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University of Salford

UOA 58 - Linguistics

RA5a: Research environment and esteem


Linguistics research has been carried out in the European Studies Research Institute (ESRI) since its creation in 1992, and linguistics researchers contributed to the European Studies submissions to the last two RAEs, both of which received a 5A rating. Since 2001 the number of linguistics researchers has doubled: there have been 5 new appointments in linguistics and translation studies, including 3 early-career appointments, and the Centre for Research in Linguistics was created in ESRI in 2006. This Centre, which currently has 9.6 FTE members and 18 research students, provides a focus for research in both linguistics and translation studies and has made it possible to develop synergies between the two areas of research. The Centre is organized into two research groups (Translation Studies and Linguistics), with many of its activities involving researchers from both groups. This synergy is manifested in published outputs, international conference papers, and the Centre’s own seminars and conferences. Within the census period researchers have been involved in the organization of 4 international conferences, all of which have yielded edited volumes. At the same time, the Centre has developed a successful funding profile with 5 researchers securing externally funded research leave during the census period, including a British Academy Senior Research Fellowship and a Leverhulme Research Fellowship.

The commitment to the expansion of a postgraduate research community (68 students since 2001) is matched by a commitment to research training: in 2002 Salford led the bid to HEFCE (£44,996) which led to the first collaborative national research training programme for linguistics in the UK.  

The Centre’s priorities are to continue to develop its international profile through distinctive research collaborations in linguistics and translation studies, on the one hand, and formal semantics and relevance theoretic pragmatics, on the other; to build on successes in attracting external funding; and to pursue the expansion of a lively PG community with supervision in areas which reflect not just the research specialisms of individual members of the Centre, but also its potential for bringing these specialisms together.                                                                                                             


a. University Structure
The University of Salford manages its research through a series of multi-disciplinary Research Institutes comprised of active researchers, selected on the basis of their performance across a range of activities and monitored annually. The purpose of the Institutes is to stimulate a cohesive research strategy and to encourage research both within disciplines and across traditional boundaries. Each Research Institute has its own funding and administrative support. All researchers are also members of one of the University Schools. All Research Institutes form part of the Research and Graduate College (RGC) which has responsibility for all research and postgraduate activity in the University and determines overall research strategy.

b. The European Studies Research Institute (ESRI)
The Centre for Research in Linguistics is represented on the ESRI Board by the Director of the Centre, and the Centre Representative, who represents the views of the membership. The ESRI Board, which also includes the Postgraduate Director and a postgraduate representative, meets every six weeks to co-ordinate and oversee current activities and approve future strategy. ESRI’s budget comprises an annual QR-derived sum - used to facilitate conference participation and organization, seminar series and workshops, and the pump-priming of new projects - and non-HEFCE-generated income. The latter generated a surplus of some £200k towards the end of the census period, all of which was invested in financing additional research-active appointments, including two in linguistics.

c. Research Profile  
The Centre is divided into two research groups: Linguistics (Blakemore, Garcia-Alvarez, Hoffmann, Rowlett, Towell, Watson) and Translation Studies (Dickins, Hanna, Hubscher-Davidson, Salama-Carr). The bridge between the two is provided by Dickins, whose work in translation studies draws on functional linguistics; Watson, who has collaborated with Dickins in a number of publications, and Blakemore, who has expertise in the relevance-theoretic pragmatic framework which has been influential in translation studies research. The relationship between the two groups is reflected in their seminar series and activities outside the University (e.g. Blakemore’s participation as plenary speaker at the conference ‘Interpreting for Relevance’ (University of Warsaw 2006), Dickins’ and Watson’s collaboration with Retsö (
Göteborg) on Semitic relative clauses).

Within linguistics, established strengths in semantics and pragmatics (Blakemore), French syntax (Rowlett), sociolinguistics (Hoffmann) and second language acquisition (Towell) have been augmented through the recent appointment of Watson, who has brought an international reputation as a specialist in Arabic morphology, phonology and dialectology, and the early-career researcher, Garcia-Alvarez, whose research at the syntax-semantics interface complements Blakemore’s work on the semantics-pragmatics interface. Research in linguistics has attracted external recognition in the form of external funding, visiting lectureships, and invitations to international conferences:

  • Blakemore, whose research was supported in 2005-6 by a British Academy Senior Research Fellowship, was an invited speaker at the 2003 Georgetown Roundtable in Linguistics and the 2006 International Workshop on ‘Semantics, Pragmatics and Rhetoric’ in San Sebastian. She also led a bid worth £44,996 to the HEFCE Collaboration Programme in Modern Languages for the North West Centre for Linguistics Research Training Programmes held from 2002 - 4.             
  • Hoffmann, who received AHRC research leave funding for her work on multilingualism in 2003-4, was an invited lecturer at the 2001 LOT Graduate Summer School and a keynote speaker at the Spanish Association for Educational Research, San Sebastian, 2007.
  • Towell was a plenary speaker at a number of international conferences in 2006, including ‘Recherches en acquisition et en didactique des langues étrangères et secondes’, organized by Paris VIII and III, and the Association of French Language Studies conference on ‘The Advanced Language Learner’ at the University of Aston. He was an invited speaker at a conference organised by the MyDoCo research laboratory of Paris X, and at a conference on Fluency and Accuracy in Brussels in 2007.
  • Watson, whose research will be supported by a Leverhulme Fellowship for the period September 2007-8, was a Visiting Professor at the University of Heidelberg in 2003-4, and a Visiting Associate Professor at the University of Oslo in 2004-5


Researchers in linguistics have played a central role in the North West Centre for Linguistics of which Blakemore was President from 2001-5. In 2001 Salford hosted the 4th NWCL International Conference on the syntax, semantics and pragmatics of co-ordination (resulting in a special issue of Lingua co-edited by Blakemore and Carston), and Blakemore was co-organizer of the 6th NWCL Conference on ‘Prosody and Pragmatics’ held at the University of Central Lancashire in 2003 (resulting in a special issue of the Journal of Pragmatics co-edited by Wichmann and Blakemore). The Linguistics Group has also organized smaller-scale workshops, e.g. ‘Second Language Acquisition’ (February 2007) and ‘Relative Clauses in Semitic’ (April 2007). The latter involved Professor Retsö (Gothenburg) who visited the University as a CAMPUS Fellow in 2007. The proceedings of this workshop, which is part of a series of international workshops on Semitic morphology and syntax, will be published as part of a series Current Issues in the Analysis of Semitic Grammar and Lexicon (Harrassowitz Verlag).

Research in translation studies reflects the interdisciplinary nature of the subject and encompasses the semiotic aspects of translation (Salama-Carr), its linguistic aspects (Dickins), and its sociological and psychological aspects (Hanna and Hubscher-Davidson).
  • Salama-Carr,  whose research in genre and the history of translation has earned her an international reputation, has been a keynote speaker at major international translation studies conferences (including the 2004 Conference on ‘Translation and Development’, University of Ougadougou, Burkina Faso, and the 2003 conference ‘La traduction : de la théorie à la pratique et de la pratique à la théorie’ at the Université de Bretagne-Sud)  and was a Visiting Professor at the Sorbonne Nouvelle Paris III in 2003.
  • Dickins’ research on Standard and Sudanese Arabic brings together work in contrastive linguistics, lexicography and translation studies and was supported by a Leverhulme Research award from 2002-4.
  • Hanna, whose research applies sociological theory to the history of drama translation in Egypt, was a guest lecturer at Imperial College in 2006.
  • Hubscher-Davidsons research on ‘Think Aloud Protocols’ in the investigation of the role of personality and aptitude in translation has been awarded £2000 by the Subject Centre for Languages, Linguistics and Area Studies for a project linking her research to translator training.


The Translation Studies group organized the conference ‘Translation and Conflict’ in 2004 which resulted in the collection of essays, Translating and Conflict, edited by Salama-Carr. Building on this success, the ‘Translation and Conflict II’ conference was co-hosted by the University of Salford, the University of Manchester, and Kent State University, USA in Manchester in November 2006.

d. Research Income
Members of the Centre are encouraged to seek external funding for research projects, and receive advice on good bidding practice. During the census period members of the Centre generated a total of £58, 368 from outside sources. Of the more significant successes, Blakemore’s (2005) award of a British Academy Senior Research Fellowship (worth £30,162) for work on parentheticals has so far led to 4 published papers. Hoffmann was awarded an AHRC Research Sabbatical (worth £13,153) for her work on trilingualism in 2003, and Rowlett’s (2004) award of an AHRC Research Sabbatical (also worth £13,153) allowed him to complete his monograph on the syntax of French. In 2007 Watson received a Leverhulme Fellowship for the period 2007-8 for research on the endangered language Mehri.


