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UOA 60 - Philosophy
London School of Economics and Political Science
RA5a: Research environment and esteem
Department of Philosophy, Logic and Scientific Method
LSE’s Department of Philosophy, Logic and Scientific Method is a small department with teaching and research concentrated in the philosophy of science and, as befits a department in a school of social sciences, the conceptual and normative foundations of the social, economic and policy sciences. Amongst research units with a philosophy of science focus, ours is unique in covering both the natural and human sciences (including medicine) and in its connections with policy work. Our longstanding reputation in the philosophy of natural science is now matched by strength in the philosophy of economics and social science, most notably in methodology and rational choice theory, and philosophy and public policy. In developing these areas we are committed to research that makes a significant difference not only in philosophy and the philosophies of the various sciences, but also to the practice of the sciences themselves, pure and applied, from economics to physics and medicine.
Our research benefits from the wealth of philosophical activity in the University of London, from the projects we can mount at LSE’s Centre for the Philosophy of Natural and Social Science (CPNSS), and especially from the researchers visiting there. The Department itself has an exceptionally active and interactive research culture and conducts a large amount of interdisciplinary and cooperative research. Our different strengths build on and benefit from one another. Our work on probability, for instance, matters across the board, in research on causality, scientific methodology, decision and game theory, and in quantum and classical statistical mechanics. So too does our work on judgement aggregation which informs research on voting systems, the efficacy of public deliberation, and the weighing of evidence in both science and policy.
1. Research Students and Studentships
The Department has 31 active doctoral students and currently admits 4-6 students to its PhD programme annually. Since 2001 23 PhD students have graduated, moving into philosophy positions all over the world as well as into consulting, business and policy posts. A number of students have been supported by competitively awarded studentships (see RA3b), but continuing to improve levels of support is a priority for the Department.
Training of postgraduates is an essential component of our research activities. Well ahead of the AHRC initiative encouraging doctoral training, the Department adopted an ‘American-style’ PhD programme based on an MSc or equivalent plus one further year of taught courses and seminars, followed by seminar attendance and teacher training in the thesis writing years. There is an obligatory supervised summer project in each of the first two years - including one extensive literature review in the research area. All doctoral students have two supervisors, with the second supervisor sometimes coming from another department at LSE.
Graduate students are encouraged to be actively involved in research within the Department and CPNSS. Advanced students present their work to the main research seminars (see below) as well as the student-organised PhD dissertation seminar. The Department makes funding available for conference attendance for students giving talks and is a strong supporter of research student conferences. There have been five student conferences in the last three years; all contained a mixture of student presentations and distinguished invited speakers, with departmental members as respondents to student papers.
LSE runs a comprehensive development programme for PhD students that aims both to assist timely completion and to enhance career prospects by building on skills acquired during their doctoral studies. The Department recently produced a written guide entitled ‘Getting a Job as a Philosopher’ and runs annual workshops on careers and job applications.
2. Research Income
For a department of nine permanent members we run an unusual volume of outside-funded research. This is in part because of the nature of philosophy of science and in part because CPNSS houses and supports long-term cooperative projects with outside researchers: recent collaborators include Elliott Sober, Philip Kitcher, Naomi Oreskes, Moshe Machover and Dan Feltenstein as well as a number of postdoctoral fellows. Departmental research also benefits from cooperative work with the externally funded Lachmann Fellowship. Fellows in the last seven years include Marc Fleurbaey, Wulf Gaertner, Margaret Schabas, Roger Backhouse, Jack Vromen, Philippe Fontaine and Bruce Caldwell. Finally the Department is a core member of the Institute of Philosophy at the University of London’s School of Advanced Study and through this hosts a Jacobsen Fellow – currently Colin Johnston.
Philosophy of science points in two directions: towards philosophy and towards the sciences and their applications. Our externally-funded research reflects our efforts to cover both and to provide a bridge between them. Issues close to other areas of philosophy such as realism, objectivity, knowledge and evidence, and the metaphysics of causation are investigated in the AHRC funded projects Contingency and Dissent in Science, headed by Cartwright and Naomi Oreskes (UCSD) and Causality: Metaphysics and Methods, co-led by Cartwright, Worrall and Sober, as well as the British Academy funded Pluralism and Causality (Fennell) and the Spencer Foundation funded Evidence for Use (Cartwright). Closer to the sciences is research on health issues such as neglected diseases (funded by an LSE-Columbia seed-grant), causality in health and status (Cartwright, British Academy funded), scientific disputes, and the epistemic power of randomisation (both AHRC funded). Research conventionally located in both philosophy and political science departments includes the Leverhulme funded Measuring Voting Power and an ESRC funded project on the ethical and political basis of the UK government’s asset agenda.
