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UOA 36 - Business and Management Studies

University of Leicester

RA5a: Research environment and esteem

Introduction

Since 2001, management research at the University of Leicester has been transformed. A University-level strategic decision in 2002 to commit very significant investment set in motion changes designed to develop the School into an international research department with a distinctive intellectual profile. Our appointment strategy is driven by the desire to create a vibrant research culture with clear links to other parts of the University, such as the Centre for Labour Market Studies (CLMS). Overall academic staff numbers have increased from 11 to 38, which includes 12 Professors. We also have 10 Visiting or Honorary Research Staff. Our objective has been to establish the School as the pre-eminent centre for social scientific research into alternative ways of understanding organization, work, and management. Since the last RAE, staff submitted here as category A have produced 34 monographs and 24 edited volumes, edited 23 special issues of journals, published 338 discrete refereed journal articles and 191 chapters in edited collections. This averages at 15.4 items of research output per member of staff submitted, and this excludes translations, reviews, proceedings, professional publications and so on.

At present, the School has one of the largest groups of heterodox scholars in management, marketing and organization studies in the world. We share an intellectual conviction that organization and organising are highly complex historical phenomena and that research in management is best conducted in an inter-disciplinary context which draws its analyses from the core disciplines of sociology, politics, philosophy and economics as well as from developments in critical psychology, cultural geography, cultural studies and organizational theory. This is a perspective which sits comfortably within the UoA descriptor, but – as demonstrated by our research ‘cluster’ strategy (see below) – privileges our particular attempt to ground the management disciplines more visibly and broadly within their social scientific origins. Hence, we are concerned not only to study how the contemporary world has come to be organized as it is, but also to explore the viability of the many alternative forms which co-exist with the mainstream economy. In short, we are interested in how contemporary organization and management can be re-examined and reconfigured from a wide range of theoretical positions.

In order to accomplish this, we have developed a strategy which, firstly, is focussed on developing a creative and energising research oriented environment for both staff and students; and secondly, a dissemination strategy which promotes our work.

Research Strategy

We have implemented an array of policies and structures designed to institutionalise a research-led culture and facilitate a coherent approach to research as a core activity. Fundamental to this strategy is a staffing policy designed to attract and retain a balanced complement of high-quality research-active staff from a range of management disciplines.

Overall research strategy is driven by a Research Committee which reports to the School Steering Committee and, externally, to the Faculty Research Committee (which is itself currently chaired by one of our Professors). The School Research Committee has a broad-based membership with representation from each disciplinary area within the School as well as the Doctoral programme. It is supported by a Research Secretary and the Administrator of the Doctoral programme. In terms of policy, our workload model explicitly recognises the crucial importance of research for our future plans, and works on the basis that each member of staff should be spending approximately three days per week on teaching and administration during term time, with the remaining time spent on research. Our Teaching and Administration Plan attempts to equalise all staff hours, and includes allowances for teaching, administration, committee work and PhD supervision. Probationary staff are allocated two thirds of a full load in order to allow them to begin their research careers, and all non-Professorial staff have subject related Professorial mentors. We also administer a general university scheme for study leave in which staff are eligible to bid for one semester study leave in every seven. This is overseen by our Professorial Board which considers individual bids and scrutinises final reports. The Director of Research can also recommend some flexibility in work allocation; e.g. the use of ‘light terms’ to facilitate research activity.

Like the panel, we regard grant income as an input not an output. While our strategy places a significant emphasis on the development and dissemination of theoretical research activity, we also have £638K of attributable grant income since 2001. However, this figure significantly undervalues our external research income. This is because many of the submitted staff who have joined ULSM since our expansion after 2003 have grant income registered with their previous institutions. This figure (excluding the figure above) totals a further £1.4 million.

Research Groupings

Wherever possible, we wish to minimise disciplinary segregation. This reflects our commitment to promoting interdisciplinary collaborative research and we have not attempted to construct a series of self-contained research groups. Our approach has been to encourage groupings to emerge organically in order to facilitate existing and emergent staff research interests. As a means of integration in a period of rapid growth, and as a strategy to articulate existing synergies and promote the development of new research ideas and new research centres, this has proved highly productive.

To date, the result of this policy is that six research clusters organised around particular analytic themes have become well-established. All are self-organising and open groupings. In practice, staff are usually associated with more than one cluster. Some clusters have external members; several operate their own web pages; several are directly involved in wider national and international research associations and collaborations. Five of these clusters already organise a variety of both internal and external collective research activities, workshops and international conferences.

1. Alternative Organising
(Burrell, Casey, Dale, Davis, Fournier, C Jones, Keenoy, Lightfoot, Lilley, Lim, Parker, Rainnie, Weik.)
A major research focus in the School is the exploration of alternative forms of organization and management. This work, designed to develop and promote different ways of theorising organization and organizational processes, has three major analytic themes.

First, members have published extensive detailed commentaries on contemporary organization theory, much of which explores its philosophical underpinnings and emphasises the potential analytic value of post-structuralist thought. Of particular significance is a range of work which subjects organization theory to historical, feminist and critical scrutiny (Burrell, Casey, Dale, C Jones).

Second, there is a parallel stream of research focussed on ‘alternative management’ which addresses the limitations of mainstream approaches to the management process. Of note here is influential work which offers a cultural critique of contemporary management and managerialism, and explores the role of alternative forms of organizing (Parker). Other studies examine the value of utopian thought for contemporary management, explore the potential of gender in alternative organising and detail the impact of the co-operative organisational form on HRM and governance (Davis, Fournier, Keenoy).

Third, there is a growing body of innovative interdisciplinary research which explores the potential analytic significance of the spatio-temporal dimensions of organising and considers the implications for the management process. This work includes a fundamental reconsideration of the relationship between organisation, architecture and space. Related studies explore the impact of speed and acceleration on contemporary organising, the changing temporal rhythms of management practice, the spatial embeddedness of industrial relations practices, and the temporal consequences of performance management on work in contemporary universities (Burrell, Dale, Keenoy, Lightfoot, Lilley, Lim, Rainnie, Weik).

Some research activities of this cluster are organised through the ‘Collective for Alternative Organization Studies’ which was established in 2004. It has organized seminars, two workshops (2004, 2005) and co-organised an international conference – ‘Reclaiming the Economy: the Role of Cooperative Enterprise, Ownership and Control’ (2006). Other activities are organised through the complementary ‘Unit for Membership Based Organizations’, which dates back to the 1990s. The latter publishes the International Journal of Co-operative Management, and is part of a global network of membership based organizations.

2. Philosophy, Politics and Ethics
(Brown, Dunne, Harvie, C Jones, Lim, Lilley, Parker, Tadajewski, Wagner-Tsukamoto.)
An interest in the philosophical roots of organization theory informs much of the research conducted across the School. This concern finds its clearest expression in this cluster of research activity which is organised through the ‘Centre for Philosophy and Political Economy’ (CPPE). In broad terms, the purpose of the CPPE is to develop a philosophically informed understanding of the various political and socio-economic developments in the global economy and relate this to contemporary management and organization theory. It was established in 2003 and runs its own seminar programme and reading groups. It has also organized many conferences and visits from major international figures – Critchley (New School) in 2004, Clough (CUNY) in 2005 and Spivak (Columbia) in 2006.

There are two inter-related streams of research. First, members are building an extensive and significant body of work which elucidates and develops the argument that our understanding of management must be understood in a wider philosophical context. For example, much of mainstream organization theory relies on long-established understandings of Kuhn’s work on paradigms or a now standard interpretation of the relationship between ‘post-modernism’ and the knowledge society. In a series of books and articles this group seeks to challenge these ideas, often by using the thinking of a range of, primarily, post-structuralist philosophers. This is reflected in work which builds on ideas from Bergson, Butler, Derrida, Deleuze, Foucault, Lyotard, and Serres. Related work explores the analytic links between forms of Marxism and political-economic theorising, with a particular emphasis on attempting to make connections between the practicalities of ‘politics’ and the abstractions of ‘theory’. A philosophical perspective has also been employed in a variety of studies which examine the construction of entrepreneurship and the new economy; the anti-capitalist movements that oppose such developments; and the economic globalisation which provides its context (Brown, C Jones, Harvie, Parker, Tadajewski).

Secondly, several members of this group have a long standing interest in the field of business ethics. This has resulted in a book which offers a distinctively alternative approach to business ethics (C Jones, Parker) and a wide range of papers which explore the ethical and political bases of social action in management and organising. These include work on corporate social responsibility and its relation to Critical Management Studies; studies of stakeholder democracy and ‘green’ consumerism; papers on the economics of business ethics; and work on Levinas and ethics (Harvie, C Jones, Lim, Parker, Tadajewski and Wagner-Tsukamoto).

3. Business History and Institutional Analysis
(Armstrong, Arnold, Batiz-Lazo, Bryman, Jackson, Harvie, Haven, Suhomlinova, Wagner-Tsukamoto, Wisniewski.)
This cluster combines an interest in the historical development of private and public sector organisation and management practice with a concern to analyse the organisational consequences and limitations of particular institutional arrangements. Their collective work exemplifies the potential for cross-disciplinary analyses.

In addition to a particular research strength in the business history of railways and the comparative analysis of institutional practices in banking, the work of this grouping includes critical analyses of accounting history, the practice of management accountancy and funded work on the history of new technology and the financial sector (Armstrong, Arnold, Batiz-Lazo). A central theme is the regulatory role of the state in shaping institutional procedures and management practices. This has resulted in a range of studies conducted on the impact of regulation and legislative change on financial disclosure, various aspects of public sector economic decision-making and international comparisons of public sector provision. It includes empirical work on the NHS, schools and the public sector in general; and there is a particular cluster of work concerned with the HE sector. ULSM has several members of staff who have written on the governance of universities, including funded research on leadership, as well as on the practice of teaching, and the increasing importance of research ethics committees on research practice (Armstrong, Bryman, Harvie, Jackson, Suhomlinova).

More broadly, the group includes work on the theory of institutional economics, including its application to the public sector, and empirical studies of insider dealing and their relation to state regulatory regimes (Jackson, Wagner-Tsukamoto, Wisniewksi). These contributions are complemented by research which models institutional change in transitional economies and provides a comparative analysis of redistribution in state socialist regimes (Suhomlinova). Underpinning many of these contributions is work on advanced quantitative techniques, particularly those with application to issues in finance, productivity and operations (Haven, Jackson, Wisniewksi) and reflected in the work of the ‘Efficiency and Productivity Research Unit’.

4. Consumption, Identity and Diversity
(Brewis, Bryman, Dale, Davies, Fitchett, Higgins, Jack, Saren, Tadajewski.)
The increased concern with managing culture in and around organization is the analytic focus for this cluster of research. More specifically, the work explores the significance of consumption on the construction of identity and socio-economic experience in contemporary society.

First, the extent to which these wider cultural trends are impacting on organization is reflected in a multiplicity of studies which focus on the social consequences of the emerging patterns of contemporary consumption. From a range of critical perspectives, this research encompasses studies which focus on how the political, and aesthetic, construction of consumerism and consumerist values has impacted on (and appears to be transforming) a wide range of behaviour and social practices. A major contribution is a highly influential analysis of Disneyization which identifies how theming, internal marketing, and emotional labour are increasingly familiar aspects of organizational life (Bryman). Other research explores the organization of phenomena as diverse as the experience of pregnancy, child-rearing and adoption practices; the consumption of fast food, eating habits and nutrition, drug consumption and drug testing; and the changing character of sexual activity, sexual harassment and the ‘sex industry’ (Brewis, Dale, Davies, Higgins, Jack). Also worthy of note are publications on the emergence of patterns of ‘sadistic’ versions of the service encounter, and (connecting to research in other clusters) on the commodification of political and anti-corporate protest (Fitchett, Tadajewski).

The second significant stream of research in this cluster is work which offers critical theoretical development of ideas from consumer culture and marketing theory and practice. This encompasses work on the challenge posed by stakeholder theory for marketing theory; paradigm incommensurability in marketing research; critical studies of relationship marketing and social marketing. These theoretical studies are complemented by grant-funded empirical work which is soliciting oral histories of the consumer, and substantial archival research on the impact of the Cold War on marketing practice, with a particular emphasis on the USA (Davies, Fitchett, Higgins, Saren, Tadajewski).

In 2005, people involved with this cluster established a research network on the theme of ‘Marketing, Consumption and Cultural Identity’. It organises a seminar series which brings together colleagues with similar interests from other Departments in the University (Sociology, Media and Communication, Archaeology and History).

5. Methodology and Textual Analysis
(Brown, Bryman, Dunne, Ellis, Higgins, Fitchett, Jack, P Jones, Keenoy, Lightfoot, Lilley, Weik.)
There is a wide interest in the technologies of knowledge across the School. Some is explicitly about methods and methodology, some more generally concerned with the impact and significance of discursive practices for knowledge creation. It centres on an acknowledgement of the ‘linguistic turn’ in organizational analysis and there is a widely shared interest in discourse and the problems this poses for representation in organising and, more specifically, for the conduct of the research process.

A major strength of this cluster is extensive work which has developed our appreciation of quantitative, qualitative and mixed-method approaches, as well as highly influential writing about their relative utility and limitations which had influence across the social sciences in general (Bryman). Several members have played a prominent role in conducting and promoting research in organizational discourse analysis, including significant work on the conceptual implications of metaphor and analogical reasoning for organizational analysis (Keenoy). This is complemented by more specific studies which utilise a variety of discursive approaches. These include work on the potential of science fiction and other literary texts for understanding contemporary organization; the influence of Darwinian metaphors in socio-economic life; and the discursive analyses of codes of practice in supply-chains. Other studies have explored the construction of organizational identity; the discourses employed to market an extreme right-wing party; and work which explores how a wide range of social and organizational ‘memories’ are recovered through a variety of discursive and semiotic processes (Brown, Dunne, Ellis, Higgins, P Jones, Lightfoot, Lilley, Weik).

A second strength of this cluster is a more specific concern with the idea of ‘representation’ as a method for producing organized objects. This has generated studies of information technology and knowledge; the creation of the mythology surrounding the ‘new’ economy; the discursive representations invoked to create ‘markets’ and analysis of the narratives employed by financial traders (Brown, Ellis, Fitchett, Ellis, Lightfoot, Lilley).

Since the last RAE, members of this group have co-organized three international conferences, and the group includes a co-director (Keenoy) of the ‘International Centre for Research in Organizational Discourse, Strategy and Change’, an international network of discourse scholars which formally links researchers from ULSM with Cambridge, Cardiff, Lund, McGill, Melbourne, Sydney, and Texas A&M.

6. Work, Employment and the Knowledge Economy
(Bresnen, Casey, Rainnie, Beck, Hammer, Harvie, Haven, Williams.)
The socio-economic and political significance of work and the regulation of employment relations remains a fundamental aspect of management. Themes which inform work in this cluster are the consequences of global deregulation on work and employment, and the implications of changes in work organization for understanding knowledge work and innovation. There are three inter-related research streams.

One focus is on the socio-cultural regulation of training for work and employment in the context of increasing demands to promote the ‘knowledge-based’ economy. Alongside a critical evaluation of the wider implications of these demands for a ‘learning economy’, there are studies of the social implications of lifelong learning on the changing character of educational provision, of resistance and gender in apprenticeship training, and the relationship between youth training and the labour market. The associated demands for increasing labour market flexibility is reflected in studies of working hours, the impact of FDI on labour markets and more focussed analyses of women in non-standard employment (Casey, Beck, Harvie).

Second is research on trade union responses to deregulation. Work on the future of unions is complemented by research on the prospects for ‘global’ unions and more focussed research on industrial relations in small firms and the impact of national labour relations reforms on the regional economy and regional development (Rainnie, Hammer, Williams).

Third, there is work on the implications of building a ‘knowledge economy’ for understanding innovation, productivity and performance management. One research stream analyses the efficiency and effectiveness of markets and operations (Haven) while the other major focus is around knowledge management, innovation, diffusion and organizational learning. This latter has generated a range of grant funded research on organizing projects; knowledge sharing and social capital; and learning in project based networks. It includes specific studies in construction, the NHS and biomedical services (Bresnen). Much of this latter research is organised through the Innovation, Knowledge and Organisational Networks research unit (IKON) which coordinates an international network of researchers. Established in 1996, IKON is primarily funded through the ESRC and EPSRC. Bresnen is a founding member and former co-Director of this group which links a group of researchers from ULSM, with Warwick and Bentley College, USA and provides a vehicle for researchers interested in innovation, managing knowledge and organisational networks. It has organized leading international conferences in the field, including one at Leicester, and enjoys an international reputation.

Doctoral Programme

The creation and development of a vibrant Doctoral Programme is a key objective of our overall research strategy. This is critical to our long term development and, as part of their training, students are expected to participate in a wide range of School research activities.

As RA3 indicates, there has been a steady rise in our research student numbers and a sharp rise in our Ph.D. completions. Since 2003 the Doctoral programme has been stimulated by a School-funded Bursary Scheme and Graduate Teaching Assistant (GTA) funding which has supported 13 three year bursaries, 3 one year bursaries and two GTAs. However, the increase in high quality applications also reflects the School’s growing reputation. ESRC +3 accreditation was awarded in 2003 and, since 2004, all first year doctoral students have been required to take four assessed modules taught by School staff.

All students are allocated a primary and secondary supervisor and are subject to a rigorous progression regime with evaluation meetings every six months and a formal presentation to an Upgrade Panel, usually after twelve months. Reflecting our commitment to this programme, an annual budget has been allocated to support doctoral work. Students can bid to our Research Committee for significant funding for their primary research, including overseas fieldwork, and to fund their attendance at conferences and external research training. Each student has an individual desk and a computer within two-person offices; and final year students normally have their own office. In Jan 2008, the new University library will also have a dedicated area for post-graduate students, including group study facilities. Primary supervisors and almost all second supervisors are School staff (a small number of the latter are visiting or former staff). Doctoral students have their own Staff Student Consultative Committee and as a matter of policy, wherever possible, are fully integrated into the school. This includes responsibility for organizing seminars, reading groups and workshops. One was a co-organiser of an international conference organized by academic staff in 2006 (and, subsequently, a co-editor of two special issues), and 9 were involved in organizing the 2007 SCOS conference in Ljubljana. Every year since 2004 they have organized their own doctoral research conferences, as well as events with students from other universities (Leicester/UVH Utrecht 2004, Leicester/Warwick 2005, Leicester/Copenhagen 2006), supported by School funds. A policy of hosting visiting PhD students has also been established, and in 2005 we began a reciprocal exchange agreement with Copenhagen Business School. Some of our recent doctoral graduates have appointments within the School, others have secured posts at Essex, Lund, Open, Queen Mary London and Warwick.

Staff submitted here also provide a major contribution to the Faculty PhD training programme. This is a rolling programme of day workshops, nine per year, aimed at students in different years of their PhD. For example, in 2006-7 members of the school contributed sessions on ethics (C Jones), conferences (Brewis) writing (Parker), publishing (Jack), and the viva (Saren). This Faculty programme is one element of the University’s general infrastructure to support Doctoral research students. For example, the library offers research skills training and one-to-one support for research students on topics such as information searching, discovery and retrieval, critical evaluation and bibliographic citation. The University is also developing a distance learning PhD based on core modules developed as part of the CLMS DSocSci which already has over 100 students registered.

Research Activities

Since we prioritise the promotion and development of collaborative interdisciplinary research, research-related skills and research-related activities, a central part of this strategy is the weekly (term-time) School or Research Unit Seminar which has become an institutionalised point of cross-disciplinary communication since 2003. All staff, research students and colleagues from other Departments attend routinely. In addition we also promote a series of other parallel seminar programmes and research workshops. Some are led by staff, others by research students. For example, during academic year 2006-7 there was a total of 23 seminars, in addition to regular meetings of 7 internal ‘reading groups’ focussed on specific texts from authors such as Althusser, Derrida, Laclau and Lacan. These various collective events are fundamental to the maintenance and development of a variety of research perspectives within the School and to the promotion of collective engagement in research. We have also organized three writing workshops for staff and postgraduates (Murray in 2005, Basbøll in 2006 and 2007), an ESRC/AIM workshop on grants in 2005, and a presentation by the Director of AIM in 2007.

With respect to facilitation, alongside a commitment to fund all reasonable research-related activity for all members of staff, staff are strongly encouraged to organize School-level conferences and workshops. Since the last RAE, staff have organized 19 such conferences and day schools. All have involved external speakers and attracted international speakers and delegates. Notable events have been the ‘European Critical Accounting Conference’ (July 2002); ESRC seminars on Accounting (March 2004) and Marketing (December 2004); conferences on Foucault (March 2005), Levinas (October 2005), