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RA5a: Structure,environment and staffing policy


The Cambridge Law Faculty has, for many years, undertaken research of outstanding quality. As in the past, almost all of the Faculty’s officers are both teachers and researchers and much of the Faculty’s output continues to be the work of individuals. The Faculty’s policy leaves it to each Faculty member to decide which research will be pursued separately and which will be undertaken in collaboration, either within the Faculty or beyond. As will be evidenced below, a lively spirit of co-operation prevails both informally and through a growing number of institutional arrangements, such as research centres and the guidance of new staff by mentors.

In line with the Faculty's submission in 1996, the present RA1 classifies research-active staff under a number of Group heads, while at the same time indicating other Groups to which they could equally be assigned. The object is to convey an overall impression of the extent and depth of research interaction in the Faculty. The Group heads are: (A) Criminal Law, Criminal Procedure and Evidence; (B) Common Law; (C) Criminology; (D) Public Law; (E) Property and Trusts; (F) Corporate and Commercial Law; (G) Intellectual Property; (H) Labour and Social Welfare Law; (I) Public International Law; (J) Private International Law; (K) European Law; (L) Civil and Comparative Law; (M) Legal History and (N) Legal Theory.

The Faculty's research capacity and achievements during the period 1996-2000 have been particularly enhanced by:
(i) the move to a new Law Faculty Building;
(ii) the consequent development of additional specialist Research Centres and expansion of library and computing resources;
(iii) the appointment of new Faculty members with considerable research output and potential across a wide range of subjects.
Each of these is commented upon in ensuing paragraphs. The developing programme for research students is also addressed in section 6 below.

1. Faculty Buildings

Lord Foster’s striking Law Building became the Faculty’s main home in October 1995. The Building comfortably accommodates much of the Faculty’s teaching and administration, together with the Squire Law Library. It also provides facilities and offices for a number of the Faculty’s Centres and for various research projects. The computing provision is of a high order and the Faculty is now served by four computing staff together with a Faculty IT Research Officer and a School of Humanities and Social Sciences IT Officer.

A number of the Faculty’s activities do, however, have premises adjacent to the Faculty Building. The renovation and extension of the Lauterpacht Research Centre for International Law (LRCIL) to include an admirable meeting room and additional library space, has further improved the Faculty’s research accommodation. The Institute of Criminology’s new building will, it is hoped, be operational in 2003/4. This will greatly improve conditions in an energetic Institute which has quite outgrown its present premises. The Centre for Business Research is shortly due to move into purpose-built accommodation at the Judge Institute of Management Studies.

2. Library Facilities

(A) The Squire Law Library
The Squire is one of the three largest academic law libraries in the UK. The new Faculty Building has made its collections considerably more accessible and has ensured an ongoing expansion. One recent development of particular note is the opening of the Maitland Legal History Room. The Library has, over the past four years, considerably developed an already extensive body of legal materials, notably in relation to all common law jurisdictions, France, Germany, and European and international law. Annual expenditure on books has risen from £13,000 in 1993-94 to a current level of £54,000-68,000; that on periodicals from £136,000 (1993-94) to £193,000 (1999-2000). The Library also supports an array of electronic resources which are available to Faculty members, research students and, increasingly, undergraduates. These resources include web-based and CD-ROM services such as (amongst numerous others) Lexis, Westlaw, LawTel, a range of JUSTIS products (including the Electronic Law Reports, Celex, the Human Rights Database and the Family Law Database), Butterworths Direct Services (including the All England Law Reports) and Jutastat’s English Reports. These can be accessed via a network of computers throughout the building and at the state-of-the-art terminals in the Freshfields Legal IT Centre and the Butterworths/Reed Elsevier Room.

(B) The Radzinowicz Library
The Radzinowicz Library holds one of the world’s foremost collections on crime, deviance and related topics, comprising approximately 45,000 books, 15,000 pamphlets, and subscriptions to 250 current periodicals. Annual acquisitions exceed 2000 volumes. The collection contains contemporary and historical resources and provides access to the main on-line databases and periodicals. The library maintains a highly regarded web site which provides access to the catalogue, a continuously updated collection of links to other relevant sites, and a quarterly accessions list. The Library, heavily used by students, academics, and criminal justice practitioners from the UK and abroad, will have three times more space in the new building.

(C) Cambridge University Library (The UL)
The Squire is a dependent library of the main Cambridge University Library which is situated in close proximity to the Faculty Building. The UL’s Official Publications department holds publications from the governments of the United Kingdom, the Irish Republic, Commonwealth Countries and other overseas countries. It also holds material from fifty intergovernmental organisations, including the United Nations and its specialised agencies, and from the European Union institutions.

(D) Departmental Libraries
Other specialist libraries close at hand (including the Marshall Library of Economics, the Seeley History Library and the collections and services at the Judge Institute of Management Studies) are increasingly important as Law expands into other disciplines.

3. Specialist Institute and Centres

Besides the Institute of Criminology, a series of specialist Centres now exist within the Faculty. The Centre for Corporate and Commercial Law (3CL), the Centre for Public Law (CPL) and the Centre for Tax Law have all been established during 1996-2000. The Faculty concluded, after due consideration, that this pattern of development was to be preferred over the establishment of the umbrella research institution which was suggested as a potential way forward in the 1996 Submission. The specialist centres model is better attuned to the collaborative practices of Faculty members and has proved to be more attractive to external funders. Separate Centres also allow for more flexible management.

All of the Centres organise high-level conferences, symposia and seminars on recent research and promulgate research through a variety of means. They also invite a roster of short- and long-term visitors (judges, practising lawyers and academics) from around the world. The Centres have raised substantial donations to assist with their research work. Research students attend many of the Centres’ activities and benefit from the informal contacts which the Centres generate.

The Faculty has given practical support to the new Centres in several ways which have included the appointment of a Centres' Administrator, and the provision of funding for secretarial and computing support. Moreover, Faculty Members assume the roles of Directors and Deputy Directors and participate in Centre activities as they choose and have time.

(A) The Institute of Criminology (est. 1959. Directors: 1996-8, Bottoms; now, Tonry; Deputy Director, Wikström) is the oldest and largest of these specialist centres and is accordingly of an organisational size which sets it apart. It is the leading centre for criminological research and teaching in the United Kingdom. The University's commitment to the Institute and its work is instanced in its recent establishment of a new Directorship and by moving forward with plans for a new building.

Institute staff work in a wide and multidisciplinary range of research traditions, including psychiatry, sociology, social and developmental psychology, law, philosophy, public policy and criminology. The research portfolio is continuously expanding. In 1999-2000 alone nearly £2 million in external funding was awarded. Ongoing, long-standing work includes: (i) the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (40 years on; Farrington); (ii) studies of community crime careers in Sheffield (30 years on; Bottoms); and (iii) several long-term empirical projects in Sweden (Wikström). Major new funded work includes: (i) studies of community service orders (Gelsthorpe, Rex); (ii) drugs and crime (Bennett); (iii) young offenders (Wikström); (iv) imprisonment (Liebling); (v) crime and punishment trends in ten countries (Farrington, Tonry); and (vi) comparative studies of juvenile justice in eight countries (Tonry). Two new research centres, The Centre for Penal Theory and Penal Ethics (Director: von Hirsch) and The Prisons Research Centre (Director: Liebling) have been formed and funded. Institute staff edit four major criminology book series: for Cambridge University Press, the Cambridge Series in Criminology (Farrington), and for Oxford University Press, the Clarendon Studies in Criminology (Bottoms, Wikström), Studies in Crime and Public Policy (Tonry), and Readings in Crime and Punishment (Tonry). The leading journal, Crime and Justice – A Review of Research (Tonry), is also based at the Institute.

Various activities bring students and staff into contact with leading scholars from Britain and elsewhere. The Institute has recently, with external funding, convened national and international conferences on the future of probation, situational crime prevention, restorative justice, transnational crime, comparative juvenile justice, and comparative crime and punishment trends. Its weekly lecture series and the annual Nigel Walker Lecture regularly bring distinguished scholars and practitioners to the Institute. At any one time, two distinguished Visiting Fellows are in residence.

(B) The Lauterpacht Research Centre for International Law (LRCIL) (Director: Crawford; Deputy Director: Bethlehem) has been an important and integral part of the Faculty's research and teaching activities since 1985. Over the past four years the LRCIL has continued to play a leading role in the publication of international law commentaries and sources. Its commentaries include: (i) The British Year Book of International Law (senior editor: Crawford; assistant editor: C Hopkins); (ii) Cambridge Studies in International and Comparative Law (edited by Crawford and Johnston: fourteen volumes have been published since its revival in 1994 and five more are under contract); (iii) Commentary on the ICSID Convention (prepared by Professor C Schreuer, Salzburg and Johns Hopkins Universities). Reports include: (i) Iran-US Claims Tribunal Reports (Vol. 29, 2000; Vols. 30-33 in production); (ii) International Environmental Law Reports (Vols. 1 and 2, 2000; Vol. 3 in production); (iii) Cambridge International Documents Series (among several recent volumes, East Timor 1997; The Yugoslav Crisis in International Law: General Issues, 1997); (iv) ICSID Reports (Vol. 4 1997, Vol. 5 in production).

The LRCIL has, with the assistance of a £300,000 Leverhulme grant, undertaken major research in conjunction with the second reading of the Project on State Responsibility by the International Law Commission. Crawford was the Special Rapporteur of the Project, the main results of which have been his three Reports to the Commission. These have led to a complete and substantially revised text on State Responsibilities which is now before the Sixth (Legal) Committee of the UN General Assembly. Crawford and others have produced several other published commentaries relating to the project and a succession of presentations and seminars have been made around the world. (See also the special section of the European Journal of International Law, Vol.10 (1999) no.2, pp.339-460). On completion of the research next year, a detailed monograph will be published in the Cambridge Studies Series, as well as a combined project with the University of Paris X-Nanterre.

The Centre organises a variety of conferences, seminars and arrangements for visiting scholars. These include (i) the annual Hersch Lauterpacht course of lectures (most recently Koskenniemi (1999); Franck (2000)); (ii) the Snyder Lecture Series (an exchange with the Indiana Law School and associated with a visiting scholar programme for students); (iii) a weekly series of lunch-time talks; and (iv) occasional conferences on such subjects as the Pinochet case (1999), WTO law (1999), the precautionary principle in wildlife conservation (2000, with IUCN/Africa Resources Trust). The Centre hosts between 12 and 15 academic visitors at a time and is a hub for contacts across the global community of international law.

(C) The Centre for European Legal Studies (CELS) (est. 1991. Directors: 1995-2000, Dashwood; now, Spencer; Deputy Directors: O’Leary, Ward and now Hillion) has continued to enhance its considerable reputation as a research institution for EU law during the period since the last RAE. The work of the Centre concentrates on constitutional and institutional aspects and also on major issues of substantive policy. The various conferences and symposia which the Centre organises each year (some in collaboration with other Faculty Centres) have occasioned important and high level collections of papers: Reviewing Maastricht (1996, ed. Dashwood), The Principle of Equal Treatment in EC Law (1997, ed. Dashwood and O’Leary), The Future of the Judicial System of the EU (2000, ed. Dashwood and A Johnston) and The General Law of EC External Relations (2000, ed. Dashwood and Hillion).

CELS also publishes a series of occasional papers and conducts well attended weekly advanced seminars during term. In 1999 it launched the Cambridge Yearbook of European Legal Studies (ed. Dashwood and Ward) the contents of the first two volumes of which demonstrate CELS’ international standing. This reputation is further illustrated by the Centre's participation with Melbourne University in the major conference, Trade and Co-operation with the EU in the New Millennium (2000). CELS is also the Faculty's point of contact with the English and EU Law Centre at Warsaw University (Director: Cornish) and has used its expertise in organising judicial training programmes for Central and East Europe.

(D) The IP Unit (est. 1995. Director: Cornish) is, by evolution, a branch of CELS and acts as a focus for interest in intellectual property, information law and related fields. Cornish edits the new CUP Series, Studies in Intellectual Property Rights and, by means of his external academic membership, maintains close contact with the Max Planck Institute for the subject in Munich. Research students in the subject generally have a period of study there. In particular, the Unit has organised conferences and seminars on PIL and IP (1996), limitations to copyright in the digital era (1998, for l'Association littéraire et artistique internationale), human genetics and law (1999, with the MLR) and problems of Anglo-American patent and trade mark law (2000, for the ABA specialist section and the British Counterpart TIPLO).

(E) The Centre for Business Research (CBR) is an inter-Faculty research centre. It is ESRC funded, with additional funding from the Leverhulme Trust; Ford Foundation; UK and overseas government departments; the EU; private sector sponsors, etc. Its signal success arises from an unusually close degree of co-operation between lawyers, economists and management scientists. The contribution of lawyers to the CBR’s work has been substantial. One of the CBR’s three research programmes (Corporate Governance) is directed by Deakin, while several others members of the Faculty (in particular Barnard, Cheffins and Sealy) and distinguished international visitors (Mitchell) have been actively involved in recent projects. Several CBR research fellows – such as Alexander, Armour (on leave from Nottingham), Hobbs, Reed, Sachdev - have come from a Law background. A number of social scientists in other Faculties have been able to work on socio-legal themes through the CBR (Brown, Burchell, Eatwell, Hughes, Lane, Michie, Pratten, Wilkinson).

Significant research contributions have been made in the fields of company, labour, competition and insolvency law. Outputs include edited collections: (i) Contracts, Co-operation and Competition (eds. Deakin and Michie, 1997); (ii) Enterprise and Community: New Directions in Corporate Governance (special issue of the Journal of Law and Society, eds. Deakin and Hughes, 1997); and (iii) Employment Relations, Individualisation and Union Exclusion (eds. Deery and Mitchell, 1999). In addition, the CBR's research profile is instanced in over sixty law-related publications in refereed journals and edited books; numerous contributions to conferences on socio-legal studies and the economics of law in North America, Europe and Australia; and several influential official reports (Economic Analysis of Directors’ Duties, for the Law Commission; Changing Nature Of Employment Contracts, for the DTI; Employment Status of Nonstandard Work, for the DTI; Review of Economic Literature on Company Law, for the Company Law Review Steering Group; Economics of Labour Standards, for NZ Department of Labour; Effects of Deregulation on Employment in Britain, for DG XII, European Commission).

Recognition for the achievements of the CBR has come in the form of the renewal of its 5-year ESRC core grant for a second period (1999-2004) with specific mention made by the Review Committee of progress made in the relationship between economics and law. There has also been the award by the ESRC of an ‘outstanding’ grade to the Vertical Contracts research project in 1996, and a ‘good’ for the Media Regulation project in 2000. Success has also been realised in competitive bidding for external research funding which has seen the CBR’s annual research income raised to around £600,000 in the most recent financial year, close to doubling the core ESRC grant.

(F) The Centre for Corporate and Commercial Law (3CL) (est. 1997. Directors: Sealy, 1997-9; now, Ferran; Deputy Directors: Hooley, 1997-9; now, Rogerson). The work of 3CL has, since the Centre's inception in 1997, focussed on corporate and insurance law. The Centre has already established a considerable reputation as a result of three major Conferences and the resulting publications. The first two were on Shareholder Remedies and Directors' Duties respectively, and were linked to the Centre's contributions to Law Commission projects on company law reform and to the DTI's general review of the subject. Papers from both conferences, and from a 3CL seminar on Global Insolvency, have been published as special issues of the Company Financial and Insolvency Law Review. The third conference was a major interdisciplinary conference on financial regulation. The proceedings of the latter are soon to be published as a book (ed. Ferran and Charles Goodhart).