3. Research Structure
In setting its research agenda the department has two central aims:
- 1.To produce original, top quality research in our areas of concentration, including opening up new questions and fields
- 2.To produce philosophical research that matters outside philosophy
The Department has a collaborative research culture and although all of its members produce a substantial number of single-authored publications, the high level of intellectual interaction between its members and with postgraduate students and people external to the Department is one of the defining features. Research is concentrated on two main axes – the philosophy of natural and social science and the normative and conceptual foundations of the social, economic and policy sciences – with work from both contributing to public policy research.
(a) Philosophy of Natural and Social Science: Research in this field spans a wide range of topics, including the history and philosophy of physics, the philosophy of economics, causality, scientific realism, evidence and confirmation, and theory change:
- There is a strong and active research tradition in the Department in the philosophy of physics, complimented by the activities of the CPNSS-based Sigma Club which brings together researchers from London, Oxford and Cambridge. Recent work has influenced both philosophy and physics. Frigg’s new approach to randomness in dynamical systems, for instance, leads to a different understanding of chaos and its role in statistical mechanics. Similarly Redei’s introduction of the common cause principle into quantum field theory has opened up discussion of causality in quantum physics, while Parker’s new notion of computability answers a nagging problem in physics and logic, namely how to deal with the behaviour of non-linear systems.
- The use of evidence for policy interventions is currently the subject of major debate in the social and medical sciences and several LSE projects contribute to it. Worrall’s research on randomized controlled trials is beginning to draw major attention both within philosophy of science (workshop at the 2006 PSA and invited symposiast at Boston Studies) and in parts of the medical community (e.g. an invited address to the Irish Cardiological Association). Cartwright’s work has had an impact both inside and outside the profession: for instance, the US National Research Council was awarded a large grant to study ‘evidence for use’ with a proposal that both borrowed the title of her research project and made extensive use of her ideas.
- The study of modelling, previously discussed only within the confines of the semantic view of theories, was opened up as a field of study by researchers at LSE. From this sprang pioneering work on scientific representation, now a hot topic in the philosophy of science.
- The study of causation, one of the central topics in the philosophy of science, has been enormously influenced by the LSE-based work centred on the AHRC and British Academy projects mentioned before. Cartwright is one of the leading figures in the field.
- The Department has become a major centre for Bayesian philosophy of science. Howson’s work in Bayesian confirmation theory has shaped the field and Bovens and Hartmann’s work on Bayesian accounts of coherence is showing signs of achieving the same stature, as evidenced by an APA ‘author meets critics’ session, book reviews and critical articles, and an edited volume of Synthese, largely devoted to their work. (This work is closely connected to the choice theoretic research described below).
(b) Conceptual and Normative Foundations of the Social, Economic and Policy Sciences: Research in this area is focused on the LSE Choice Group, an interdisciplinary group whose core members include Bradley, Alexander, Bovens and Voorhoeve, as well as Christian List from LSE’s Government department. Lachmann Fellows, Gaertner and Fleurbaey, and Nuffield Fellow, Dietrich, are actively involved, as are doctoral students in Philosophy, Government and Economics. The Choice Group organizes research-related activities on philosophical, mathematical and empirical aspects of individual and collective decision making, including a weekly seminar attended by academics from across London, a web-based working papers series and workshops for both senior researchers and PhD students. It is fair to say that the Choice Group has become the focus of philosophically-oriented decision theory in Europe.
- Bovens, Bradley, Dietrich and List all work on problems of reconciling diverse opinions (probabilities, preferences, causal judgements, etc.). Their work has already captured a good deal of attention with numerous workshops (at Oxford, Yale, Konstanz and Karlsruhe) and conference sessions (SCW 2006, PSA 2006, Pacific APA 2007, LGSC 2007) centred on it. This work exemplifies our collaborative approach with many papers being jointly authored or influenced by other members of the group.
- Alexander’s research on the evolution of social norms and cooperative behaviour has helped forge a new field within game theory and has influenced the work of a number of PhDs, post-docs and senior researchers internationally.
