archaeology,
	New World archaeology, Assyriology, and Egyptology.
	Scientific archaeology (including palaeodemography, 
	palaeoecology etc.) using laboratory- based techniques.
	Landscape archaeology and cultural resource 

60	History							62
	Includes the main historical divisions, such as 
	medieval, early modern and modern history; British,
	European and world history; cultural, scientific, 
	diplomatic and local history. It does not include 
	Economic and Social History (UOA 38); other related 
	areas are Politics and International Studies (UOA 40)
	and Classics (UOA 58). Includes palaeography.

61	History of Art, Architecture and Design			63
	Principally western art and architecture, classical 
	antiquity to the present, but to include non-western 
	art and architecture such as Islamic, Oriental, 
	Byzantine, Indian, Oceanic, Latin American. Also 
	museum studies and conservation.

62	Library and Information Management			64
	Including librarianship, library and archive studies 
	and information systems.

63	Philosophy						65
	History of philosophy, logic and philosophical logic,
	metaphysics, moral and political philosophy, applied
	ethics (e.g. in environmental areas), theory of 
	knowledge and philosophy of mind: also ancient 
	philosophy, philosophy of language, aesthetics, 
	philosophy of religion, modern continental 
	philosophy, philosophy of mathematics, philosophy 
	of history, philosophy of the social sciences,
	philosophy of law.

64	Theology, Divinity and Religious Studies		66
	Under these headings are included research-
	submissions in the following (and related areas): 
	systematic theology, historical and contemporary;
	philosophical theology; the theology of Old and 
	New Testaments; ecclesiastical history; historical 
	studies in the developments of creeds, doctrine, 
	liturgy; pastoral care; ethics and religion. Biblical 
	studies, exegetical, interpretative, linguistic etc. 
	Comparative religion; studies in religious 
	traditions world-wide.

65	Art and Design						67, 30
	Fine art, craft and design for communication. 
	Includes typography and graphic communication,
	design and technology within education. 

66	Communication and Media Studies				68

67	Drama, Dance, and Performing Arts			69
	Excludes Music (UOA 68).

68	Music							70

69	Education						71
	Theory and practice of Education at all stages 
	including pre-school, school, post-school, continuing,
	further, adult and higher education, but not physical
	education and sports sciences (see UOA 70).
	Where the nature of the research justifies it, work
	may be submitted to other units (e.g. certain types 
	of mathematical education might be more appropriate
	to mathematics).

70	Physical Education, Leisure, Recreation and 		72, 46
	Sports Studies
	Includes hospitality management and tourism.