The Centre also hosts important biennial conferences on aspects of insurance law. Organised by Clarke, these have been: Reform of the Third Parties (Rights Against Insurers) Act 1930 (an adjunct to Law Commission work on the subject) (1997); Fraud in an Electronic Age: Regulation in the Age of the FSA (1999); and (forthcoming) Threats to the Development of Insurance Contract Law.

(G) The Centre for Public Law (CPL) (est. 1998. Director: Beatson; Deputy Directors: Forsyth, Hare) focuses on issues of constitutional and administrative law and regulatory systems in a national, European and comparative framework. It has already organised five front-rank conferences: (i) UK Constitutional Reform (its inaugural event, opened by the Lord Chancellor); (ii) Human Rights Scrutiny of Criminal Justice and Regulatory Process; (iii) the Foundations of Judicial Review, (iv) the Enforcement of UK Anti-Discrimination Legislation and (v) Freedom of Expression, Freedom of Information. In addition, a conference on access to information in Britain, Sweden and the EU was organised with CELS and Stockholm University and another on Financial Regulation with 3CL.

The inaugural conference produced an influential volume entitled Constitutional Reform in the UK: Practice and Principles (ed. Beatson, Forsyth and Hare: on which see Gearty [1998] EHRLR 655). It also honoured Wade's 80th birthday with the Festschrift, The Golden Metwand and the Crooked Cord (ed. Forsyth and Hare). The fifth conference honoured Williams with the volume of proceedings, Freedom of Expression, Freedom of Speech (ed. Beatson and Cripps). The volume from the third conference, Judicial Review and the Constitution (ed. Forsyth), captures the views of major debaters.

The Centre has special funding for a Visiting Scholars Scheme and participates in the Aristoteles Network, under which Cambridge research students visit other European Universities.

The Centre has promoted and hosted two research projects: one on UK anti-discrimination legislation (funded by Rowntree Trust and Nuffield Foundation; directed by Hepple and executed in collaboration with the Judge Institute of Management); the other on the powers of bailiffs in execution of civil judgments, not least in light of the Human Rights Act (for the LCD, directed by Beatson).

(H) Centre for Tax Law (est. 2000. Director: Tiley; Deputy Directors: Tee, Virgo). This latest addition has an initial research programme which includes current tax issues (Tiley); UK tax law history to 2000 (Tee); and international taxation (David Oliver - Editor, British Tax Review).

4. Other projects

There are a number of other collaborative projects within the Faculty which take place outwith the ambits of the Centres. These include:
· The Cambridge University Government Policy Programme, which is a series of one-day seminars for Ministers and senior civil servants, with the support of the PM and participation of the Head of the Home Civil Service. Scientists - natural and social - lead discussions of recent scientific developments and their legal, social and ethical implications. Hepple belongs to the organising committee of Heads of Houses, and Faculty members have spoken at sessions on cloning and genetic engineering (Cripps, 1998); IT and public policy (Freedman, 1999); natural resource exploitation (Crawford, 2000); and age and senescence (Hepple, 2000).
· Restitution: Past, Present and Future, a conference in 1998 in honour of Gareth Jones, took stock of a buoyant subject and resulted in a well-received volume of the same title (ed. Cornish, Nolan, O'Sullivan and Virgo) which was described by Burrows as 'the state of the art as far as the law of restitution is concerned.' (LQR, 1999)
· Palmer has organised an inter-faculty seminar series with History and Philosophy entitled Feminist Political and Legal Theory: Achievements and Challenges (1997-1998).
· The annual Themes in Modern History Seminar at the Centre for History and Economics has been convened by Davis since 1996. One product of this (with V Gattrell) will be a theme on the Victorian underworld in 'Locating the Victorians', a Science Museum exhibition in 2001.
· The Cambridge Socio-Legal Group is an interdisciplinary unit organised for the Centre for Family Research by Bainham, together with Professor M Richards and Dr S D Sclater. A number of Faculty members (Bridge, Gelsthorpe, Herring, Keown) have collaborated in its projects. The first of these resulted in What is a Parent? A Socio-legal analysis. It is anticipated that a further volume of papers will be published next year.