- Voorhoeve, Bradley, Dietrich, Bovens and Fleurbaey undertake interconnected work on preference evaluation and decision making that includes ground breaking ideas on rational preference revision and on interpersonal comparisons, with applications to problems of welfare evaluation.
(Work from this group contributes not only to the submission to the Philosophy UoA, but also to Economics and Politics.)
Taking our Research outside Philosophy
Our work contributes both to public policy and to the practices of the sciences, pure and applied. For instance, we organise a large number of lectures and seminars for and with practitioners (scientists, medics, those involved in setting policy, etc.) on such topics as the methodology and ethics of research on neglected diseases; drug abuse policy; the ethics and efficacy of randomized controlled trials; voting systems for the EU and USA; and intellectual property rights. There is a great deal of individual effort as well, such as Worrall’s work with medical practitioners on evidence-based medicine, Cartwright’s teaching on causality at the Oxford summer school for young econometricians and her contribution to US National Research Panels on evidence for social science and for social policy, and Bovens’ work with legal scholars on EU refugee policy. Bovens’ work on contraception and the status of the embryo was covered by the New Scientist and the New York Times.
Several major projects in CPNSS aim at the application of philosophy to policy: Darwin@LSE promotes understanding of evolutionary theory in policy debate; Science and Education contributes to policy debate on science education; and Voting Power and Practice promotes interaction between voting theorists and practitioners.
Contribution to the Profession
Members of the Department are active in supervising and examining PhD research in other institutions; in editing journals and refereeing articles, books and research proposals; in organizing conferences and workshops; in serving on scientific and management committees in the UK and abroad; and securing grants that support younger researchers. (More details in Esteem section.)
Research Management and Infrastructure
Our management strategy consists essentially in supporting to the fullest extent possible the research of departmental members (see Staffing Policy) and in creating a collaborative research environment that boosts the quality of individuals’ research.
Regular seminars are our main vehicle for structured research interaction, supplemented by conferences or workshops typically aimed at a wider audience. The seminars are of three basic types. The most general is the Department’s ‘Popper Seminar’ series, which draws speakers from inside the Department and out, with topics ranging across the main areas of research in the Department. This is attended by all academic staff, visiting researchers and research students. More narrowly focused are the seminars associated with the research groups described before and which are significant ‘generators’ of published research. Finally the Department runs a number of research seminars with the dual aim of initiating research on specific topics and providing PhD students with research training. There is, for instance, a regular research seminar in Philosophy of the Natural Sciences with input from other London philosophers and historians, such as Andrew Warwick (Imperial) and Hasok Chang (UCL).
CPNSS is a major contributor to the research environment at LSE and London more generally. It welcomes visiting researchers from all over the world, houses philosophical and scientific research projects, hosts a vigorous programme of talks and seminars (including those of national philosophical bodies, such as the British Society for Philosophy of Science and the new Society for Philosophy of Science in Practice) and publishes its own extensive series of discussion papers. CPNSS visitors contribute significantly to the research of our staff and provide additional supervision of research students. For instance, Elliott Sober came regularly to work on an AHRC-funded research project on causality with Worrall and Cartwright, and James Woodward to work on causality, not only influencing research publications but PhD dissertations as well.
The Department and CPNSS are housed together in their own building and between them they have a dedicated research seminar room and common rooms for visitors and research students. IT support and training is provided centrally, with a support team allocated to the Department. Library services are provided by the British Library for Political and Economic Science, the world’s largest social science library. It has a good philosophy collection and houses both the Lakatos Collection in philosophy of science and the Lakatos archive. Philosophy staff and students also have access to other libraries of the University of London, including the University of London Library at Senate House, which has extensive philosophy holdings. A full administrative and financial support service is provided by the Research and Project Development Division.
4. Staffing Policy
Sustaining our collaborative research culture and the quality of research that it yields is the main driver of our staffing policy. We hire on a permanent basis only those with a proven capability for research of the highest quality and who will either reinforce or extend existing research strengths. The LSE’s probation system is rigorous, involving interim and final (Major) reviews by a School-level committee which uses external referees as well as reading representative work. Success is substantially dependent on research quality. Contribution to research is also the most important factor in promotion decisions.
Research Support and Staff Development
Within both the Department and LSE there is a culture of commitment to developing people’s academic careers and provision of institutional support to address problems at an early stage. All staff below professorial grade (including those on fixed-term contracts) are mentored by a senior colleague with regular informal meetings to provide guidance on research as well as other aspects of academic work. In addition, all early career researchers have a formal annual Career Development Meeting with a senior member of staff where their research plans are discussed and any necessary support or training is identified. Thereafter such meetings are held every second year. The very rapid promotion of permanent members of the Department to senior rank points to the success of this policy, as does the fact that former fixed term members of the department have found good positions at the end of their term with us, e.g. at Kent, Vassar, Helsinki and Rotterdam.
Both LSE and the Department place great emphasis on supporting research. Induction for new staff includes a research briefing and staff can enhance skills through specialised courses provided by LSE’s Methodology Institute. Every member of staff is provided with research funding to hire research assistants and purchase equipment, with additional funding for conferences provided competitively. Staff are encouraged to apply for funding for their research projects and the Department strives to grant sufficient time away from other duties to pursue these projects. All academic staff at LSE are entitled to at least one term of sabbatical leave in every eight; more for those who hold major administrative posts. The Department employs a credit points system to ensure equity in the assignment of teaching and administrative duties, recognising that early career researchers should be given a lighter burden in their first few years.
Staff Recruitment and Departures
Over the last seven years we have succeeded in attracting top scholars, at all junctures in their careers and from a great variety of places. Retaining staff of this quality has proven more difficult and it is clear that the downside of our policy of hiring world-class researchers is that it makes us vulnerable to poaching by other institutions. Nonetheless, since the last RAE we have either maintained or increased our research strength in all our core areas.
- In philosophy of physics, Frigg and Hartmann were appointed (in 2004) to replace Callender and Hoefer. Redei, an established figure in the field, was recently hired to replace Hartmann.
- The appointment of Bovens (to replace McClennen in 2003) and Voorhoeve (in 2005) has strengthened our position in the philosophy of public policy and related aspects of political and moral philosophy.
- Alexander was hired in 2001 to strengthen our philosophy of social science programme.
5. Research Strategy
The Department has two primary comparative advantages: our internationally recognised tradition of research in the philosophy of science and our position in a prestigious school of social sciences with a culture of interdisciplinary research. Our research strategy is to maintain our historical strength in philosophy of science and to use it as a base upon which to develop new strengths in fields where we can expect significant synergies with research activity within LSE.
Elements of this strategy were declared in the RAE2001 and have been pursued with considerable success since then. Our strength in the philosophy of physics is undiminished and the Department can now claim to be a world leader in the philosophy of economics and social science. We have also developed the philosophy of public policy with the appointments of Bovens and Voorhoeve enabling us to connect policy orientated work in the philosophy of science, such as Cartwright and Worrall’s work on the use of evidence in policy, with the normative and choice-theoretic dimensions of public policy.
We now aim to reinforce these developments by exploiting further opportunities for research synergy within LSE. In particular, we intend to appoint another philosopher with policy interests and, jointly with the Government department, a political philosopher (the latter funded by a new undergraduate degree in politics and philosophy). These appointments will not only enhance current research in philosophy and public policy and social choice/normative economics, but will create the opportunity for new links with the Government department and their strong political theory group (some of whom already work with members of the Department).
Finally, we aim to maintain our current strength in general philosophy of science and both the ‘specialist’ areas of philosophy of physics and the philosophy of economics - essential we feel to maintaining our reputation as a premier philosophy of science department. In the longer term we would like to develop the philosophy of biology through an appointment that would complement existing projects in CPNSS and current research in the Department on socio-cultural evolution.
- Guest editor, special issues, Philosophy of Science (Proceedings of the 17th and 20th Biennial Meetings), 2001/2 and 2007/8
- Editor Economics and Philosophy, 2002-2007
- Guest Editor Synthese, 2007
- Reviews editor Economics and Philosophy, 2002-2007
- Subject sub-editor Philosophy Compass, 2005-
- Editor Economics and Philosophy, 1999-2003
- Editor Social Choice and Welfare, 1997-
- Guest editor, special issue Stud. Hist. and Phil. of Mod. Physics, 2007
- As above Theoria, March 2006
- As above Synthese, Forthcoming
- Co-editor of series Phil. and Found. of Physics (Elsevier)
- Joint editor Stud. Hist. and Phil. of Mod. Physics, Until 2001
- Consulting Editor Stud. Hist. and Phil. of Science
- Editorial Advisor British Journal for the Phil. of Sci.
- Consultant editor Episteme, 2006-
In addition, between them departmental members serve on the editorial board of 31 journals.
2. External Assessors and Examiners
We calculate that our five permanent senior staff have acted as external assessors on promotions and tenure decisions an average of seven times each during the period 2001-7, including for Chairs at Exeter, Michigan, Stanford and All Souls. Worrall was an external examiner at Oxford, Queen’s Belfast, Melbourne and Illinois, as well as Kings College London.
3. Honorary Positions and Presidencies
- President-elect of the Philosophy of Science Association (2009-2010)
- President-elect of the Pacific Division of the American Philosophical Association (2008-2009)
- Vice-President and President of the British Association for the Advancement of Science (2001-2003)
- Member, American Philosophical Society (2004- ). This is the oldest honorary society in the USA and Cartwright was one of only three philosopher members when elected.
- Associate member, Nuffield College (2002-)
- Foreign honorary member, American Academy of Arts and Science (2001-)
- Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher Leopoldina (The German Academy of Natural Science) (1999-)
- Fellow, British Academy (1996-)
- Elected to Council, Society for Social Choice and Welfare (2006-)
- President of the British Society for the Philosophy of Science (2003-2005)
4. Scientific and Management Committees
- Programme Committee Co-Chair for the 20th Biennial Meeting of the PSA (2006).
- Member of the Scientific Advisory Board of the Foundation for the Rights of Future Generations
- Member of the advisory board for the Witten Lectures in Philosophy of Economics (University of Witten/Herdecke)
- Member of the Management Committee, Institute of Philosophy, SAS, University of London
- Member of the Scientific Committee for the Department of Cognitive Studies, Ecole Normale Supérieure (2007- )
- Member, Institute of Philosophy’s advisory council (2006- )
- Chair, Management Committee, CPNSS (2003-2006)
- Chair of the Programme Committee for Philosophy of Science and Epistemology, Fourth European Congress for Analytic Philosophy (2002)
- Director/Chair, CPNSS (2001-)
- Member of the management committees of the Research Centre for Philosophy of Logic, Language, Mathematics and Mind, St Andrews (2003-8), the History and Economics centre, Cambridge, and of BIOS at LSE
- Member of two Standing Committees on Social Science Evidence for Use, U.S. National Research Council (2004-)
- Member of Temporary Steering Committee that established the European Philosophy of Science Association (2006)
- Member, International Coordinating Committee of the ESF-sponsored Network Project, Historical and Contemporary Perspectives of Philosophy of Science in Europe (2001-2003)
- Convenor of the ESF Scientific Network Philosophical and Foundational Problems of Modern Physics (2003-2005)
- Executive member of the Forum for European Philosophy
- Chair of the Comte Memorial Lecture committee (since 2005)
- Chair, International Management Committee, Lakatos Award (since 1995)
- Various Philosophy of Science Association committees, including Elected Member of the Nominating Committee (2001)
- Member, Inaugural Programme Committee, European Philosophy of Science Association, 2007
- Member, Jacobsen Committee, University of London (since 2000)
5. Visiting professorships
- Visiting Assistant Professor, Philosophy, Carnegie Mellon, 2003 and 2004
- Invited Visiting Fellow at the Research School of the Social Sciences, ANU, 2004
- Senior Visiting Fellow, Institute for Advanced Studies, Bologna, 2005
- Short Term Visiting Professor, Oslo University, 2001
- Visiting Professor, Philosophy, Barcelona, 2006-2007
- Elected research fellow, Argentinean Society for Philosophical Analysis, 2006
- Visiting Associate Professor, Logic and Philosophy of Science, UC Irvine, 2003
- Visiting Fellow, Konstanz, 2004
- Istvan Szechenyi Professorial Scholarship, 2003 and 2006.
- Donders Professor, History and Foundations of Mathematics and Science, Utrecht, 2006
- William Evans Visiting Fellowship, Otago, 2001
- Visiting Professor, Philosophy, Essex, 2004-
6. Research awards
- Awarded a 1m Sofja Kovalevskaja grant of the Alexander von Humboldt foundation to direct the research group ‘Philosophy, Probability and Modelling’, University of Konstanz, 2002-2005. The group had 27 doctoral students, post-docs and visitors.