a. Staff Research Support
At the University level, support is provided by the Research and Graduate College (RGC) in the form of the International Conference Fund and the Research Investment Fund, designed to support projects in new areas of research or to allow completion of research projects. The recently-opened £1.3 million Think Lab is a state-of-the-art facility for staff to engage in research supported by advanced Information and Communications Technology. The University funds the annual C
AMPUS Visiting Fellowships Scheme, which aims to attract distinguished international scholars to work with leading researchers at Salford and to help build research links between Salford centres and their counterparts elsewhere. The Linguistics Centre’s bid to this scheme in 2006 facilitated the 3-month visit of Professor Retsö (Gothenburg).
Within ESRI, the annual review of individual research output, which includes all recent research activity and targets, not only determines membership status, but also provides an incentive in that the grading system influences non-research workloads and access to research time.  ESRI provides support for conference participation and organization, seminar series and workshops, and the pump-priming of new projects. ESRI’s conference allowance reflects the importance it attaches to the development of early-career researchers’ careers: while regular members are entitled to an annual budget of £1000, early-career researchers have a budget of £2000.
b. Early-career Researchers
A mentoring system has ensured that the 3 early-career researchers (ECRs) are integrated into the Centre’s research culture. ECRs have presented papers at the Centre’s seminar series, and have sought external and internal funding to present papers at international and national conferences, including the LAGB, the Western Conference on Linguistics, and international translation conferences in Athens, Leiria, Zaragoza,
Saskatoon, Ljubljana, Cairo and Seoul. Both Hubscher-Davidson and Garcia-Alvarez have been awarded a two year Vice-Chancellor’s Research Scholarship, which supports novice researchers through a 20% research workload allocation, mentor support and a bursary of £2000 for research expenses.
c. Doctoral Students
The Linguistics Centre currently has 18 research students and recruited a total of 68 between 2001 and 2007. Fostering postgraduate research is a vital part of the Centre’s strategy, and postgraduate students within the Centre receive support at four levels: university, research institute, research centre and supervisory. Postgraduate support is underpinned by the use of the Learning Agreement which allows students and supervisors to establish their respective roles and their research training requirements. Formal mechanisms for monitoring research progress
(annual self-evaluation and progress reports, the interim assessment at the end of year 1 and internal evaluation at the beginning of year 3) are overseen by the RGC. The RGC, which co-ordinates postgraduate activities throughout the University, provides an induction course, which introduces students to the University–wide support mechanisms, and a series of follow-up workshops on topics such as ‘Getting Published’ and ‘Applying for Jobs’. The RGC also organizes a semesterly Salford Postgraduate Research Conference for students to practice disseminating their research to peers and staff. A website communication network informs students about events and gives them access to a postgraduate profile database. £27,000 from the Science trategic Research Investment Fund has been used for the provision of postgraduate offices (with computers) used by linguistics PGRs, and similar accommodation is provided in ESRI and the School of Languages. Within ESRI, the Associate Director is responsible for local postgraduate matters, and students have a personal tutor in addition to their supervisory team, all of whom have access to courses on postgraduate matters and HEFCE and Research Council requirements.

The RGC provides ESRI with 2 annual competitive Graduate Teaching Assistantships with full Research Council equivalent stipends. These allow students to carry out supervised undergraduate teaching and administrative duties, giving them experience of the academic profession. In addition to the generic research training provided by the RGC, and training modules in ESRI’s ESRC accredited M.Res., students have discipline-specific training provided by the Centre for Linguistics. From 2001-04, linguistics postgraduates were able to attend the HEFCE funded North West Centre for Linguistics Research Training Programmes, and a translation studies postgraduate received funding from the British Centre for Literary Translation to attend a Summer School in 2004.

Postgraduates have free access to all ESRI conferences and seminars. They
run and participate in an interdisciplinary seminar series and an annual Postgraduate Conference. ESRI funding encourages students to deliver papers at conferences outside the university, including national Linguistics postgraduate conferences, the Dublin City University Postgraduate Conference in Translation Studies and the Graduate Conference ‘Crossing Places’ at the University of Nottingham. Students have also been encouraged to submit papers to mainstream journals. This strategy has led to the following achievements:
  • In linguistics Watson’s student (Asiri) has given a paper at the 2006 AIDA conference in Vienna, and a joint paper with Watson at the 2007 International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (Saarbrucken). His paper, ‘Aspects of the phonology and morphology of the dialect of Rijal Alma'a’ is to be published in the Proceedings of the Association Internationale de Dialectologie Arabe. Blakemore’s student (Sasamoto) delivered a paper at the 2006 Oxford postgraduate conference and Hoffmann’s student (Cohen) delivered a paper at the Language Acquisition and Bilingualism Conference (Toronto 2006).  
  • In translation studies postgraduates have given papers at international translation conferences in Sfax, Tunisia (2005), San Diego, USA (2006), Florida State University (2006), Heriot-Watt (2005), Westminster (2006) and Cape Town (2006).  Salama-Carr’s student (Tipton) has published a paper, ‘Making sense of it all: public service interpreters as reflec(x)tive practitioners?’, in Forum (4.2, 139-162).


The Centre follows a strategy in which expertise in Arabic linguistics, semantics and pragmatics is exploited in order to develop distinctive research collaborations between linguistics and translation studies, on the one hand, and formal semantics and relevance theoretic pragmatics, on the other. Research collaboration with colleagues outside the university continues to be encouraged. At the same time, individual researchers are encouraged to build on existing research projects or to seek funding for new ones, and to disseminate their work through participation in workshops, international conferences and publication. The support which is provided for conference organization will ensure that Salford continues to play an important role in hosting conferences and seminars in linguistics and translation studies. The mentoring system and the support provided for postgraduate students will ensure that early-career researchers and postgraduate students will be involved in projects which are developed within the Centre and in Centre activities. The aim in the next 5 years is to use the opportunities created by new appointments to develop projects in the following areas:
  • The interface between semantics/pragmatics and translation studies: Blakemore will work with researchers in translation studies in seeking funding for a collaborative project on discourse markers which uses translation as a testing ground for the distinction she has developed between procedural and conceptual linguistic meaning.
  • Arabic linguistics and translation studies:  The visit of Professor Retsö (Gothenburg) provides the basis for a collaboration involving Watson, Dickins and Retsö on relative clauses in Semitic. At the same time, Watson’s funding for research on the endangered language Mehri will yield publications on the its phonology, Mehri relative clauses, and its relationship to other Semitic languages, in particular Ancient South Arabian, Ethiopic Semitic, Arabic and other Modern South Arabian languages.
  • The semantics/pragmatics interface: The appointment of Garcia-Alvarez, whose work on the semantics of exceptives intersects with Blakemore’s British Academy project on parentheticals, has created the possibility of joint work at the semantics-pragmatics interface which will focus on aspects of non-compositional meaning, including parentheticals, expressives and DP adjuncts.   


a.  Substantial Recognition of Work
  • Blakemore has contributed chapters to D. Schiffrin et al (eds.) Handbook of Discourse Analysis (2001) and L. Horn and G. Ward (eds.) Handbook of Pragmatics (2003).
  • Blakemores research on the procedural meaning was recognized by the inclusion of an entry ‘Procedural and Conceptual Meaning’ in the Encyclopaedia of Language and Linguistics (Elsevier 2005).
  • Towell was invited to act as joint editor of special numbers of Transactions of the Philological Society 102.2 (Blackwell 2004) and the Journal of French Language Studies (CUP 2004).
  • Watson’s research was the subject of a review article in Arabica 50.3 (July 2003), pp 410-413 by Catherine Miller.
  • Hubscher-Davidsons paper ‘Translator behaviour: personality features as an integral part of the translation process’ was translated into Greek in Sidiopoulou (ed.) Metafrastikes Optikes, University of Athens (ISBN 978 960 8424 34 0).
b. Academic Honours, Fellowships
  • Blakemore was awarded a British Academy Senior Research Fellowship, 2006-7.
  • Watson was awarded a Leverhulme Research Fellowship in 2007 for 2007-8.


c. Visiting Professorships, Lectureships
  • Salama-Carr was Visiting Professor at the Sorbonne Nouvelle Paris III in 2003.
  • Dickins was visiting lecturer in Heidelberg in 2003-4.
  • Hoffmann and Blakemore were lecturers at the 2001 LOT Graduate Summer School at the University of Utrecht .
  • Watson was Visiting Professor at the University of Heidelberg (2003-4), Visiting Associate Professor at the University of Oslo (2004-5), and Visiting Scholar at the University of Heidelberg (2006).
d. Conference Participation
Invited Participation
  • Blakemore was guest speaker at the following: Georgetown Roundtable in Linguistics (2003); ‘Colloque Interfaces Pragmatiques’ (Geneva, 2004); 3rd International Workshop on ‘Semantics, Pragmatics and Rhetoric’ (San Sebastian, 2005); Workshop on ‘The Pragmatics of Poetic Communication’ (Paris, 2006).
  • Hoffmann was guest speaker at ‘Migration and Multilingualism’ (University of Bolzano, 2007).
  • Salama-Carr was guest speaker at the following: International Conference ‘La Traduction: de la théorie à  la pratique et de la pratique à la théorie’ (Université de Bretagne-Sud, France, 2003) ; ‘Translation theories East West’ (UCL/SOAS, 2003) ; ‘Autour de la traductologie’, (Ecole Doctorale de Paris III, 2002);  ‘Langues et Cultures en Contact’ (Université d’Artois, France 2001).
  • Towell was invited speaker at ‘L’intercompréhension en Europe’ (MyDoCo research laboratory of Paris X, 2006) and at the University of Barcelona (December 2007).
  • Watson was invited speaker at ‘The Semitic Morphology Workshop’ (Oslo, 2005); ‘The Semitic Morphology and Grammar Workshop’ (Istanbul, 2005) and ‘The Arabs: origins and identities’ (British Museum, 2004).
Keynote/Plenary Addresses at Conferences
  • Blakemore was plenary speaker at ‘Interpreting for Relevance’, (University of Warsaw, 2006).
  • Hoffmann was keynote speaker for the Spanish Association for Educational Research (University of the Basque Country, San Sebastian, 2007).
  • Salama-Carr was plenary speaker at the conference on ‘Translation and Development’ (University of Ougadougou, Burkina Faso, 2004).
  • Towell was plenary speaker at the following: Association of French Language Studies conference (University of Aston, 2006); ‘Recherches en acquisition et en didactique des langues étrangères et secondes’, (Paris VIII and Paris III, 2006); ‘Fluency and Accuracy’ (Brussels, March 2007).
Refereed International Papers
  • Garcia-Alvarez was a speaker at ‘Linguistic Perspectives on Numerical Expressions’ (University of Utrecht, 2004); ‘The Western Conference on Linguistics’ (California State University, 2006).
  • Hanna was a speaker at ‘The International Conference on Translation and Cultural Interaction’ (Cairo, 2004).
  • Hubscher-Davidson was a speaker at the 2007 Canadian Association for Translation Studies’ annual conference (Saskatoon, Canada); the 5th European Society for Translation Studies conference (University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, 2007).


e. International Collaboration
  • Hoffmann has collaborated with J. Ytsma (Fryske Academy, Leeuwarden, The Netherlands) in editing Trilingualism in Family, School and Community (Multilingual Matters); and with A. Stavans (Jerusalem) in research presented at the 4th International Conference on ‘Third Language Acquisition and Multilingualism’, Switzerland, 2005.
  • Salama-Carr was a member of the Advisory Board for the International conference on ‘The Theory & Practice of Translation’ (Université de Bretagne Sud, France, 2003); the Advisory Board for the International conference on ‘Qu'est-ce que la traductologie’ (Université d'Artois, France, 2002); conference advisory board for ‘International Translation & Development’ (University of Ougadougou, Burkina-Faso, 2004).
  • Hanna was a member of the international organizing committee for the conference on ‘Translation and the Construction of Identity’ (Seoul, 2004).
  • Watson has collaborated with C. Miller (Aix-en-Provence), D. Caubet (CNRS) and E. Al-Wer (Essex) in the ‘Arabic Urban Vernaculars’ project (established in 2002 and funded by EU) which has yielded an edited book Arabic in the City (Routledge). She was also a member of the British Academy funded Razihi language project (2005-6) with S. Weir (SOAS), B. Glover-Stalls (University of Southern California), K. al-Razihi (Yemen).
f.  Editorial Roles
  • Blakemore is co-editor of Lingua; Rowlett is co-editor of Transactions of the Philological Society.
  • Members of the Centre are members of the following editorial boards: Mind and Language (Blakemore); Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies (Watson); International Journal of Multilingualism, (Hoffmann); International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism (Hoffmann); Estudios de Sociolinguistica (Hoffmann); The Translator (Salama-Carr); Forum-International Journal of Interpretation and Translation (Salama-Carr); Iranian Quarterly Journal of Translation Studies (Salama-Carr); Journal of French Language Studies (Rowlett); International Review of Applied Linguistics (Towell); Language Teaching Research (Towell up to 2006); Second Language Research (Towell from 2006).
  • Blakemore is a member of the editorial board for the book series Studies in Pragmatics (Elsevier).
  • Rowlett is editor of the book series Publications of the Philological Society.
  • Watson is a member of the editorial board for Proceedings of the Seminar in Arabian Studies (Archaeopress).


g. Refereeing  
Members of the Centre have acted as referees for the following journals:
Applied Linguistics (Towell); Phonetica (Watson); Phonology (Watson); Journal of the International Phonetic Association (Watson); Morphology (Watson); Lingua (Garcia-Alvarez, Rowlett); Journal of Linguistics (Rowlett); English Language and Linguistics (Blakemore, Rowlett); Journal of Pragmatics (Blakemore); Journal of French Language Studies (Rowlett); Word (Dickins); International Journal of Applied Linguistics (Dickins); International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism (Dickins); International Journal of Bilingualism (Hoffmann); Studies in Second Language Acquisition (Towell); Target (Dickins); Journal of Semitic Studies (Salama-Carr); Across Languages and Cultures (Salama-Carr); The Translator (Hanna).

Members of the Centre have acted as referees for the following publishers:
Oxford University Press (
Hoffmann, Rowlett, Watson); Curzon Press (Watson); Cambridge University Press (Blakemore, Dickins, Hoffmann, Rowlett); Edinburgh University Press (Hoffmann); Edward Arnold (Hoffmann, Rowlett); Routledge (Dickins, Hoffmann, Rowlett, Salama-Carr, Watson); Multilingual Matters (Hoffmann).

Members of the Centre have refereed grant applications to the AHRB/C (Blakemore, Salama-Carr, Hoffmann, Rowlett, Watson); the Leverhulme Trust (Blakemore; Dickins); the British Academy (Hoffmann, Rowlett, Salama-Carr, Towell); ESRC (Towell), Social Sciences & Humanities Research Council of Canada (Hoffmann). Towell was a member of Panel 5 of the AHRB/C from 2001 to 2006.

h.  Professional Service to Subject Community
  • Rowlett represented Linguistics on the Executive Committee of the University Council of Modern Languages; is Chair of the Linguistics Specialist Group of the Higher Education Academy Subject Centre for Languages, Linguistics and Area Studies; Chair of the Linguistics Strategy Group; and is a member of the LAGB Education Committee. He was Treasurer for the University Council of Modern Languages until 2006.
  • Blakemore was President of the North West Centre for Linguistics and Director of the (HEFCE funded) NWCL Research Training Programmes (2001 – 2005) which attracted 236 PG students from 37 different HE institutions.


i. External Assessor for Chair Appointments, Departmental Reviews
  • Blakemore was external assessor for a chair at the University of Manchester, 2004.
  • Hoffmann was assessor for a chair in Applied Linguistics, University of Innsbruck, 2006.
  • Rowlett was external assessor for the review of the Department of Linguistics and English Language at the University of Durham, 2002.
  • Towell was external assessor for chairs at the Open University, Heriot Watt, and Newcastle.
  • Watson was external assessor for a chair appointment at the University of Oslo, 2006.


j.  External Examining for Research Degrees
Members of the Centre have examined research degrees at the following institutions: Bangor (Towell); Cambridge (Blakemore); University College London (Blakemore, Rowlett); SOAS (Dickins, Watson);  Newcastle (Blakemore, Dickins, Watson); Heriot-Watt (Dickins, Salama-Carr); Edinburgh (Dickins); UMIST (Dickins, Salama-Carr); Manchester (Blakemore, Salama-Carr); Bedfordshire (Hoffmann); Essex (Watson); Huddersfield (Watson); Exeter (Watson); Reading (Towell); University of East Anglia (Salama-Carr); Sorbonne Paris III (Salama-Carr); Gothenburg (Watson).