5 Independence and co-operation

As emphasised at the outset, much research activity in the Faculty is the work of individuals and collaborations are often informal. The latter include reading groups in various subjects which, among other things, afford research students the chance to present work in progress.

The list of individual contributions in RA2 indicates many works which are scholarly mainstays. Particular attention should be drawn to new books by Allison, Baker, Beatson, Cheffins, Collier, Farrington, Fentiman, Ferran, C Gray, K Gray, Hepple, Hooley, Ibbetson, Kramer, Liebling, Marks, Scott, Seville, Simmonds, Smith, Tonry, Virgo, von Hirsch, Walker, Weir and Wikström. There have also been substantial new editions of major works by Bainham, Barnard, Clarke, Cornish, Dashwood, Deakin, Forsyth, Padfield, Thomas, Tiley, von Hirsch and Walker.

6 Research Students

As RA3 indicates, the Faculty has maintained a substantial cohort of research students. The present criteria for admission are particularly high: normally an undergraduate First, or a high 2:1 with a First at Master's level. In consequence very few fail to meet the examiners' requirements in respect of the first year thesis which determines their transfer to either the MLitt or the PhD programme. The Degree Committees for Law and Criminology supervise admission and all subsequent stages. Many members of the Faculty act as supervisors and are involved not only in the evolution of the final work but also in giving advice on such matters as publications and career development.

Throughout their first year, research students attend Research Seminars (either in Law or in Criminology) which cover the organisation and presentation of research and approaches to legal research from various interdisciplinary perspectives. These aim to prepare students both for their first-year thesis and for practical and methodological issues in their advanced degree programme. Research students also participate in an Interdepartmental PhD Workshop Programme across the Humanities and Social Sciences which is directed by Gelsthorpe. At all stages of their study, they are encouraged to attend the Faculty Seminar series, Institute Seminars meetings of the various Centres and other subject discussion groups, such as the Legal Theory reading group and the Criminology PhD reading group.

The success of the programme can be measured by the list of those securing academic posts. For law, these include Elliott, Fox, Hatfield, O'Keefe, Rotherham and Seville (in Cambridge); and Bonthuys, Byers, Edmond, Gallanis, Lalonde, Lee, Arai, Akande, Grant, Spierman, Sullivan and Viles elsewhere. Others have gone to posts with, for instance, the Council of Europe, the Islamic Development Bank, and leading law practices. PhD graduates in Criminology during the RAE period are in academic posts across the world: Japan (Fenwick, Kyushu University), Australia (Naylor, Monash; Chui, Queensland), Canada (Chan, Halifax; Denov, Ottawa), the USA (Banks, Arizona; Terry, Rutgers; Welsh, Massachussetts), Scotland (Jones and Crichton, Edinburgh), England (Colombo, Warwick; Enterkin, Leeds; Phillips, Keele; Matravers, Cambridge; Jewkes, Coventry). Many others are in research positions at comparable institutions.


(i) Types of appointment
Cambridge's research active staff fall, almost exclusively, into the following categories:
(a) University Teaching Officers (UTOs): The selection of University Lecturers is based primarily upon demonstrable research achievement and potential as evidenced through a promising list of publications. The five posts advertised during the period attracted an average of 42 applicants.
(b) College Teaching Officers (CTOs): These appointments are intended primarily to provide the direction and supervision of students in the colleges. Nevertheless, it is significant that a substantial proportion of CTOs are active in research and are accordingly included in RA1 and RA2. CTOs are, typically, at an early stage in their academic career. Many have recently completed an advanced degree and are looking to move to university appointments here or elsewhere. Those with a Cambridge PhD will have attended one of the Faculty's seminars on research methods.
(c) Joint College-Faculty Posts: A new flexibility between the two categories has been fostered through the Newton Trust Lectureship scheme and, more recently, by means of Norton Rose Lectureships (currently held by Albors-Llorens, Davis, Dougan, Ford, Kim, McBride, Miles, Rotherham, Seville, Spaventa and Tee). These schemes allow colleges to release CTOs from some of their supervision teaching responsibilities thereby freeing them for Faculty lecturing and for the pursuit of their research activities. These lectureships provide a particularly valuable launching-pad into a full academic career.

(ii) Mentoring
Newly appointed University Teaching Officers, unless already well established as scholars, are placed under the guidance of a senior colleague as mentor. The Faculty now offers the same opportunity to the Colleges for their Teaching Officers in law, and this has been taken up in all appropriate cases. Indeed it is in this category that the scheme is often of most advantage. The mentoring system has proved to be a crucial source of advice and support in respect of both teaching and research.

(iii) Leave entitlements
The University's Sabbatical Leave scheme is generous: University Teaching Officers are entitled, without consideration of replacement funding, to one term of research leave for every six terms of teaching. The scheme represents a substantial commitment to serious research activity and permits the pursuit and prosecution of major projects and publications. It is also possible to arrange more extended leave under special conditions. Thus Bridge is now succeeding Harpum as a Law Commissioner. Research funding is available at Faculty level through the Yorke and Maitland Funds. It can be procured quickly and without undue bureaucracy.

(iv) Recent appointments
The Faculty has recently lost valuable colleagues at all levels but has been fortunate in being able to attract appointees whose achievements and promise are a matter of real pride. These newcomers will play important roles in sustaining those disciplines central to Cambridge’s research and in developing new fields and approaches.

The arrival of Ibbetson (as Regius Professor in succession to Johnston) will, for example, sustain Romanist studies at a crucial European moment. It will also build upon the comparative history of common and civil law, which is an increasingly important emphasis for our legal historians (Baker, Cornish, N. Jones, Melikan and Kim), our comparatists (Munday, Weir and Riesenhuber) and for a succession of Goodhart Professors (Langbein, Zimmermann, Helmholz).

Bell’s appointment to a chair from 2001 will give added impetus to the comparative study of public law and legal systems. This already forms part of the theoretical work of Allan, Allison and Elliott and has benefited from the presence in Cambridge of Mason and Koopmans as Goodhart professors. Closely allied are those who work in constitutional reform, judicial review and human rights: Beatson, C Gray, K Gray, Hare, Marks, Palmer, Smith and Williams.

At the Institute of Criminology, the arrival of Tonry as Director has provided the opportunity to refocus its research. The Institute has been further strengthened by the appointment of Eisner, a specialist in historical and cross-national crime studies and Wikström, a specialist in crime prevention and community studies.

In the field of international law, Bethlehem's appointment has provided a specialist in world trade law, while O'Keefe gives the Faculty a research profile in the areas of protection of culture and extradition.

The Faculty's strong position in European Law is enhanced by the appointment of Scott (who brings new strength on EU environmental law), Johnston (utilities regulation), Albors-Llorens (competition law) and Dougan (institutions and remedies). The inexorable pressure in respect of the development of European and international concordats on economic law in its broadest sense is giving new focus for many who work in the areas of corporate law, commercial law, IP and IT, civil litigation, labour law, environmental law and criminal process. This development has, moreover, encouraged an inter-disciplinary approach. The appointment of Cheffins has, for example, strengthened the Faculty's profile in respect of the economic analysis of corporate law, while Ferran has demonstrated the effectiveness of a multi-faceted approach to corporate finance.

In the major fields of private law there have been several additions. Fox and Rotherham both specialise in the interface of property and restitution and therefore complement the interests of Hedley, Nolan, O'Sullivan and Virgo. McBride's work directs him particularly towards the foundations of tort law. Tee adds to the Faculty's strength in the field of land registration.

(v) Personal Promotions
As a means of recognising outstanding achievement in scholarship, in 1997 the University instituted a new scheme for the conferment of personal Readerships and Professorships. During the review period Fentiman, Ferran, Forsyth, Kramer, Simmonds and Wikström have been promoted to Readerships and Allott, Clarke, Smith and Tonry have been promoted to Chairs.

Users of this website should note that the information is not intended to be a complete record of all research centres in the UK

Copyright 2002 - HEFCE, SHEFC, ELWa, DEL

Last updated 17 October 2003

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