- Principal investigator, NSF grant of the Science and Technology Section for the project ‘Bayesian Networks in Philosophy of Science and Epistemology’, 2000-2002
- Transcoop research grant (with Hartmann), German Academic Research Council, for the ‘Bayesian Networks in Philosophy of Science and Epistemology’ project, 2000-2002
- Research grant, ‘Evidence for Educational Policy’, Spencer Foundation, 2007
- Research co-director, ‘Contingency and Dissent in Science’, AHRC, 2005-2008
- Research grant, ‘Methods for Causal Inference: Status and Health’, British Academy, 2004-2005
- Research grant, ‘Biomedical Research: Towards a Well-Ordered Science’, Columbia-LSE Collaborative Research Fund, 2004-2005
- Research grant, ‘Causality’, Latsis Foundation, 2002-2005
- Research grant ‘Causal Pluralism and Causal Inference, with Applications to Health and Status’, NSF, 2003-2004
- Research grant, ‘A Defence of Scientific Theories as Tools’, New Del Amo Programme, UCSD/Universidad Compultense, 2002-2004
- Research Grant co-director, ‘Causality: Metaphysics and Methods’, AHRC, 2001-2004
The bulk of these research projects were designed to involve young researchers actively: three supported post-docs and five created groups of postgraduates to work on the project.
- Research grant, Dutch Science Foundation
- Sabbatical grant of the Spanish Ministry of Science and Education, 2006-2007
- Research grant (with José Díez, and Ulises Moulines), ‘Representation and Explanation in Science’, Spanish Ministry of Science and Education, 2006-2007
- British Academy grant, ‘Rational Choice Theory and Moral Decision Making’, 2007-2008
All members of the Department are frequently invited to give papers to seminars, workshops and conferences. Here we list only the more prestigious ones.
- Royal Economic Society, Summer School on Causality in Economics, 2005
- Bielefeld Pentecoste Lectures in Philosophy, Bielefeld, 2005
- Keynote lecture, Logic and Collective Decision Making 07, Lille, 2007
- Keynote lecture, Congress of the Association des Epidémiologistes de Langue Française, Toulouse, 2006
- Keynote lecture, ‘Human Development and Capabilities’ Congress, Paris, 2005
- Keynote lecture at SESAME, Aix-en-Provence, 2002.
- Special Lecture Series on Philosophy of Science, Ohio 2005 (this lecture series was established to bring to Ohio University each year “two of the very best philosophers of science of our time …”.)
- Pittsburgh Centre for Philosophy of Science, 40th Anniversary Public Lecture Series: ‘The International Impact of Philosophy of Science (Great Britain)’, 2002.
Both the Department and CPNSS receive a very large number of visitors (over 20/year) at all stages of their careers and for varying lengths of time. Regular visitors coming to work with members of the department include Dan Hausman, Elliott Sober and James Woodward (working on projects with Cartwright and Worrall), Mauricio Suarez (Cartwright and Frigg), Jossi Berkovitz, and Fred Kronz (Frigg), Ken Binmore (Voorhoeve), Philippe Mongin (Bradley), Claus Beisbart and Wlodek Rabinowicz (Bovens).
In this review period:
- Alexander was invited to contribute to The Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy (Evolutionary Game Theory), The Routledge Encyclopaedia of Philosophy (Game Theory), and the Blackwell Companion to the Philosophy of Biology (Cooperation).
- Frigg was invited to contribute to The Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy, The Routledge Encyclopaedia of Philosophy and The Routledge Encyclopaedia of the Philosophy of Science and to contribute to the new Compendium of Quantum Physics.
- Worrall was invited to do the entry on ‘Theory Change’ for the forthcoming Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Science and the lead article ‘Philosophy of Science: Classic Debates, Standard Problems, Future Prospects’ for the 2002 volume of The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Science. His paper ‘Structural Realism: the best of both worlds?’ was reprinted for a second time in the recent Blackwell Companion to Philosophy of Science.
- Cartwright’s How the Laws of Physics Lie was reproduced in Oxford Scholarship on Line, 2003 and was translated into Chinese.
- Howson’s elementary logic textbook was translated into Spanish and Serbo-Croat.
- Bovens and Hartmann’s book Bayesian Epistemology was translated into German and Bovens’ article ‘Two Faces of Akratics Anonymous’ was translated into German and included in T. Spitzley (ed.) Willensschwaeche, Mentis Paderbron.
- Bovens was invited to contribute to a collection of interviews with researchers in Philosophy of Probability Theory and Statistics edited by Alan Hájek and Vincent F. Hendricks