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UOA 25 - General Engineering and Mineral & Mining Engineering

Keele University

RA5a: Research environment and esteem


1. BACKGROUND AND research Strategy
This submission covers two areas of applied engineering within two research institutes which have become major platforms for Keele’s focused research strategy in recent years – The Institute for Science and Technology in Medicine (ISTM) and the Institute for Environment, Physical Sciences and Applied Mathematics (EPSAM). Both groups have as their aim the translation of fundamental research into applications which impact on human health (ISTM) and physical environment (EPSAM), and build on existing strengths and a strong track record (ISTM was rated 5A or 5* in the last three RAEs). In line with this strategy, ISTM and EPSAM are also fully committed to knowledge transfer activities, as evidenced by growth in spin-out company formation, industry links and industry funding. Members of ISTM also work closely with the NHS to take technologies developed within the institute into clinical trials and practice, and its research underpins Keele’s new Medical School. Research within both institutes is highly interdisciplinary, a long-standing Keele ethos, and members are increasingly forging collaborations which cross discipline and institute boundaries.
1.1 The Institute for Science & Technology in Medicine
In 2005, ISTM was launched from the expanded Centre for Science and Technology in Medicine which had an existing international profile in biomedical engineering and laboratory-based clinical research. Concurrent with the newly awarded Medical School at Keele, ISTM has grown in critical mass through attracting excellent early-stage lecturers in strategic areas from world leading institutions such as Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M.I.T.), Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH-Zürich), Warwick University, Imperial College, University of Cambridge, and The Roslin Institute. This expansion has significantly increased research income including a six-fold growth in Research Council grants since 2001. It has also  improved both the quality and quantity of research output and esteem indicators across ISTM.
ISTM is a highly interdisciplinary unit focusing on the development of basic technologies in biomedical science and engineering through to their application in the clinic or deployment in the control of disease. This “bench to bedside” approach facilitates the integration of biologists, engineers, physicists and chemists into two broad themes; Biomedical Engineering (which is submitted here) and Human Disease and Genomics (submitted to UoA5). Interaction and collaboration both within and between themes is strongly encouraged and fostered. Through our targeted international appointments, the institute has an expanding international link programme; e.g. appointments at Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble (ILL), exchanges through our European Network of Excellence and our joint academic appointments with the University of Florida and the Carolinas Medical Centre.
The institute is located across three sites, including two local hospitals (University Hospital of North Staffordshire [UHNS] and RJAH Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry) as well as Keele campus. Institute members work together closely on collaborative projects and regular research meetings at the three sites promote a collegial ethos. Scientists, engineers and clinicians within ISTM are well placed to work together to take new biomedical technologies from the conceptual stage, through prototyping and proof-of-concept and on to clinical trials. Significant investment in state-of-the-art facilities will ensure a thriving, successful and sustainable research environment over the next ten years.
ISTM also has a strong focus on promoting Knowledge Transfer activities. Since RAE2001, five companies, MagneCell Ltd., nanoTherics Ltd., Intelligent Orthopaedics Ltd., Nuovoprobe Ltd. and Transpectra Ltd., have been spun-out to commercialize technologies developed at ISTM
covering applications in cell and tissue engineering, gene therapy, orthopaedic surgery and clinical diagnostics. Both Intelligent Orthopaedics and MagneCell have been recent recipients of Lord Stafford Awards for Innovation. Many members of ISTM are involved in industry collaborations with companies such as AstraZeneca, Alnis Biosciences, Giltech, PepTcell, Smith&Nephew, Syngenta, Ceram Research and Cyclacel. Patent activity within the institute has also increased, with 15 patents having been filed or granted since RAE2001, several of which have been licensed through Keele.
1.2 The Institute for the Environment, Physical Sciences & Applied Mathematics
As part of the Keele restructuring strategy, the Environmental Engineering and Sustainable Technology Research Group was formed, encompassing Environmental and Hydrocarbon Engineering (EHE) and Environmental Technologies and Sustainable Processes (ETSP) themes within EPSAM, to focus on strengths in environmental geophysics, geotechnical engineering and clean technology, appointing excellent early-stage lecturers in these areas. EPSAM provides a sustainable, multidisciplinary environment for research and enterprise activity underpinning the internationally recognised pure and applied research carried out in the environmental, physical sciences and mathematics. Within the institute there is an exceptional research and training infrastructure, with the latest state-of-the art analytical, spectroscopic and computer modeling equipment (including a 168-node Clustered Supercomputer) and the best equipped engineering geophysics laboratory in the country. Members of both ISTM and EPSAM make extensive use of national and international central research facilities, including the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) and ILL neutron source in Grenoble, the new DIAMOND Light Source, the SRS and the ISIS neutron source in the UK.
EPSAM strongly encourages and fosters collaboration and actively develops interdisciplinary groupings working on both theoretical and applied topics, including practical aspects of the environment, clean energy, pollution, and sensing and monitoring. The Institute is outward-looking collaborating with Institutes in Social Sciences, on environmental matters, on crime detection and applications of software engineering, and with ISTM on detection methods ranging from physical to biological applications. Members of EPSAM attract substantial funding from EPSRC, NERC, PPARC, DTI, Defra, Leverhulme Trust, EU, and industry. Members undertake a spectrum of enterprise activities and the institute benefits from active external collaborations with groups at other UK universities (Imperial College, Durham, Cambridge, Oxford, Manchester, Edinburgh, Lancaster, Nottingham, Leeds, Glasgow, Bath, ISIS), and internationally (Naples, Nancy, Delft, Brno, ETH, EPFL, Patras, Athens, M.I.T, University of Florida, Argonne National Laboratory, The US National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Institute Laue-Langevin). EPSAM also has strong collaborations with industrial and government organisations such as the Environment Agency, Nuclear Decommissioning Agency, BG Group, Rolls-Royce, QINETIQ, CERAM, the MOD, DTI and Defra.
EPSAM is submitting its Environmental Engineering and Sustainable Technology Research Group to General Engineering (UoA25) for the first time.
1.3 Future Plans
Through the Research Institutes, the University’s strategy going forward is to support research in specific areas where members and groups have built strong, international reputations. This is the case for both ISTM and EPSAM and that support is evidenced by a large number of new appointments at both senior and junior levels, as well as major investment in ISTM and EPSAM buildings and infrastructure as described below. This infrastructure investment will continue and, by identifying areas of overlap, cross-institute collaborations will become increasingly important. For example, funds to enable new collaborations have recently been obtained to cross-fertilise ideas between imaging research in both ISTM and EPSAM via a successful EPSRC Bridging the Gaps bid commencing in March, 2008. This project will set the scene for future wide-ranging collaborations between the institutes.
