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RA5a: Structure,environment and staffing policy

Since the 1996 RAE the Faculty of Management and Business (FMB) has achieved its aims of further focusing and enhancing the quality of its research, and, as a result, has strengthened its academic standing both internationally and nationally. The vibrant research culture established is reflected in submission of staff at a higher quality threshold than in 1996 to ensure FMB gains the highest rating commensurate with its achievements and activity, £1,5m in research income (£1m in 1996), 48 awarded research degrees including 33 PhDs (against 9 awarded research degrees including 6 PhDs in 1996), and 750 completed Masters degrees. In 1996 a Graduate Business School (GBS) was established to coordinate post-graduate activity; this has proven to be a catalyst for collaborative research and the management of new research activity. The FMB has hosted and chaired major international conferences, e.g. the British Academy of Management Conference (1999), the Academy of Marketing Conference (1998), and in collaboration with UMIST the Gender, Work and Organisation Conference (1998). Staff have also undertaken a number of important officer roles within the academic community nationally, including Chair of the Association of Business Schools (Lock), Secretary then Vice-Chair of the British Academy of Management (Thorpe), Panel Member ESRC Post-Graduate Training Guidelines for Management (Thorpe), Vice-Chair then Chair of the Academy of Marketing (Harris), Manchester Chair of the Chartered Institute of Personnel Development (Shaw), Vice-President then President Manchester Society of Chartered Accountants (Sweeting), and Treasurer of the British Academy of Management (Beasley). The FMB has been re-accredited by AMBA (Dec 2000 ft/pt MBAs) and by the CIPD as a Centre of Excellence (1997); secured an excellent rating for teaching quality (23/24) in its latest subject review (Sept 2000); gained ESRC recognition for research training (mode A and B, ft&pt) in 1997 and CASE award recognition (ft&pt) in 1999; and also attained membership of EDAMBA (European Doctoral Association for Management and Business Administration) in 1999. In addition, in the two rounds since ESRC recognition has been conferred, the FMB has secured 8 ESRC studentships (3 in 1999 and 5 in 2000) and 1CASE award in 2001 in addition to 1 TCS. Overall, staff in the FMB has produced 1572 pieces of published work including 659 journal articles, 55 authored books, 29 edited books, 155 book chapters, 28 reports for external bodies, and 575 contributions to refereed conference proceedings. The selection of output presented in this submission (with over 80% of refereed journal articles) is of research of esteem within each of the disciplines covered within FMB.

RESEARCH INFRASTRUCTURE AND STAFFING POLICY
Facilities for research at University level include library access and borrowing rights through CALIM (Consortium of Academic Libraries in Manchester) to the total library resources of the four universities in Greater Manchester. In 1996, FMB established the GBS in adjacent buildings. The GBS brings together graduate students from all management and business disciplines, providing them with common facilities and academic support, and also provides facilities for visiting fellows. With commercial sponsorship (Brother International), the GBS is fully equipped with its own computing facilities. Since 1996, £200,000 (HEFCE) has been secured annually from university funds to support research fellowships and assistantships. Central funds have also provided research studentships. The FMB has on average been awarded 3 per year (12 in total for the period). In addition, £150,000 per annum has been made available through departments for direct support of staff and student research. These allocations have been based on the outcomes of an annual cycle of research monitoring which takes into account research student progress, levels of activity, grant income and research outputs.

Since 1996, priorities of FMB have included the recruitment of research assistants and fellows and buying out teaching time to support staff. The FMB has invested in existing staff and has refrained from importing researchers for short-term gain, with the purpose of concentrating on the quality of the research output achieved and broadening the influence of research across the FMB. For 9 years the University has made available an open competition for personal Chair and Readership appointments. For this UoA, this has resulted in the period in the internal promotion to 4 Chairs (Baron, Moss S, Jeremy, Lucas) and 4 Readers (Bennison, Harris, Kuznetsov, Tweedale), and the appointment of 2 Chairs (Jones, Pendleton) from outside to lead defined areas of teaching and research. Staff

1This figure refers to grant income, and is different from the expenditure sum quoted in RA4.


research development is promoted directly through the ESRC recognised Doctoral Methodology Programme and complemented by research training in the form of training workshops, conference attendance, research seminars (at research group, departmental and faculty levels), and a formally approved and recognised system of sabbaticals for research active staff. The progress of new, developing researchers is monitored annually through a formal professional development review scheme conducted by senior members of academic staff. The FMB has also given fractional appointments to senior academics (Professors Lupton, until 2000; Lowe, 2000; Berry, 2000 to date), who have performed mentoring roles and are closely involved in research training. The Doctoral Methodology Programme provides students with the building blocks of philosophy, research design, methods and techniques, as well as robust critiques of the knowledge domains in management. Formal presentations are alternated with workshops and student-led presentations, while case studies and hands-on practice serve to develop and enhance research skills. The aim is to develop researchers of a high standard who are able to make a significant contribution to Higher Education (Arrowsmith, Danieli, Bell, Warwick; Taylor, OU; Pavlica, University of Economics Prague; Holman, IWP Sheffield, Weibin; University of Michigan) and business (Hui, Shenzhen Venture Capital China). An annual Doctoral Symposium brings together staff and students of all years where they present and debate their work. Students attend faculty seminars held every month and are encouraged to take an academic involvement in conference organisation. Other ways of developing faculty have been through support in the completion of PhD’s both at FMB and other universities (22 completions since 1996), involvement in supervisory teams and through publication in the Working Paper Series, which provides an early dissemination and discussion of publishable work. The FMB will continue to use schemes such as the ITP and the new ERSC post-doctoral fellowship scheme for the development of research active staff.

RESEARCH MANAGEMENT
Research strategy is co-ordinated at University level by the Director of Research Development supported by the Research Development Unit. In addition, a University Research Degrees Committee (of which Thorpe is Deputy Chair and Baron is a Member) is responsible for the administration of research degree awards, although since 1997 responsibility for registration, monitoring and evaluation has been devolved to faculties. The FMB Research Degrees Committee oversees research planning and monitors progress, establishes academic policy and disseminates best practice on issues such as supervision. In addition, the FMB has since 1996 instituted a number of important changes in how research is managed. First, in order to consolidate and focus as well as to stimulate inter-disciplinary research, a principle of research ‘clusters’ has been endorsed. This has enabled staff to work within and across (sub-)groups and to take advantage of shared or overlapping areas of expertise. Second, research management has been addressed by instituting a structured system for the allocation of funds to groups, the recruitment of post-graduate students, and the assessment of performance of groups against stated objectives. All groups are led by a research coordinator (a formal role in the University; usually a Professor or Reader), who reports to a Faculty coordinator (currently Professor Thorpe, the Director of the GBS). Groups are allocated research funds (through the FMB Research Degrees Committee) according to their ability to meet a number of criteria: (1) the capability of the group of producing work of 4 standard or above, (2) the linking of proposals for grants and research activity with identified priority areas central to the group’s work and reputation, and (3) the contribution of each proposal and activity to the research focus of the group or its assistance in stimulating inter-disciplinary and collaborative research. Third, as part of the University’s strategic review, the FMB is to change its structure from one which has been course-led to one that will be discipline-led to ensure that academic research is at the heart of FMB’s strategy and decision-making.

RESEARCH GROUPINGS AND RESEARCH FOCUS
Research in the FMB is focused in 5 research groups: Strategy and Organisational Change, Marketing, Human Resources Management, Business History and Policy Modelling.

Strategy and Organisational Change (SOC): Professors Thorpe, Berry, Jones; Drs Kuznetsov, Windrum and Tilley.
Activity and Achievements
: Research blends both theoretical with applied work with the objective of developing theory and informing management practice. The work of the SOC group crystallises around two clusters of research; Socio-Politics of Strategy and Organisational Change (SPSOC), and Innovation and Entrepreneurship (IE). Research of the group is supported through collaborative work with visiting research fellows Professors Pavlica (University of Economics Prague), Pandza (University of Maribor), Benders (Nijmegen Business School), and Nelson (NHS), and by 1 SRF, 2 RFs, 1 RF (.5) and 3 RA. The group has 21 registered PhD students; 3 are ESRC funded (1 CASE award), 3 are University funded. Work in the SPSOC cluster includes sociological and political perspectives on corporate governance, organisational learning, change management and strategy implementation. Kuznetsov supported by INTAS (£66,000), has continued research on the political, economic and societal consequences of corporate governance in transition economies. Thorpe, Benders, Bell and Taylor have researched the utility of the Investors In People (IiP) programme in both the UK and the Netherlands. Output to date includes two symposia (1998, 1999), a monograph (published with EU support), and publications forthcoming in the Journal of Management Studies and Management Learning. Thorpe and Nelson have studied strategic mergers of hospital trusts, securing an ESRC CASE studentship to extend this research within the North-West. In addition, an ACE award funded a study on mergers and alliances between companies from Western and Eastern Europe. In the area of learning, research has continued to focus on skill competencies and managerial identity (Thorpe 1,2,3, Hall 4, Berry 2). The work of Thorpe and Pavlica on a constructionist view of learning within the managerial process has also led to an edited book (2001) with contributions from leading American writers in the field (e.g. Boje, Shotter and Deetz). Evidence of the vibrant research culture of this cluster includes 8 PhD and 1 MPhil completions since 1996, and staff PhD completions of Bell (now Warwick), Jazayeri (UMIST), and Taylor (now OU). The SPS cluster supports the BAM Special Interest Groups (SIG) on Inter-Organisational Learning (Elliott) and Knowledge Management (Thorpe, Berry). SPS staff has organised three Global Change Conferences (1996, 1998, 2000) leading to two edited books: Organisational Strategy and Technological Adaptation to Global Change (Macmillan: McDonald and Thorpe, 1998) and Global Change: The Impact from the Far East (Palgrave: Thorpe and Little, 2000). The IE cluster includes research on technological capabilities and technological innovation (Windrum 1,2), innovation and knowledge capabilities (Jones 1,2, Windrum 3,4) and innovation and entrepreneurship in small firms (Tilley 1,2). Jones has been appointed to lead FMB’s research and involvement in an increasing number of NW initiatives e.g. Manchester Science and Enterprise Centre (MSEC), the Incubation Partnership, NW Enterprise Network (NWEN) and HEROBIC. Collaborative funding has been secured for applied research promoting enterprise in secondary education (NWEN £25,000), and for research on the effects of the single European currency on entrepreneurial activity in small firms (£3,700 Franco-British Club). In the period, IE staff has managed a TCS (Partwells Ltd) (Tucker and Stubbs) (£87,112), and completed two DfEE projects: Enterprise and Leadership in Small Firms (£59,000) and Social Inclusion for New Business Start-ups (£45,000). Staff of the IE cluster played a major role in a DfEE/ABS advisory board, and Lock, Thorpe and Taylor produced a research report on the relationship of business schools to the small business community (DfEE; £5,500) for the Council for Leadership and Excellence. An edited book by Jones et al on Innovation Networks will be published in March 2001. The IE cluster’s standing nationally and internationally is further reflected in the organisation of the annual BIT Conferences at MMU (1996-2000), and in directing the organisation of the three annual BITWorld conferences (1998-2000). The IE cluster supports the BAM SIG on Entrepreneurship. 7 staff PhD completions: Windrum (Manchester), Hackney (Cranfield), Tucker (UMIST), Griffiths (Loughborough), Tilley (Durham), Stubbs (Cranfield), and Chan (Salford).

Marketing: Professor Baron, Drs Bennison (Reader), Harris (Reader), Cornelissen and Medway, and Moss D and Parker.
Activity and Achievements
: The work of the Marketing group crystallises around three clusters: Relationships in Marketing (RIM), Locational Planning and Marketing (LPM), and Corporate and Public Affairs (CPA). The CPA area will be floated as a separate centre once it becomes self-sufficient in its resourcing. Research in the group is supported through collaboration with Professor Arnold (Queens University Canada), 2 SRFs, 1 RF, and 1 RA. The group has 17 registered PhD students, of which 2 are ESRC and 2 University funded, and has supervised 10 PhDs, 1 MPhil, and 6 MAs to completion in the period. The RIM cluster comprises Baron, Parker (SRF), Dr Pioch, and Schmidt. Their focus has been the study of consumer interaction within retail environments, and the contrasting analysis of on-site behaviour and on-line alternatives such as the internet and shopping channels (Baron 1,2,3,4, Parker 1,2,3, Arnold). Data collection for this research programme has involved collaboration with a number of retail partners including IKEA, C&A, and B&Q. Baron and Parker have recently secured the support of ‘Northern Spirit’ to extend their work through an ethnographic study of consumer interactions on trains. The RIM’s academic standing is further reflected in guest editorships of Marketing Intelligence and Planning (Pioch, 1998) and European Journal of Marketing (Baron, 2000), as well as in the management of conferences such as the Academy of Marketing (1997) and the 14th Services Marketing Workshop (2001) at the FMB. Staff PhD completion: Pioch (FMB). The LPM cluster includes Drs Bennison (Reader), Medway, Evans (SRF), Warnaby (now at Salford), and Byrom (RA). With perspectives drawn from geography, marketing and strategy, the research has four foci: locational decision making (Bennison 1,2,3); the impact of IT in location decision-making (Bennison 2, and Byrom); the retail/town planning interface, with particular reference to town centre management and place marketing (Medway 1,2,3,4, Warnaby); and the processes of retail internationalisation and change (Bennison 2 and Evans). Funding has been secured from the Leverhulme Trust (for the development of a database of UK retailers; 1850 to 1939) (£44,000) in addition to commercial sources e.g. Marks and Spencer, J Sainsbury and Tesco Stores Ltd (£40,000). Collaborative International research has involved a comparison of town centre management practices between Sweden and the UK and of geographical information systems in Canada, Holland and the UK. To foster links between the work of the LPM’s cluster and that of practitioners, members have hosted the Contemporary Issues in Retail Marketing conferences (1998, 2000). Staff PhD completions in the period include Evans (Monash) and Medway (Leeds). The CPA cluster includes Harris, Moss D, Cornelissen and Lock and is supported through collaborative work with visiting professors Sommer and Vis (UC Berkeley). Their expertise is sharpened through the delivery of one of the few MAs in Public Relations in the UK. Research comprises two main areas: public relations and corporate communications (Moss D and Cornelissen), and government and public affairs (Harris, Moss D and Lock) including political marketing (Harris and Lock). In the first area, research has focused on the role and practice of the public relations function in companies in the UK (Moss D 1,2,3,4), and on the organisation of public relations alongside marketing communications (Cornelissen 1,2,3). In government and public affairs, research focuses on lobbying (Harris 2,3,4, Moss D 2), and on the emergent topic of political marketing, where Harris (1,2) and Lock are at the forefront of the debates. Funding has been attracted from United Utilities (£30,000) for research on public relations; Granada Television (£20,000) for research on regional regeneration initiatives and party political conferences; Dibb, Lupton & Alsop (£10,000) for the ‘Machiavelli at 500’ Conference (1998); CVE to develop the training of professionals (£40,000); and the Management Consultants Association (£5,000) for research into self governance and regulation of institutional bodies. Moss D is the co-founder (established in 1994) and organiser of the leading public relations research forum within Europe (at Lake Bled Slovenia). The CPA will further strengthen its reputation within the international academic community with the launch of the Journal of Public Affairs (January 2001), edited by Harris and Moss D, and through collaborative research with academics at the leading edge of public relations research in universities in Europe, North America and Australasia. Staff PhD completions include Cornelissen (FMB) and Harris (FMB).

Human Resources Management: Professors Pendleton and Lucas, Dr Hall, and Tüselmann and Taylor.
Activity and Achievements
: Research of the Human Resources Management (HRM) group has involved research into three related clusters; reward management, human resource management in the public sector and privatised organisations, and the impact of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) on employment and employee relations. The work of the group is supported through collaborative work with visiting research fellows Drs Westcott and Michaelson (Sydney), Poutsma (Nijmegen Business School), Forrester (University of Windsor Canada), and Professor Heise (University of Economics Vienna), and by 1 SRF, 2 RF’s, and 2 RA’s. The group has 25 registered PhD students; including 3 ESRC studentships and 4 University funded studentships. Research on reward management has focused on the areas of occupational pensions (Taylor 1,2), profit-sharing and employee share ownership (Pendleton 2,3,4), low pay and the minimum wage (Lucas 1,3), and performance-related pay (Bell). Research grants and contracts have been secured from the Low Pay Commission (£17,500) (Lucas), ESRC (£40,000) (Pendleton), DfID (£15,000), European Foundation (£3,100), European Commission (£4,000) and the Nuffield Foundation (£5,000). A book Strategic Reward Systems (FT/Prentice-Hall) edited by Thorpe and Homan involved collaboration of members of the group with both academics and practitioners. Research on reward management led to advice sought by the Cabinet Office and the Australian Government (Pendleton). The reward management cluster incorporates the Centre for Hospitality Employment Research (CHER) led by Lucas, supported by Langlois (RF). CHER has conducted research on aspects of employee and labour relations, e.g. minimum wage reports for the Low Pay Commission, within the hospitality and tourism industry (Lucas 4). Building upon the work of CHER, the FMB intends to further develop academic and applied research on HRM and management-related themes within this sectoral field. A second strand of research has been public sector human resource management and privatisation. Projects include changing patterns of HRM (Hall 2,3) and industrial relations in the public services sector (Corby, Mathieson), industrial relations in privatised bus and railway companies (Pendleton 1,3), and the characteristics of HR managers in public sector organisations (Lupton, Shaw). Research grants have been received from the ESRC (Senior Management Research Fellowship Pendleton) and HM Prison Service (£6,000). An ILO funded project has examined capital market regimes and social responsibility; papers from this research have been presented at the American Allied Social Sciences conference. The third strand of research on the impact of FDI on employment and employee relations (Tüselmann 2,3,4, Heise) has been funded by the Hans Böckler Foundation (£28,000). The standing of Tüselmann’s work is reflected in his secondment to the German Ministry of Economics (1998) as part of the OECD negotiation team on Multilateral Agreement on Investment. Research is currently underway on German and French FDI into the UK in collaboration with colleagues from University College Dublin, the German-British Chamber of Industry and Commerce and the University of Economics Vienna, funded by the Anglo-German Foundation for the Study of Industrial Society (£31,000). During the period, research was completed (Lupton and Thorpe) on the impact of multinational corporations on labour markets in Czech Republic and Hungary (ACE €113,000). This study has led to a research report, 4 articles in Hungarian journals and a number of conference papers. Already planned is research to examine the impact of German FDI on employee relations in German subsidiaries in comparison with their parent companies (Tüselmann); an inter-disciplinary collaboration with the Centre for Business History (Warren) to examine aspects of the relationships between finance, ownership, and employment; and comparative research on new public management in the UK and Sweden (£1200, Mathieson). To maintain close links with practice, members of the group have in conjunction with the CIPD published text books (Hall - Human Resource Management, 1998, The Human Resource Function, 1998, Taylor - Employee Resourcing, 2000), and have organised annual conferences and seminars to debate specific themes (e.g. HRM impact of the Human Rights Act in 2000, British Universities Industrial Relations Association Conference 2001). In the period there have been 3 staff PhD completions: Lucas (MMU), Hicks-Clarke (Liverpool John Moores), and Woodhams (FMB), and staff of the HRM group have supervised 6 PhDs, 1 MPhil and 3 MSc’s to completion.

Centre for Business History: Professor Jeremy, Drs Farnie, Sunderland and Tweedale, and Warren.
Activity and Achievements
: The Centre for Business History (CBH) supported by two visiting fellows professors Yuzawa (Gakushiun University Tokyo) and Tabata (Osaka City University) draws together mainstream business historians and staff involved in corporate governance and business ethics with the purpose of applying an historical approach to management research. The group has 8 registered PhD students; of which 1 University funded studentship. Theoretical frameworks underpinning the research have related to the origins of entrepreneurs (Jeremy 1,2), business ethics (Tweedale, 1,2,3,4 Tilley, 3,4 and Warren 1,2,3,4), technology transfer (Jeremy 1,3 and Farnie 1,2,3), and trust in business networks (Sunderland 1,2). Business ethics research (Warren, Tilley, Tweedale) has focused on the use of virtue theory as an approach to applied ethics within the context of business and management. Warren and Tweedale’s work is interdisciplinary combining historical and archival evidence with ethical and managerial analysis. Research by staff of the CBH has also continued on regional history: Jeremy (2) and Farnie (1,2,4) have studied 19th and 20th century entrepreneurs and Tweedale (1,2,3,4) has researched 20th century industrial health and safety. Jeremy (1,3), Farnie (1,2,3) and Tweedale have been involved with Japanese scholars in developing comparisons between business in the North West and in Osaka. Sunderland is an ESRC Research Fellow and Jeremy is currently a Leverhulme Research Fellow researching boardroom cultures and governance. Tweedale is continuing his work on industry and health after completing a book on the asbestos industry Magic Mineral to Killer Dust (OUP, 2000). The CBH places a strong emphasis on major research monographs: Jeremy wrote A Business History of Britain, 1900 – 1990s (OUP, 1998), the Anglo-Japanese collaborations resulted in Farnie et al.’s Region and Strategy (Routledge, 2000), while Warren’s Corporate Governance and Accountability: Relationships, Ethics, Stakeholders (2000) describes some of the current thinking on corporate governance emanating from the CBH’s work. In addition to funding from the Wellcome Trust (£212,000) and the Leverhulme Trust (£34,630), an ESRC research grant has recently been secured (£120,000) for 2000-2003. Farnie and Jeremy organised the Cotton Industry and World Economy Conference in 1997 with participation from leading American economic historians (Saxonhouse, Michigan University, Wright, Stanford University, and Clark, University of California). One member of staff (Sunderland, Oxford) completed his PhD in the period and staff of the CBH supervised 1 PhD and 1 MPhil to completion.


Centre for Policy Modelling: Professor Moss S, Drs Edmonds, Faraj and Rose

Activity and Achievements: The scope of the Centre for Policy Modelling (CPM) is social simulation and modelling, soft-systems methodologies and multi-agent based simulation. CPM is supported by 2 RF’s (Drs Wallis and Rouchier), two visiting research fellows Dr Conte (National Research Council Rome) and Dr Downing (Oxford), and an RA (Dr Terán). The group has 10 registered PhD students; including 1 ESRC and 2 University funded studentships. The CPM develops the means and methodologies for modelling complex systems such as organisations and markets (Moss S 1,2,3,4, Edmonds 1,2, Faraj 1,2, 3, Rose 1,2,4). A recent example is the collaborative project in progress with the University of York on ‘Evolution and Competitiveness in Oligopolistic Industries’ funded by the ESRC (£15,691). The research programme of the CPM also applies to software systems such as the Internet and large federated databases such as a recent research project funded by United Utilities (£115,335) on Intelligent Marketing Integrated Systems. The CPM attained a leading international role in the development of multi-agent based simulation and, in particular, social simulation which is now applied to a wide variety of business and management problems (Moss S 3, Edmonds, Wallis). The computer programming language SDML developed by Dr Wallis is recognised as one of the four major languages for agent based simulation modelling; the others being Swarm, Dmars and Cormas. SDML has registered users in more than 70 universities and research institutes worldwide. Research of the CPM involves applications to critical incident management (Moss S 2), electronic commerce and exchange in real markets (Edmonds 3), data exchange in the construction industry (Faraj 1,2,3), the assessment of policies to mitigate anthropogenic climate change (Rouchier, Downing), and the impacts of climate change on socio-economic systems (Moss S, Rouchier). CPM is the core modelling team amidst a group of world-class institutes (Oxford, ICIS Maastricht, Swiss Federal Institute of Science and Technology, Institute of Psychology, National Research Council Rome) in integrated assessment modelling in the FIRMA project (£22,414). The existing work of the CPM has led to further research directions, in particular the application of new simulation models to marketing, financial and organisational analysis (Moss 1,4) and the development of techniques to capture social intelligence and ‘informal’ social processes with simulation models (Edmonds 2,4). Since 1996, PhD staff completions include Rose (Lancaster), Terán (FMB) and Rouchier (Orléans). A feature of the CPM has been its willingness to host PhD students from reputable universities such as Oxford University, University of Koblenz-Landau, l'Université Pierre et Marie, and University of Maastricht.

OTHER UOAS TO WHICH WORK HAS BEEN SUBMITTED

Berry, Accounting and Finance (UoA 44), Sheffield Hallam University.

Users of this website should note that the information is not intended to be a complete record of all research centres in the UK

Copyright 2002 - HEFCE, SHEFC, ELWa, DEL

Last updated 17 October 2003

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