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City University, London
UOA 63 - Art and Design
RA5a: Research environment and esteem
RA5a Research environment
The Department of Cultural Policy and Management (CPM) has, under a new Head of Department (Selwood), revised its research strategy; radically redesigned its taught courses (thereby creating more dedicated staff time for research); introduced a new professorial team (including Hewison, Holden and Oakley) and established a number of external partnerships. These steps have helped this small, postgraduate department (which pioneered arts and cultural management courses in HEIs some thirty years ago) to raise its research profile, increase its research capacity and create new opportunities for joint and interdisciplinary research.
CPM’s research principally interrogates the relationship between culture, policy and management from the complementary perspectives of pure and applied research, and from historical and contemporary standpoints. Research effort focuses on access and education; urbanism; the politics of heritage; the cultural economy and entrepreneurship; and the management and governance of the creative and cultural sectors (ranging from continuing professional development to the protection of cultural property in the event of armed conflict). It also encompasses studies of ‘representation’ in art galleries and museums, and the cultural politics of identity.
Research outputs are typically analytic and intentionally interventionist: intended to make a difference to the development and practice of current cultural policy, they are often targeted at, if not commissioned by, those working in public bodies.
A close relationship with the end users of research – principally those working within the subsidised cultural sector – is prioritised. Work is deliberately relevant to our sectors, as identified through consultation, knowledge transfer programmes, membership of advisory groups, professorial and other associates and guest speakers.
CPM’s research strategy 2001-2006 had five main objectives, all of which have been delivered:
• To appoint a new research chair to seek out, lead and supervise research and to enable us to engage more with the creative industries;
• To undertake work that illuminates and informs decision-making and policy- making;
• To maintain the Department’s academic independence and unique ability to combine a humanities and critical tradition with business and management approaches;
• To engage in a range of research, at student and staff level, that describes, illustrates and serves the sector and its needs;
• To ensure that all academic staff are engaged in near-to-sector research.
• Mounted programmes of public events, including: The Balkans under Construction, 2006, supported by London Centre for Arts and Cultural Enterprise (LCACE) and Appollonia, Brussels, which generated a special issue of Third Text (co-edited by Steyn and PhD student, Avgita); a major conference, Researching Festival Economies and Festival Futures, Autumn 2007; two seminar series co-hosted with the University of East London; Women at the Top, 2007, a conference co-hosted with the Treasury-funded Cultural Leadership Programme and introduced by the Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport.
• Appointed a new professorial team largely drawn from think-tanks (Policy Studies Institute and Demos) with a considerable track record of sector-specific applied research for key agencies and policymakers.
• Improved student research support; established inter-school seminars; established a national students’ conference and ejournal (see below).
• Encouraged the development of a research culture through journals, symposia etc (see below).
CPM has increased research capacity by:
• Appointing two Honorary Visiting Senior Research Fellows who advise on funding applications and research proposals.
• Developing supervision capacity internally and through other departments.
• Exploiting the research potential of its two knowledge-transfer programmes.
• Attracting research funding from a variety of sources including EU, LCACE, Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS), National Museum Directors’ Conference (NMDC) and the Theatrical Management Association (including non-submitted staff). Applications during 2006/7 and 2007/8 include those to The Andrew W Mellon Foundation, JISC, AHRC and the EU.
Joint and inter-disciplinary research
• The Department’s research remit extends beyond Art & Design to embrace Art History, Museology and Anthropology. Frost’s work in particular has contributed to securing an interdisciplinary and critical ethos. Although her submitted publications reflect her long-term interest in Indonesia, community and environmental politics, her PhD and work undertaken on behalf of CPM (including conference papers yet to be published) reveal her current interests in minority cultural politics and the economics of community cultural festivals. The Department’s visiting scholars also contribute to its cross-disciplinary ethos.
CPM has developed a number of other opportunities for joint and inter-disciplinary research through partnerships with:
• The School of Arts - on series such as ‘Bloody Terrorists’: Terrorism in Context, 2007, conceived with Ziauddin Sardar, Visiting Professor in the School of Arts.
• Other City departments. Frost and Oakley are collaborating with the Centre for Food Policy on a potential research collaboration around regeneration centering on food and culture; a project on cultural sector governance is being pursued with the Centre for Charity Effectiveness, Cass Business School.