Having expanded to provide a vibrant community of well supported academics, we are now aiming to attract major national and international funding initiatives into our Institutes. Examples of significant recently awarded programmes (>£1million) include a Doctoral Training Centre in Regenerative Medicine awarded jointly with Loughborough and Nottingham and an NIH grant to establish and trial microwave imaging technology at ISTM. In addition, both ISTM and EPSAM are focused on EU FP7 with substantive programmes through to 2
nd stage consideration. ISTM also has applications under consideration from the DOH for a Biomedical Research Centre in Musculoskeletal disease and another major £2.5 million programme is focused on trialing our novel diagnostics in the NHS.

Keele operates a credit-based training programme for postgraduate research students coordinated by a PGR Training Director within a university-wide Graduate School. Modules include laboratory methods and specialized equipment, research and presentation skills, scientific writing and grant writing, IPR and research governance. Subject-specific research training modules are tailored to the needs of individuals with students developing bespoke programmes of project-related training. Students participate in university-wide events, annual Graduate School Symposium and external, UKGrad activities. The training fosters interdisciplinary communication and collaboration between PGR students and provides the necessary research and transferable skills. Training is monitored through learning plans and supervisor meetings and each student submits a portfolio of reflective work to demonstrate successful completion of the programme.
Postgraduates have access to state-of-the-art technology and a cross-disciplinary, international research culture is positively promoted. EU FP6 Alea Jacta Training programmes exist within the Institute in Tissue Engineering, providing access to European short courses and PhD student exchange programmes across Europe. Students participate in world-leading research projects in collaboration with prestigious international institutions such as MIT, ETH-Zurich, Royal Institute Stockholm, University of Florida, Argonne National Laboratory (U.S.), the US National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Institute Laue-Langevin (ILL) and through collaborative links with partner organizations such as CSIRO (Australia), CNR (Italy), INERIS and Ecole de Mines (France), as well as national centers of research excellence such as the British Geological Survey and research links with numerous universities in the UK. This provides both a multi-disciplinary and international learning environment where interactions are encouraged through seminar programmes, technology training programmes and collaborations between academic supervisors.
In addition, ISTM runs two successful M.Sc. programmes – Biomedical Engineering and Cell & Tissue Engineering – and has applied for accreditation of the courses to the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM). These programmes provide a source of highly qualified PhD students.

3. Staffing Policy and SUPPORT
Since RAE2001, both ISTM and EPSAM have focused strongly on hiring dynamic new staff members not only to support existing research strengths but to develop new ones. This submission contains a significant proportion of research staff at early stages of their careers but who either have the potential to become, or in some cases are already, world leaders in their fields. ISTM and EPSAM have set up mentorship programmes to support and foster young academics in both research and student supervision with regular meetings held with both the mentor and the Institute Director to discuss key research objectives and plans. Though few specific targets are set, younger researchers receive assessment of their research metrics and given guidance on the strategic management of their research in order to produce successful programmes and groups.
The Research Institutes have appointed managers, who are pro-active in identifying funding opportunities for both early-stage and more experienced staff and play a key role in organizing meetings with funding agencies, helping staff with proposal applications, and co-ordinating many aspects of the institutes’ research agendas.

Both ISTM and EPSAM have benefited from major infrastructure investment. ISTM has seen improvements across all three of its physical sites and in 2006 moved into a new £3 million purpose-built laboratory facility at the UHNS site, connected to two newly renovated existing buildings housing state-of-the-art equipment for trace gas analysis, a confocal and light microscopy suite, biomagnetics facilities, cell and molecular biology laboratories, four patient rooms, a biomaterials laboratory and a Class 100 clean room with associated cell therapy suite. The cell therapy suite will be used primarily for clinical translation of cellular engineering techniques for cartilage repair which are being developed within the Institute.
The existing buildings are being renovated to house new offices, cold room storage, a dedicated incubator and bioreactor laboratory and a human genomics laboratory centred around an Affymetrix Gene Array system. This new infrastructure was constructed to underpin research within Keele’s new Medical School reflecting the University’s strategic decision to become a leading centre for biomedical and health-related research.
On Keele Campus, SRIF investments totalling £3M have refurbished two major laboratory facilities to provide high quality research environments for ISTM members including purpose-built containment facilities for work with human malaria parasites, making Keele one of a handful of UK Institutions capable of undertaking such work. Dedicated equipment for scanning and transmission electron microscopy has been renewed and new facilities for fluorescence activated cell sorting, real-time quantitative PCR and fluorescence imaging installed.
EPSAM has benefited from significant investments to create a suite of high quality analytical laboratories (discussed in section 5.3), housing state-of-the art analytical and spectroscopic equipment funded through SRIF, CAP, the regional development agency and industry, and new office space, providing a dynamic and high quality research environments.
ISTM and EPSAM are led by a Research Director (El Haj and Styles), supported by an institute manager, administrative staff and a senior management board. Both institutes span a broad range of research areas and many staff work both within and across the themes described below. ISTM and EPSAM each have strong groupings in general engineering – biomedical in the case of ISTM and environmental in the case of EPSAM – and staff from those two areas are submitted here.

5.1  Cell & Neuro- Engineering
(Ashammakhi, Cartmell, Chari, Cooper, El Haj, Fricker-Gates, N Forsyth, Furness, Gates, Johnson, Kuiper, Liu, Mafulli, Palmer, Richardson, Roberts, & Yang; 15 Research Assistants,34 current PhD students)
This group focuses on the development of enabling technologies in cell and neuro-engineering and their translation to clinical applications. The study of cellular mechanisms involved in tissue formation and novel biomaterials in clinical applications such as autologous treatments and surgical repair is a major focus. A theme with potentially wide-ranging clinical applications is the investigation of bioartificial organs and tissues for regenerative medicine. This research has involved expansion of existing successful programmes and development of new areas, including research into brain and spinal cord repair, cell therapies for intervertebral disc, nanomagnetic technology for cell targeting and control, and stem cell characterization, with a key focus on environmental and physical influences on behaviour. The group is funded by the EPSRC, BBSRC, MRC, Wellcome and major charities and has benefited from eight new, targeted appointments at senior and junior levels. CNE is led by El Haj, current President of the Cell and Tissue Engineering Society and well known around the world for her work on understanding the relationship between the physical and biological environment with the aim of translating these principles into clinical applications. The group has received Framework 6 EU funding to become a European Centre of Excellence in Tissue Engineering, building on a consistent funding base from FP 3,4,5 and 6. ISTM has been instrumental in promoting this field within the UK and in translating cell-based research into clinical application.
In 2003, ISTM became the lead research centre for the
sole MRC multi-centre cell therapy trial in orthopaedics in the UK on autologous chondrocyte implantation. This trial is headed by Richardson, an internationally renowned orthopaedic surgeon, and includes hospitals in the UK and Europe. He was coordinator of the FP5 EUROCELL programme across Europe which established cell therapy labs across eight European laboratories and currently is developing novel methods to grow joints in the back of patients in an EU NEST programme, MYJOINT. He collaborates on both clinical trials and fundamental investigations of cartilage repair. Further support for this clinical group includes Mafulli, Chair in Orthopaedics specializing in tendon repair, with the aim of further development of novel cellular engineering strategies, creating a pipeline of technology to support clinical advances. Mafulli maintains a leading clinical profile, providing the first evidence of similar histopathological appearances between Achilles and patellar tendinopathy, linked to development of new imaging modalities in biomedical imaging, e.g. polarization coherence tomography with Yang and El Haj.
Laboratory work on connective tissue characterization, biomechanics and repair using novel imaging and tissue engineering strategies is being carried out by
Roberts, Goodstone, Kuiper and Johnson. Roberts and Johnson are one of the leading groups in the UK investigating disc turnover and repair using cell therapies. Their group is the first to demonstrate cellular senescence in human disc cells and the role of proteoglycans in influencing disc degeneration leading to back pain. Goodstone investigates the role of extra cellular matrix in tissue regeneration, providing a fundamental base for developments in new biomaterial repair strategies.
As part of our expansion programme of successful areas, we have recently appointed from Finland,
Ashammakhi, to a Chair in Regenerative Medicine. His research focuses on the use of novel biomaterials in fracture repair and cartilage tissue engineering, providing a key link between basic tissue engineering research and clinical practice.
5.1.1 Bioreactor Design and Biomaterials: Cartmell who joined ISTM following postdoctoral work in biomedical engineering at Georgia Tech in Atlanta, is building a programme in bioreactor design and enabling technologies in tissue engineering working with collaborators El Haj, Goodstone and Kuiper. She has strong interactions with industry, with two students currently funded by Smith&Nephew and Giltech.
Working with El Haj and Dobson and with EPSRC, BBSRC, industry and charity funding, the group has developed and trialled Magnetic Force Bioreactors (MFB) for tissue engineering applications. These systems work by attaching magnetic nanoparticles to targeted receptors on cells mimicking the in vivo stress environment which is so important in the production of functional bone and connective tissue. The MFB represents a major advance in the design of mechanical conditioning bioreactors and has attracted interest from both academia and industry. Recent work includes influences of different mechanical regimes on cell differentiation funded by a BBSRC New Investigator Award to Cartmell.
Biomaterials and scaffold design is a strong area of research within the group and is led by Yang. Working with El Haj, this group has pioneered the development of mechanoactive scaffolds for tissue engineering funded by the EPSRC and is at the forefront of this field. The group, now including Ashammakhi, is also active in the synthesis and characterization of novel biocompatible polymers such as new developments in electrospinning, the surface modification of biomaterials, and cell encapsulation strategies. This lab is currently developing the first biomaterials which contain fluorescent tags for marking scaffold degradation.
5.1.2 Stem Cell Manipulation and Therapy: Research into stem cell therapy at ISTM involves interdisciplinary collaborations aimed at targeted therapy, integration and manipulation of stem cell development using nanotechnology for a range of diseases. The recent appointment of N Forsyth from the Roslin Institute brings significant adult and embryonic stem cell expertise to the group. Forsyth will be collaborating with the bioreactor group on the design and engineering of bioreactors for stem cell expansion and differentiation. His innovative research spans the effects of the oxygen environment on embryonic stem cell differentiation and telomerase function.
The new expansion within ISTM has been to appoint 3 junior posts in neurodegenerative disease to investigate cell therapy and tissue engineering strategies for brain repair building on our neurosciences strengths at Keele. Coming from key groups in Cardiff and Cambridge the team of Fricker-Gates, Gates and Chari is interested in the use of stem cells in the treatment of neurodegenerative conditions such as Parkinson’s and Huntingdon’s Disease and MS. Fricker-Gates is currently investigating the growth factor requirements of stem cell populations, and the genetic basis of their potential to differentiate into specific types of neurons. Using cell culture and targeted transplantation studies, Fricker-Gates hope to tease out to what extent external signals in the environment drive neuronal differentiation in the brain.
Gates has a long standing interest in understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms that facilitate the development of circuits in the mammalian central nervous system, particularly those circuits which can undergo neurodegenerative episodes (e.g. Parkinsons disease) or are disrupted/destroyed by common traumatic injuries (e.g., spinal cord injury).  The group working with Yang in Biomaterials has been successful in obtaining a BBSRC New Investigator award for designing a neural tube for implantation.
Chari also works with the biomagnetics group on in vivo magnetic nanoparticle carrier targeting. In collaboration with Dobson, she is developing methods to target growth factors to spinal cord lesions from disease (such as MS) and trauma.
5.1.3 Mechano-BioEngineering: The work of this group spans from nanoscale manipulation of biomaterials and cells to investigations of mechanics of ion channel activation in a variety of cells and tissue systems.
Liu joined ISTM from The Nanyang Technological University of Singapore in 2003 and works primarily on the nanomechanics and nanomanipulation of soft biological materials, cells and tissues with clear applications in tissue engineering. Liu has developed novel systems for investigating and characterizing cell mechanics and biomaterials through nano-indentation. These systems are being used by other members of the group as an aid for the development of new biomaterials for tissue engineering and to investigate cellular responses to the application of defined stresses. Working with Yang and El Haj, Lui has attained two recent BBSRC core grants for investigating stem cell nanomechanics with applications in cell targeting in vivo and corneal tissue engineering. The work of JH Kuiper complements the nanoscale approach taken by Dr. Liu. He has been instrumental in mathematical modeling of the mechanical environment for tissue engineering applications with funding from the EPSRC. Dr. Kuiper has direct links to the clinic and Richardson through investigations into the role of impact on bone grafts and metal implants at the macroscopic scale.
Furness and Cooper form one of the leading auditory mechanotransduction research groups in Europe. The group is well known for their research into mechanical activation of ion channels in the cochlea using imaging techniques such as electron and confocal microscopy and immunohistochemistry, as well as studies of motion of the basilar membrane using laser interferometry funded by the MRC, BBSRC and collaborations with Harvard, USA, funded by NIH. This latter technique represents a breakthrough in hearing research and can detect motion on a sub-nanometer scale and can detect very small vibrations of the membrane that sound produces at the threshold of hearing. Collaborative BBSRC programmes with mathematical modelling groups in Bristol have pushed forward our understanding of how we hear sounds in the ear. Furness has identified a potential new glutamate homeostatic mechanism in the cochlea, failure of which may represent an early cause of dysfunction in cochlear homeostasis leading to age-related hearing loss.  Recent research has proposed a novel method for intervention in age-related hearing loss by preventing or ameliorating loss of this mechanism. Their work in this area has also won Wellcome Trust imaging awards. The work of Palmer, an MRC Fellow, focuses on the function of the second synapse in the neuronal pathway that transmits visual information from the eye to the brain. She has recently been shortlisted for a prestigious European Research Council Starting Grant.
5.2  Imaging and Diagnostics
(Collingwood, Davies, Dobson, Duckett, Exley, VT Forsyth, Greenhough, Kim, Mahendrasingham, O’Brien, Semenov, Smith, Spanel, Spiteri, Sule-Suso and Teixeira; 11 Research Assistants, 21 current PhD students)
Imaging and Diagnostics comprises staff with active research in biomagnetics (including MRI), lung research, optical and IR imaging, synchrotron x-ray and neutron analysis and Selected Ion Flow Tube – Mass Spectrometry (SIFT-MS). Members have strong collaborations with the Universities of Cambridge, Nottingham, Sheffield, Newcastle, UCL, Imperial College, University of Florida, ETH-Zürich, The Royal Institute-Stockholm, MIT, Czech Academy of Sciences, The US National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL) and the APS Synchrotron at Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago. Their work is funded by the EPSRC, BBSRC, MRC, Wellcome Trust, NIH, industry and charities.
5.2.1 Biomagnetics focuses on research related to iron biomineralization in the human body (particularly the brain), magnetic nanoparticle synthesis and applications in biomedicine (magnetic drug and gene delivery, cellular manipulation) and investigations of magnetic stimulation on brain electrical activity. In 2006, the group was awarded an RCUK fellowship.
Biomagnetics research encompasses applications of magnetic micro- and nanoparticles in biology and medicine, bioelectromagnetics and the development of novel techniques for imaging and characterizing iron compounds in human tissue. Dobson, Collingwood and Exley have made significant breakthroughs in the development of novel synchrotron x-ray techniques for mapping and characterizing iron compounds in situ in neurodegenerative tissue and have produced the first three-dimensional reconstruction of Alzheimer’s plaque cores in which iron compounds are mapped and characterized via electron tomography. This work represents a major step in understanding the role of iron in these diseases and marks the first time specific iron compounds have been identified, characterized and mapped since this association was discovered in Alzheimer’s disease over 50 years ago and has been the subject of considerable media attention. Collingwood and Dobson are also involved in the translation of this work to the development of MRI-based early diagnostic techniques in collaboration with the NHMFL, ANL and The University of Western Australia.
The group has benefited from the appointment in 2005 of
Kim from M.I.T. to a Lectureship in Biomagnetics. Kim has a strong background in magnetic nanoparticle synthesis and applications in biomedical science and engineering and is building an international reputation for magnetic nanoparticle synthesis and their biomedical applications. With a recent EPSRC New Investigator Award, he has designed and synthesized novel FePt nanoparticles for biomedical applications in addition to “shell in shell” nanostructures for temperature-programmed encapsulation of bovine serum albumin and novel UV-blocking nanoparticles for use in sun cream and UV-protective glasses.
Since 2001, the Biomagnetics Group, working with members of CTE, has developed novel techniques for tissue engineering (with
El Haj & Cartmell), as well as magnetic nanoparticle-based gene delivery systems which provide higher transfection levels than the best available non-viral transfection agents. These two techniques have resulted in significant commercialization activity. Dobson and El Haj formed an award-winning spin-out company, MagneCell, Ltd. and a second spin-off company, nanoTherics, Ltd. has recently been incorporated by Dobson and two PDRAs to exploit the gene therapy technology as well as AC hyperthermia equipment designed by the group in collaboration with Alnis Biosciences Inc. Formed in September, 2007, nanoTherics has already received funding awards from the West Midlands RDA and Innovation Keele totalling £90k and is in advanced negotiations for seed-round funding with investors. Since the last RAE, Dobson has filed for or been granted 12 patents.
5.2.2 SIFT-MS is headed by Smith and Spanel, world-leaders in the physics and chemistry of ionized gases, and includes the clinical work of Davies, O’Brien and other clinicians at the University Hospital site and was recently supported by the cross Research Institute appointment of Duckett by ESPAM. Research within the group is focused on the development of analytical instruments that exploit gas phase ionic reactions for the analysis of trace gases in air (for environmental monitoring) and breath analysis (for non-invasive clinical diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring). SIFT-MS has been designed to allow on-line, real time analyses of the trace gases in ambient (polluted) air exhaled breath and the headspace of aqueous liquids. SIFT-MS instruments are now being manufactured by TransSpectra Ltd  and Instrument Science Ltd. The SIFT-MS analytical method combines fast flow tube techniques and quantitative mass spectrometry.
Unlike other techniques, SIFT-MS analyses do not require collection into bags or onto traps which can compromise samples and calibration is unnecessary allowing the direct analysis of single exhalations of breath and providing the scientist/clinician with immediate results. Rapid non-invasive analyses of breath can be routinely performed in the clinical environment with minimal stress to the patients, is a new route to clinical diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring. The group was the first to discover and identify breath markers for cystic fibrosis and to investigate HDO and ethanol dispersal and metabolism in the body.
5.2.3 Optical and Microwave Imaging Technology employs a multidisciplinary approach - using cell pathology, molecular biology and optical engineering - for diagnosing and soft tissue diseases, such as lung. Recent work has focused on the development of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for lung tumour diagnosis and polarization OCT (POCT) for diagnosis of tendon damage. Spiteri holds a Chair in Respiratory Medicine and her work focuses on the development of OCT for early detection of lung cancer and characterization and profiling of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder. Research into FTIR analysis of COPD patients is one of seven recently funded RISC programmes by the DOH. Spiteri’s work forms the basis of a new spin-out company, Nuovoprobe Ltd and she has filed three patent applications since 2005. Mafulli holds with El Haj and Yang a BBSRC grant to investigate development of POCT for imaging tendon degeneration.  
The optical imaging group was recently expanded through the appointment of Semenov, former Director of Biophysics Research at the Carolinas Medical Institute in the US and co-founder of EM Imaging Ltd. He has developed novel microwave imaging techniques for diagnosis of heart and lung disease and is currently setting up a spin-off company to build prototypes and commercialize the technology. He has recently secured >$1million funding from the NIH, USA to develop this technology programme from Keele with partners in the US and UK.
Along with members from CTE and international collaborators in the U.S., researchers in the group are at the forefront of design and implementation of OCT and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) imaging for monitoring of biological and engineered tissues. FTIR is being used by
Sule-Suso in early diagnosis of lung cancer and the effects of chemotherapeutic compounds on lung cancer cells. Collaborations with University of Paris, Reims, has led to a number of European-funded exchange programmes and the award of the BBSRC Maxine Hans Prize. This work also involves OCT, Raman spectroscopy and, in collaboration with Smith, SIFT-MS.
The group pioneered the development infrared optical imaging for ‘live histology’ determination of tumour resection borders and to guide adjunct therapy at operation.
5.2.4 Structural Biology / Synchrotron Studies works primarily on protein structure and interactions using x-ray and neutron diffraction imaging and analysis techniques. The work of Greenhough probes the structure and function of medically important components of the innate immune response including the pentraxins and the collectins. VT Forsyth (EPSAM), Mahendrasingham (EPSAM) and Teixeira (EPSAM), based at ILL in Grenoble, use these techniques to study the structure of DNA and its interactions with biomolecules and to investigate biopolymers funded by a major £1 million EPSRC consortium initiative led by Keele, involving Cambridge, Glasgow, King’s College, Oxford, Reading and Southampton Universities, the EU, BBSRC and ILL. The Keele fibre diffraction group lead by Forsyth was the first to exploit the capability of ILL for investigating the detailed structure of polymer materials using high angle neutron diffraction. Their work on the fibres of DNA allowed changes in the structure of bound water around the DNA double helix to be determined and linked to the biological function of DNA. They also published the first ligand-bound structure of a human collectin, a biologically and therapeutically active recombinant fragment of lung surfactant protein-D.
5.3  Environmental Engineering and Sustainable Technology
(Cassidy, Egger, Haycock, Howell, Jones, Krause, Mountney, Ormerod, Pringle, Rutten, Styles, Williams and Zholobenko; 10 Research Assistants (in current period) , 17 current PhD students, 41 completed PhDs)
The principal research themes within Environmental Engineering and Sustainable Technology are: (i) novel sensing and modelling methodologies (EHE)  and (ii) environmental technologies and sustainable processes (ETSP), Underpinning these principal research themes is an enabling, cross-cutting theme which encompasses the application of spectroscopic, analytical and computational techniques in analytical, forensic and environmental science, structural and materials chemistry, and the study of chemical phenomena.

5.3.1  Environmental and Hydrocarbon Engineering (EHE): The strategies of Applied and Environmental Geophysics, Basin Analysis and Non-Invasive Imaging have converged to encompass the numerical modelling, field observations, geophysical imaging and visualization of the structure and fluid properties of the shallow earth and engineered materials for hydrocarbon, environmental and geohazard engineering.  This has been accomplished through strengthening the previous staffing complement with three new members of academic staff: Cassidy who has already received both NERC and EPSRC New Investigator’s Grants and most recently a four-year Royal Society Industrial Fellowship in collaboration with Fugro (GPR in natural and engineered materials, electrical imaging of the shallow sub-surface including glacial and volcanic terrains), already promoted to Senior Lecturer, Pringle (advanced visualization of hydrocarbon geological analogues, environmental & forensic geophysics) and Krause, a recent appointment from a FRG Humboldt Fellowship.
New non-invasive imaging and modelling technologies are underpinned by SRIF 2
/3 investments in new geophysical equipment and a 168-node Clustervision High-Performance supercomputer. These newly developed technologies, together with design and construction of new radar, magnetic and spectroscopic x-ray imaging techniques are enabling innovative cross-disciplinary research in a wide range of environments.  Microgravity techniques, originally developed by Styles for the detection of underground cavities, are being developed, with collaboration and support from a major oil company into a 4-D technique for the investigation of the time-varying characterization of the natural and engineered sub-surface, the fluid properties of hydrocarbon reservoirs and gas storage and the evaluation of the capture and retention of CO2 in carbon capture and geological sequestration in both abandoned hydro-carbon reservoirs and unmined coal seams. This has also led to long-term research collaboration with INERIS (France), the Ecole de Mines at Nancy, France into salt and chalk cavern stability and with the Petroleum Institute of the Emirates.   
Research into the geophysical monitoring of ground response to the extraction of methane and synfuels from Coal Bed Methane (and potentially Underground Coal Gasification) with CO
2 sequestration will be carried out with the vision that extracted products should be used not only for direct combustion but also as feedstock for fuel cells providing a strong research link to Environmental Technologies and Sustainable Processes research. Modelling and visualization technologies developed by Williams with industrial partners such as BG and Platte River Associates (Boulder, USA) to predict the observable effects of changes in fluid flow properties associated with secondary recovery, reservoir stimulation, gas storage and sequestration have produced software which is licensed to and marketed by Basin Dynamics Ltd. Mountney provides the link between observational, field and process-based understanding of reservoir architecture. Mountney, Cassidy and Pringle are developing high resolution radar and outcrop visualisation techniques to  provide three-dimensional  characterisation of the geometrical and  electromagnetic properties of clastic sediment and hence permeability for input to basin and reservoir modelling developed by Williams and other industrial collaborators such as Petrel Ltd and Kingdom Ltd. An additional new lecturer, Clarke, recruited from the British Geological Survey to strengthen 3-D fluid modelling, visualisation and characterisation research, commences in January 2008.  Work in progress with the RAE 5-graded Applied Mathematics group at Keele and the University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka (supported by the World Bank) is using radar imaging (Hyperspectral and GPR) and OSL dating for characterization of the three-dimensional structure, extent and timing of tsunamigenic sediments to predict recurrence interval, run-up and engineering properties of coastal materials to inform infrastructure development and disaster mitigation management
The group is developing electromagnetic imaging techniques (radar, electromagnetic and x-ray) in both engineered and earth materials for homeland security applications (Haycock (supported by the Forensic Science Services (FSS), Fugro and by two EPSRC grants of which Cassidy is Co-PI) and microgravity for the detection of clandestine underground structures with Qinetiq (Styles). The links with FSS also support Pringle’s innovative work in Forensic Geophysics, which uses joint inversion of high resolution electrical and electromagnetic imaging to characterize and time-stamp the interment and decomposition stage of clandestine buried cadavers in geological environments. Cassidy is developing electromagnetic imaging techniques for detailed imaging of the electrical and electromagnetic characteristics of earth and engineering structures and the hydrogeological flows within them with a consortium of insurance companies, Fugro, the world's largest integrated geotechnical, engineering, survey and geosciences company, and the University of Naples, supported by an EPSRC New Investigators Grant, RDA funding and the award of a Royal Society Industrial Fellowship. Krause uses high resolution geophysical techniques for the investigation of diffuse nutrient pollution and its environmental implications at different temporal and spatial scales. A central focus of his recent research is the attenuation processes and capacity of the hyporheic zone (the area of direct groundwater and surface water mixing) and multi-criteria model validations and parameter sensitivity analyses for the simulation of water balance, groundwater dynamics and nutrient transport. Linking with Cassidy and Styles he will produce an integrated subsurface geotechnical and hydrogeological model of the  Dounreay area funded by NDA and BGS.
The microseismic monitoring technology developed by the  group which successfully underpinned much of the previous research in mine stability monitoring over the last RAE periods in Coal, Salt (Vale Royal/English Partnerships), Gold (KCGM Australia), Potash (British Gypsum) mines is being developed for characterising and monitoring through-ground vibrations from wind-farm complexes as the diagnostic tool for assessing active and passive vibration damping methodologies supported initially by the DTI/MOD/BWEA and now by Wind Energy Ltd and Reactec Ltd. New seismic techniques developed by Styles (Multi-component Seismic Microtremor), use ambient seismic noise to image engineering properties of the shallow subsurface, and will be developed for earthquake micro-zonation, building code specification and foundation design in earthquake prone areas in collaboration with the Pakistan Centre for Excellence in Geoscience, Peshawar and the British Geological Survey in the Kashmir Earthquake zone where 90,000 people were killed in 2004. This specialization in the study of ambient microseismic noise has also led to a new collaboration with the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center on seismic clutter and its interference with seismic sensors in military applications, such as perimeter security under the U.S. Homeland Security Programme.
5.3.2  Environmental Technology and Sustainable Processes (ETSP): A post-RAE 2001 assessment of research strategy identified a strong grouping in environmental technologies and sustainable processes, notably solid oxide fuel cells, fuel processing, clean catalysis, utilisation of biomass and renewable feedstocks, pollution control, waste management, sustainable processes and green materials chemistry, underpinned by the application of spectroscopic, analytical and computational techniques. ETSP uses international synchrotron and neutron sources (ESRF, ILL, SRS, and ISIS) extensively and has led the development of in-situ spectroscopic and analysis to gain genuine insight into these processes.
The group has been significantly enhanced by strategic investment in three new lecturers with impressive research profiles, Egger (2007) (Manchester, Max Planck Institute) and Rutten (2006) (Leiden, Cambridge and Nottingham), with Haxton (St. Andrew’s, University of British Columbia) taking up post in March 2008, and significant SRIF investment in new spectroscopic and analytical instrumentation (£700,000). Strong links exist between this theme and EHE through Ormerod, Haycock, Styles, and Cassidy. Following several new strategic appointments to the internationally-renowned RAE5-graded Environmental Policy and Citizenship group led by Dobson (UoA 39) within the Institute of Law, Politics and Justice, Ormerod has formed a strong cross-disciplinary collaboration, researching sustainable environmental and energy approaches and issues from a combined social, political, economic and technical, ‘science and policy’ perspective, supported by ESRC funding.  Ormerod has collaborated on solid oxide fuel cell development, with major EPSRC/DTI LINK and DTI grants with Rolls-Royce, Imperial College, ICI, Johnson Matthey, Advanced Ceramics, Gaz de France, Harper-Adams University, Greenfinch and Biffa Waste, developing new catalyst and anode materials which are more tolerant of carbon build up and sulphur poisoning when operating on natural gas and higher hydrocarbons. They have demonstrated the feasibility of running SOFCs on waste biogas, and farm waste-derived biomass with high levels of ammonia, and the potential for electrochemical pollution abatement. This underpinned new collaboration with Glasgow University and the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory into catalyst and anode deactivation during hydrocarbon reforming and led to EPSRC (£770k), the first CCLRC ISIS Programme Access Award (£500k) and AWM Spinner funding. EU FP7 funding is being sought with seven European partners, to develop new sulphur resistant anodes for SOFCs running on biofuels. A major new consortium led by Innovex Ltd, including the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change, Keele, Manchester, Imperial College and Sheffield aims to produce the first complete socio-economic-technical model of non-distributed power generation from cropped biomass, using a novel combination of liquid metal biomass gasification, solid oxide fuel cells and gas turbines.
Haycock has also developed non-destructive, in situ, element-specific x-ray imaging using image processing to enable real-time identification of chemical elements within a solid object and their distribution. This has a wide range of applications from defect/fault detection, analysis of archaeological artefacts, to forensic science, with significant EPSRC and industrial funding. The work on archaeological fragments involves Cardiff University, Greek Universities and the National Archaeological Museum of Athens.  Enhanced data collection capabilities are being developed collaboratively with the Forensic Science Service with a new microfocus x-ray imaging system (£187k) providing greatly enhanced capabilities. Haycock is very active in gas sensor element development for environmental monitoring and process control using novel materials and chemical vapour deposition methods in collaboration with Bath University, and funded by EPSRC, Epichem Limited and Trolex Systems, and by CERAM on HF sensors, and Talbotts Ltd. Ormerod and Haycock have developed a novel, accelerated in situ testing rig to investigate chemical failure mechanisms of refractory furnace materials in the glass industry (DTI, CERAM and Pilkington).  Howell has developed a major research profile in sustainable chemical processes, with major LINK grants from Defra with industrial partners, and two Industrial CASE studentships to develop new resin materials from sustainable feedstocks with several industrial partners, (Advanced Enterprises, Ecobond, Vernique) which has led to patents and Spinner Awards from AWM, an IK award for development of the technology, and a Lord Stafford Award for Innovation. Howell has also developed a more sustainable organometallic process for the decoration of ceramics with gold in partnership with CERAM, through EPSRC/DTI and Industrial CASE studentships
Haycock has obtained significant EPSRC (£800k), industrial and venture capital funding supporting research in three areas. He is developing novel instrumentation for the non-destructive/non-invasive detection of steel corrosion, with particular focus on reinforced concrete. Related acoustic emission studies have been undertaken at the École Nationale Supérieure de Céramique Industrielle Limoges, France. A major collaborative EPSRC project with Cassidy, Manchester Metropolitan University, Concrete Repairs Limited, Faber Maunsell, Network Rail, Cathodic Protection International ApS, Oxfordshire CC, and the Dutch Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water has led to the formation of a spin-out company, SciSite Ltd in April 2006. This spin-out, based on the IP related to three patent applications and supported by two Spinner Awards and over £250k of external Venture Capital, provides consultancy services to the concrete survey sector. Haycock is a director of SciSite.