• Colleagues from other universities. Selwood has established joint seminars with the Department of Sociology, University of Oxford, and the International Centre for Cultural and Heritage Studies, University of Newcastle. Her joint research applications include those with Trinity College, Dublin and the School of Management, Bradford University, and a current proposal with the Institute of Historical Research, University of London.
• Colleagues in publicly-funded cultural organisations. Funding applications are being explored with the National Portrait Gallery and the Whitechapel Art Gallery.
Support and training for research staff
Individuals’ research performance is considered within the annual appraisal cycle. Research and scholarship constitute the first element of the University’s ‘RATE’ criteria for promotion.
Support and training are provided both centrally and locally:
• The University Academic Practice Programme supports academic colleagues at all stages and across all facets of their research careers.
• Research time is allocated through sabbatical leave and earmarked time during term. Since 2001 both Steyn and Woollard have taken sabbaticals.
• Academics newly embarking on research student supervision are supported by working alongside a more experienced supervisor and mentoring by the Senior Tutor for Research.
• CPM staff seminars, including a 2006 series on the creative industries.
• Financial support for conference attendance.
• The proposal that from 2007/8, staff will undertake placements in cultural sector organisations as part of their continuing professional development. These are also expected to prompt new research projects and partnerships.
Outcomes not referred to in RA2 or elsewhere
Boylan’s numerous articles and chapters include those in the Boletin del Instituto del Patrimonio Historic (Sevilla, 2001); Cultural Heritage (Madrid, 2002); publications by ENCAT (2003); in H Schupbach (ed) Kulturguterschutzbetrifft uns alle! (Bern: Bundesamt fur Belvolkerungsschults, Kulturguterscultz, 2003); I Robertson (ed) Understanding International Art Markets and Management (London: Routledge, 2005); H Genoways (ed) Museum Philosophy for the 21st century (2007); SJ MacDonald (ed) Blackwell Companion to Museum Studies (Blackwell, 2007).
Frost’s commissioned publications include: ‘Waging peace in Maluku: civil society on the frontline’, Latitudes 17 (2002); Indonesia: A Country Profile (Oxfam GB, 2002); ‘What’s Australian for Es Cendol?’, Inside Indonesia 77 (2004); ‘Maluku’ in and ‘Toes in the Sand. How Things Change by Jonathan Nanlohy’, Left Curve (2005) ‘Maluku’ in The Greenwood Encyclopaedia of World Folklore and Folklife (Westport CT: Greenwood Press, 2006). She has presented papers at international conferences hosted by the Universities of Sydney, Hawaii, Keele, and the Royal Anthropological Institute, and in 2006 at the conference of the European Association of Social Anthropologists and at Rethinking Economies, an ESRC-funded seminar series, Goldsmiths College.
Hewison, in addition to co-authoring a history of the Gulbenkian Foundation, Experience and Experiment with Holden, has contributed essays on Ruskin to Victor Hugo et le débat patrimonial (Paris: Somogy, 2003) and Ruskin's Struggle for Coherence (Cambridge Scholars Press, 2007). He chaired the Ruskin To-Day conference, There Is No Wealth But Life and edited the pre-conference papers (Ruskin Foundation, 2006). With Holden, he designed the Clore Leadership Programme (see The Clore Leadership Programme Final Report, Clore Duffield Foundation 2002) and co-wrote The Right To Art (Demos/The Visual Arts and Galleries Association, 2004); Valuing Heritage (Demos, 2004); Challenge and Change: Heritage Lottery Fund and Cultural Value (HLF, 2004).
Holden's commissioned publications and reports include Hitting the Right Note (DfES/Paul Hamlyn Foundation, 2005); The Throne of Weapons (British Museum, 2006); 'The Cultural Value of Tate Modern' in Tate Modern: the First Five Years (2005); The Big Picture (Demos/UK Film Council, 2006); Culture Online (Demos 2007); Publicly Funded Culture and the Creative Industries (Demos/Arts Council England, 2007); Funding Decentralisation in the UK Cultural Sector (Arts & Business, 2007); Useful and Suggestive (V&A, 2007).
Major pieces by Oakley include ‘Local Knowledge. The Development of Policy as a Shared Narrative’ in The Adaptive State (Demos, 2003); ‘Highway to democr@cy: The Council of Europe and the Information Society’ (Council of Europe Publishing, 2003); Queensland Music Industry Trends: Independence Day? with Abraham Ninan and Greg Hearn (Queensland University of Technology, 2004); and, ‘Citizenship and the Information Society’ in M Alexandra Cunha, K Frey and F Duarte (eds) Governança local e as tecnologias de informação e comunicação (Champagnat, Curitiba, 2007) and London’s Creative Economy: An Accidental Success? with John Knell (Work Foundation, 2007).
Selwood’s articles have appeared in both academic and professional journals: spiked (2002 and 2006); Critical Quarterly (2002); Curator (2006) and Futures (2007). Since 2004 she has been a regular contributor to Museums Journal. Chapters have appeared in N Horlock (ed) Testing the Water (Tate Gallery & Liverpool University Press, 2001); C Painter (ed) Contemporary Art and the Home (Berg, 2002); M Mirza (ed) Culture Vultures (Policy Exchange, 2006). Recent commissions include Public Funding, Private Contributions and A&B (Arts & Business, 2007).
Steyn’s essays include ‘From Masculinity to Androgny’, The Whitechapel Art Gallery Centenary Review (2001); ‘Strong Light, Dark Shadow’, review of Norman G Finkelstein’s Holocaust Industry: Reflections on the Exploitation of Jewish Suffering, Third Text (2001); ‘Inciting Romanticism’ (with Richard Appignanesi) in The Impossible Project (Black Dog, 2003) and ‘One Enchanted Evening the Future will become the Past’, Museum of Garden History (Black Dog, 2004); ‘A Chance Encounter: the Subject of Museum Practices’, Third Text (2004); ‘Realism versus Realism in British Art of the 1950s', special issue of Third Text on British Art (2007).
Research projects not completed within the publication period include:
Selwood’s entry on ‘Impact assessment of cultural institutions’ for the Encyclopedia of Library and Information Sciences (Taylor & Francis, 2008); chapters for A Pratt and P Jeffcutt (eds) Creativity and Innovation in the Cultural Economy (Routledge, 2008); B Biggs (ed) Art in a City Revisited (Liverpool University Press, 2008) and on national cultural policies for the Institut national de la recherche scientifique and the Ministère de la Culture, Quebec (2008).
Hewison’s Venice and Ruskin (Yale University Press, 2009).
Holden's Culture and Learning for Demos/Clore Foundation (2008).
Boylan’s History of the Evolution of the Concept and Practice of Museum Ethics (ICOM, 2008) and his review of intellectual property rights of indigenous peoples, in cooperation with the UN’s Intellectual Property Organisation.
Membership of Research Council panels or other peer review bodies:
Selwood and Steyn: AHRC Peer Review College.
Selwood and Holden:AHRC Knowledge and Evaluation Committee (Selwood was also Deputy Chair).
Boylan: Mediterraneum: Tuta e valorizzazione dei beni culturi e ambientali (Napoli) and the cultural heritage research boards of the Universities of Girona, Spain, and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Oakley: Games and Culture; A Journal of Interactive Media.
Steyn: Art History.
Keynote addresses include:
Boylan: over 20 global or regional intergovernmental conferences on cultural heritage protection law and practice for UNESCO, European Union, Council of Europe.
Holden: Australia Academy of the Humanities and the inaugural lecture of the New Zealand Academy of the Humanities (2005); the Welsh Arts Council and the Wallace Foundation, Chicago (2006); Istanbul Culture and Cities Conference, (2007); Arts and Regeneration Conference, Sheffield (2007). Also fringe meetings at party conferences of the Conservatives (2006, 2007), Liberal Democrats (2006) and Labour (2005, 2006).
Oakley: Citizenship in the Information Society Seminar, Brazil (2001); Digital Europe Conference, Venice (2003); Creative Clusters, Brighton (2004); Speculation and Innovation Conference, Queensland and Creative Capital series, Perth (2005); South West Museums, Libraries and Archives Council; Annual Forum, Berlin-Brandenburg in Europe Symposium, Berlin and “Going global - why 'creative industries'”, Ulster (2006).
Selwood: international conferences organised by the Centro Affari E Convegni, Arezzo and the Smithsonian Institution, Washington (2001); Johns Hopkins University, Washington DC (2005); Museums Australia and The Powerhouse, Sydney (2004).
Boylan: formerly Visiting Professor at Buckingham; Manchester and Federal University of Rio de Janeiro.
Hewison: Honorary Professor, Lancaster University.
Oakley: Adjunct Professor, Faculty of Creative Industries, Queensland University of Technology.
Research boards and committees (recent/current):
Boylan: research and steering committees of European Union regional programmes for Latin America & Caribbean, the Balkans, and the Mediterranean and Near East, and the Council of Europe's major Heritage of European Universities study.
Holden: invited to join the assessment panel for workshops for the AHRC's Knowledge and Evaluation Committee.
Selwood: English Heritage Research Advisory Council; Greater London Authority Economics Research Advisory Board and the Board of Arts Research Digest. Chairing the Review of Renaissance in the Regions (MLA, 2007-8).
Steyn: Trustee of the Pier Trust until 2005.
National and international committee memberships:
Boylan: Honorary Member of ICOM, Chair of its Legal Affairs Committee and formerly President of its International Committee for the Training of Personnel.
Hewison: board member (and acting chair) of National Student Drama Festival; Trustee of Ruskin Foundation.
Selwood: Museums Association Governing Bodies Forum; Arts Research Digest; National Portrait Gallery and Museums, Libraries and Archives Council. Was on National Committee UNESCO UK (representing Royal Statistical Society).
Woollard: Council of Museums Association; advisory panel for museums and heritage sector of Creative and Cultural Industries Sector Skills Council; Board of Group for Education in Museums.
Boylan: Editor in Chief of annual International Journal of the Intangible Heritage. Frost: edited special issue of Anthropology in Action (2003).
Selwood: Editor, Cultural Trends.
Steyn: edited special issues of Third Text and Futures (2006, 2007).
See ‘Intellectual Infrastructure’ below.
Individual UK consultancies include:
Boylan: National Audit Office.
Holden: DCMS Public Libraries Foresight document; the Reading Agency; Clore Foundation and Royal Shakespeare Company (with Hewison).
Oakley: policy advisor to DCMS Creative Economy Review; London Development Agency, NESTA, City & Guilds and Creative Partnerships.
Selwood: Tate; MLA; HLF.
International consultancies include:
Boylan: World Bank, European Union, UNESCO, British Council, National Audit Office, the governments of France, Serbia, Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Oakley: Australia Council, Australian Film Commission.
Category B staff
Robertson co-edited and contributed to Understanding International Art Markets and Management (Routledge, 2005) and the forthcoming Arts Business (Routledge, 2007). He contributes regularly to The Art Newspaper and Taiwanese and Korean trade papers, and has written introductions to the catalogues of British Council exhibitions in China and Korea. Was an expert witness to the cross-party examination of droite de suite, 2005.
CPM’s research is supported by a unique repository containing over 6,000 items, mainly comprising ‘grey’ literature, believed to be the largest specialist cultural policy resource in the UK and the second largest in Europe. Strongly praised in CPM’s 2005 Periodic Programme Review, the collection is staffed by a professional librarian and is continually added to.
It is intended to make this resource more physically and virtually accessible to external readers. In late 2008 it will move to a £3.2m refurbished premises (funded by the Saad Group), with improved facilities for staff and students. A funding application for the comprehensive collective digitization of its and other university holdings is under development. The Department’s widely-consulted, on-line Cultural Policy and Management Information Service is currently being reconstructed.
The coherence of the Department’s research interests have enabled it to construct teams to undertake such collective projects as the Creative Industries Mapping Document, DCMS, 2001 and Museum learning: strategic opportunities in relation to government, for NMDC, 2006.
Support and training for research students
In July 2007, 22 research students were registered for MPhils and PhDs, including 12 ‘writing up’.
The University provides an induction for research students. Research training is provided both centrally and locally.
Since 2006, the Research Students’ Focus Group has been enhanced by conversion into the regular cross-school, inter-disciplinary Arts Research Seminar Series.
In addition to the resource centre, the University Library and the Cass Business School Library, students are within a few miles of some of the world’s leading arts and cultural resources. A more formal relationship with the nearby InIVA (Institute of International Visual Arts) is being brokered which will grant students free access to a major holding of cultural studies.
The student ejournal, Cultural Policy, Criticism and Management (http://www.city.ac.uk/cpm/ejournal/ejournal_june2007.html) was relaunched in 2007, featuring work by students from CPM and elsewhere. Two issues include papers from the 2006 CPM Award Lecture and papers based on presentations given at the annual student conference, Revealing All, launched in 2006.All papers are peer-reviewed.
Students have a good record of being awarded funding from the AHRC’s Professional Preparation Master's Scheme. Research was a vital component of two of CPM’s MA students being awarded ‘best in University’ awards, 2005/6.
Research students are encouraged to lecture, contribute to conferences, publish and undertake other research activities. Examples include Bouniss presenting his work in Latvia; at the Ename Centre, Ghent; chairing and giving papers at the MacDonald Institute of Archaeology, Cambridge University; and contributing to the Journal of Intangible Heritage. Quigg has published in the International Journal of Cultural Management; Komninou has lectured at the Universities of Leicester, Cardiff and Luxembourg and published in Futures, Third Text and Arts & Artists. Avgita co-edited a special edition of Futures with Steyn and gave papers at Migrations, University of Reading, the Internationales Forschungszentrum Kulturwissenschaften, Vienna; Forum: European Cultural Exchanges and Art History Conference, Athens.
Knowledge transfer programmes
The Department generated £35,500, with another £18,000 anticipated, for the analysis of the Theatrical Management Association’s data. Both knowledge transfer programmes, Celebrating Enterprise and Cultural Leadership, have contributed to CPM’s research culture, generating approximately £134,600 of research income. The former has a dedicated visiting professor (Oakley) and an early career researcher (Frost), and coordinates a cluster of research activities, including detailed ethnographic work, around the theme of festivals and entrepreneurship.
Frost and Oakley’s early research findings have been presented at the conferences of: Association for Social Anthropologists; British Sociological Association; Centre for Ethnic Entrepreneurship and Management, Bradford University School of Management; European Sociological Association Sociology of the Arts Network (Germany); and the Nordic Geographers’ Meeting (Norway). In Autumn 2007, CPM was shortlisted for an EU FP7 Marie Curie Training Networks grant to support nine early career researchers working on cultural and creative sector research.
Cultural Leadershipwill have made two research funding applications to AHRC in 2007: one, in partnership with the School of Management, Bradford University, focuses on a detailed examination of the position of women in the cultural sector; the other focuses on issues of governance.
CPM actively engages in national and international networks, contributing to recruitment of research students and ability to supervise research with international content.
The Department has established a UK Cultural Policy and Management Network with the Drama Department, Goldsmiths (http://www.ukcpmn.ac.uk/) and start-up funding from LCACE. This embraces academic and student networks and conferences.
CPM is an active member of the AIMAC research network (Association Internationale de Management de la Culture des Arts): a member of staff sits on the Scientific Committee. Both staff and students attend and present at the biennial international conferences.
As a founding member of ENCATC (European Network of Cultural Administration Training Centres), CPM was represented on the governing committee until 2005. ENCATC encourages research into teaching methodologies and effective institutional inter- and cross-national awareness. ENCATC’s outputs are the subject of international workshops and seminars.
Boylan is involved in the European Cultural Foundation and ICOM; Selwood represented the UK at the European Group for Museum Statistics, Institüt for Museumskunde, Berlin (until 2004), and has participated in the international conferences of other networks including Social Theory, Politics and the Arts and Association for Cultural Economics International.
As lead partner in Celebrating Enterprise, CPM works with a consortium of 15 UK institutions, whose work contributes to its research. These include local authorities, grassroots organisations, advice agencies and FE providers. Five other countries are involved: Greece, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Belgium. International partners include Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, University of Thessaly, and EHSAL European University College Brussels. These international links have resulted in ongoing comparative policy exchanges, and joint development of knowledge-transfer resources.
The Department is currently engaged in developing its own transnational collaboration networks with leading European universities (e.g. Barcelona, Leiden, Dublin) and sector research bodies (e.g. Fitzcarraldo Foundation, ECCOM, Balkankult).
Regular departmental meetings are dedicated to research, allowing regular updates on students’ progress and staff research, and helping ensure that research at all levels is integrated into the Department’s work and culture.
The University's Research Grants and Contracts Office supports grant
applications; the School of Arts has a Research Office and a Research Committee which guides and advises on research strategy and management. Personal support for new staff is provided by a mentor, and regular consultation about individual research projects, progress and plans is an important part of
discussions during the probationary period, with discussion continuing in the appraisal process. Academics newly embarking on research student supervision are advised by experienced supervisors. However, in a relatively small department, much personal support is also given to new staff in informal ways and integration is achieved smoothly.
Please refer to sections above.