Ormerod, Jones and Zholobenko are developing new x-ray, neutron and infrared spectroscopic and analytical methodologies, to study supported metal catalysts and microporous and mesoporous materials, with particular applications in greener, photo and microwave catalysis, and the study of high pressure phases of materials, employing synchrotron and neutron radiation at ESRF, SRS, ILL and ISIS. Jones has strong collaborations with Birmingham and Manchester Universities, SRS, Diamond and the Stanford Light Source. Ormerod and Zholobenko are studying metal impregnated zeolite and microporous materials in hydrocarbon, NOx conversion. The recent strategic appointments of Egger and Haxton, with respective expertise in novel synthetic methodologies of tailored microporous and mesoporous materials and the interaction of metals with polymeric systems further strengthens research in green materials chemistry. Egger has an impressive track record in the development of environmentally friendly materials, including highly nanoporous supramolecular aminoresins for thermal insulation applications, hybrid organic-inorganic and structure-directed mesoporous materials. Egger is also researching silification and biomineralisation processes, which have strong synergies with Exley (Biomagnetics and bioelectronics group), and rational design of porous hybrid polymer/oxide catalytic materials, with Ormerod, Rutten and Zholobenko. Egger has secured funding from BASF for an Industrial CASE studentship.
Rutten developed a multi-disciplinary Time of Flight SIMS facility at Nottingham with innovative multivariate analysis across Science and Engineering; imaging complex surfaces, including cross-sections of complex (bio-related) systems, body fluid stains, plant leaves, drug pellets and stem cells. This links strongly to the Cell and Tissue Engineering group in ISTM, and to Zholobenko, Ormerod and Egger. With Zholobenko he has secured a CASE studentship from The Asbestos Group to apply Raman and infrared microscopy to industrial fibres, which Rutten has also successfully applied to imaging epithelial cancer cells. His research on environmentally-friendly ionic liquids was recently featured as a ‘hot’ paper in Angewandte Chemie, and highlighted by Nature and Science.  
The ETSP grouping has a strong applied focus and all members have funded collaborations with industry. In addition to those described above, Ormerod has many industrial collaborations, including Greenfinch, Flaretech, Intellitect, Geotechnical Instruments, Advanced Ceramics, Ceram. Three Spinner Awards and IK funding have enhanced the interaction with industry. Howell collaborates with a number of other companies, including CoolGel, Advance Enterprises, Ecobond; with Ormerod, funding has been obtained for new collaborations with Applied Chemicals, on purification and deodorisation of agricultural and sewage biogas using gas-liquid semi-permeable membranes, and with Longma Biofuels on developing an improved process for obtaining biodiesel from chip pan oil. Ormerod and Zholobenko have funding from Compact Scientific to study platinum combustion catalysts.  



Membership of Panels and Committees
Within both institutes, members play key roles on many national and international review panels and committees such as the EPSRC Peer-review College (Cassidy, Dobson, El Haj, Jones, Ormerod, Yang), MRC College of Experts (El Haj, Richardson) and MRC, BBSRC, EPSRC and RAE panels (El Haj), the US National Institutes of Health Review panel (Semenov) and German and Swedish Research Council panels (El Haj). Members also play leading roles on international advisory panels and committees around the world such as the International Board of Research Doctorate, University of Pisa (Ashammakhi), Chair of the International Studies Committee, International Society of Peritoneal Dialysis (Davies).
Members are involved in leading roles within professional groups and government advisory organizations  across disciplines, e.g. Chairman of the Environmental and Industrial Geophysics Group, Geological Society and member of the European GPR Association (EUROGPR) Committee  (Cassidy); Chair of the Criteria Development Panel (DEFRA/DTI) on Managing Radioactive Waste Safely, President of the British Association for the Advancement of Science (Geology Section – 2007), Ex-Officio Member of the International Union of Geosciences Committee (IUGS 2004-2006) (Styles); One of two UK representatives on the International Energy Agency’s Annex on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and UK Chemistry representative on the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility Chemistry and Environment Review Panel (2003-2006) (Ormerod); Director of the Institute of Orthopaedics Publishing Group and Chair of the International Cartilage Repair Society Programme Committee. (Richardson); Director of The Mercia Institute for Enterprise (2000-2003) and Pro Vice Chancellor for Research and Enterprise at Keele (1999-2003) (Williams); Chairman of the Working Group for the Infrared Beamline at DIAMOND synchrotron (Sule Suso); Chair (Cell and Molecular Biology and Executive Officer, European Respiratory Society (2004-); INSERM Expert, Department de l’Evaluation Scientifique, French National Institute (2001) (Spiteri).
Members are involved with organising national and international meetings in their field too numerous to list. Examples include Organiser of the 10th International Workshop on Cochlear Mechanics (2005-2008) (Cooper); Organizing committee of the Breath Gas Analysis for Medical Diagnostics Meeting, Dornbirn, Austria (2004) and Breath Analysis for Clinical Diagnosis and Therapeutic Monitoring, Innsbruck, Austria (2005) (Smith); Organizing committee of several international conferences including International Conference Chairman for IEEE-EMBS Special Topic Conference on Molecular, Cellular & Tissue Engineering, Genoa (2002) (Liu); Conference chair or co-chair and organizer of four national and international meetings, including the International Conference on Fine Particle Magnetism, London (2004) (Dobson); Organizer or co-organizer of nine international meetings, including the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine Symposium – Novel Strategies for Optical Monitoring in Tissue Engineering (2001 & 2002) and the TERMIS 2007 (El Haj); Chair of the Scientific Programme Committee for the European Peritoneal Dialysis Meetings in Brussels (2002), Prague (2005) and Helsinki (2007) (Davies);
Invited Presentations
Members of both ISTM and EPSAM are regularly invited to give seminars and conference presentations all over the world. Some examples include Cassidy: Invited speaker at five international and national meetings, including Keynote speaker and session Chair, International Workshop on Advanced Ground Penetrating Radar, Delft (2005); Cartmell: Four invited presentations, including Keynote, International Conference on Cellular Engineering, Sydney, Australia (2003); Davies: Over a dozen invited presentations, including the International Society of Nephrology, Berlin (2003) and American Society of Nephrology, Philadelphia (2005); Dobson: More than 20 invited presentations, including the Royal Society of Medicine & US Food and Drug Administration Conference on Gene Therapy: State of the Art, London, (2005) and American Geophysical Union Bi-Annual Meeting, San Francisco (2005); El Haj: More than 25 invited presentations, including the World Congress of Biomechanics, Munich (2006), the Society for Physical Regulation in Biology and Medicine, California (2004); Exley:  Six invited presentations at international meetings, including the TheoBio 05 and 07 symposia in Sweden and Italy; Kim: 10 invited lectures, including the International Workshop on Frontiers in Biophysics and NanoBiotechnology, Seoul, Korea (2006), Euroconference on NeuroGenetics, Nobel Forum, Stockholm (2002); Liu: Several invited presentations including the 2nd International Nano-/Micro-technology Conference, Hsinchu, Taiwan (2006); Ormerod:  35 invited presentations and public lectures, including the 11th International Conference on Solid State Ionics, Halkidiki (2001) and International Fuel Cell Meeting, Texas (2004); Roberts: Five invited lectures, including the AAOS Research Symposium, Chicago (2005); Smith: Invited lectures at the Breath Gas Analysis for Medical Diagnostics Meeting, Dornbirn, Austria (2004), Breath Analysis for Clinical Diagnosis and Therapeutic Monitoring, Innsbruck, Austria (2005); Styles: 35 Keynote and major public lectures including the UN Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organisation, Vienna (2005) and “Geoscience Teaching and Training Provision in the UK and its relevance to Industry and Society”, Palace of Westminster (2004); Sule-Suso: Invited presentations at several international meetings including the International Workshop on Biospectroscopy and chemometrics, Matforsk, Norway (2004); and Yang: Several invited presentations, including the 4th International conference on photonics and imaging in Biology and Medicine, Tianjin, China (2005).

Editorial Boards

  • Dobson: Editorial boards of IEEE Transactions on NanoBioscience, Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, American Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease & Other Dementias, Recent Patents in DNA and Gene Sequences, The Open Biomedical Engineering Journal, and Nanotechnology, Science & Applications. He is also managing editor of Frontiers of Bioscience, associate editor of Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine and is on the international reviewers panel of Medical Science Monitor.
  • Ashammakhi: Editorial board of the Journal of Craniofacial Surgery and European Journal of Plastic Surgery and editor of the open access e-book series “Topics in Tissue Engineering”.
  • Styles: Geophysics editor of Encyclopaedia of Geology (Elsevier) and Editorial Panel of “Geologia Tecnica & Ambientale”, Journal of the Italian National Council of Geologists.
  • Cassidy: Editorial board of Near-Surface Geophysics Journal and Subject Editor - Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology.
  • Exley: Editorial board of Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease and guest editor for six issues of Journal of Bioinorganic Chemistry.
  • Davies: Associate Editor of Peritoneal Dialysis International.
  • El Haj: Editorial board of Tissue Engineering & Regenerative Medicine.
  • Fricker-Gates: Section editor for NeuroReport, reviewing editor for Cell Transplantation.
  • Gates: Section editor for Cell Transplantation.
  • Howell: Editorial board of Journal of Reactive Polymers.
  • Pringle: Associate Editor of Geology Today.
  • Richardson: Editorial board of Hip International.
  • Roberts: Editorial board of European Spin Journal and Spine.
  • Spiteri: Editorial board of European Respiratory Topics.

Invited Reviews and Articles
  • Dobson: 14 invited review articles since 2003, including articles for Gene Therapy, Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics (which has been cited over 190 times since 2003) and the inaugural issue of NanoMedicine.
  • Ormerod: Reviews on solid oxide fuel cells for Chemical Society Reviews and chapter on ‘Fuels and Fuel Processing’ in the first book devoted specifically to Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (Springer-Verlag, 2004).
  • El Haj: Four invited reviews, including Mechanical Bioreactors for Tissue Engineering in Kluwer’s “Bioreactors for Tissue Engineering”, Expert Opinion Series and IEEE Transactions on NanoBioscience.
  • Furness: Three invited book chapters, including Elsevier’s “Handbook of the Senses”.
  • Cartmell: Invited review chapter on Mechanical Bioreactors for Tissue Engineering in Kluwer’s “Bioreactors for Tissue Engineering”.
  • Chari: Invited chapter in International Review of Neurobiology.
Learned Society and Research Fellowships
  • Smith: Fellow of the Royal Society of London and the Institute of Physics.
  • Styles: President, Geological Society of London (2004-2006), Fellow of the Geological Society, the Royal Astronomical Society and the Institute of Material Minerals and Mining.
  • Dobson: Royal Society of London Wolfson Research Merit Fellow, Fellow of the Royal Society of Medicine, Fellow of the Institute of Nanotechnology.
  • O’Brien: Vice President of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
  • Davies: Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians.
  • Exley: Royal Society Research Fellow (1994-2004).
  • Ormerod: EPSRC Advanced Research Fellow (1998-2003).
  • Palmer: Medical Research Council Fellow.
  • Cassidy: Royal Society Industrial Fellow.
  • Collingwood: RCUK and EPSRC Life Sciences Interface Fellow and past Alzheimer’s Society Fellow.
  • Chari: Multiple Sclerosis Society Fellow (2003-2006).
  • Johnson: McNab/Larocca Fellow of the International Society for the Study of the Lumbar Spine - University of Kentucky (2001)

Awards, Prizes and Other International Esteem Indicators
Aside from many “best paper” and “best poster” prizes awarded to ISTM and EPSAM members at both national and international meetings, other indicators of international esteem include: Collingwood holds a Visiting Research Assistant Scientist post at the Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Florida. Dobson is Eminent Scholar Visiting Professor at the Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Florida (since 2005), co-recipient of a Sir Henry Wellcome Showcase Award, and his work was included in the UK National Museum of Science and Industry’s 2005 exhibition, “Nanotechnology: Small Science, Big Deal”. He participated in the Royal Society’s MP-Scientist Pairing Scheme and in 2004 received a Royal Society Wolfson Research Merit Award. His work has been featured in many media and press reports, including BBC Radio News (2005), BBC Radio 4: The Material World (2004), Nature - News@Nature (2004), The Economist (2003), (2003), and United Press International (UPI) Wire Service (2003). El Haj is co-recipient of a Sir Henry Wellcome Showcase Award and the Nightingale Prize for “Best Paper of 2004” in the journal Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing (short-listed for most cited IOP publication, 2006). Her work was also featured in a news article in The Economist in 2003. Gates is a member of the Phi Kappa Phi honours society for neuroscience and was elected to the Faculty of 1000. Howell was Visiting Professor at Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chime, Paris (2006). Mountney received the first British Sedimentological Research Group (BSRG) award for 'Outstanding contribution to published research in any field of sedimentology'. Styles is Chair of the Review Panel of the European Consortium for Research Drilling and has been interviewed several times on BBC Breakfast Time and other international, national and regional media concerning UK seismicity including Dudley, Manchester and Kent Earthquakes, and was awarded the British Wind Energy Association Prize for the most significant contribution to onshore wind energy in 2005. Yang was co-recipient of the Nightingale Prize for “Best Paper of 2004” in the journal Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing (short-listed for most cited IOP publication, 2006).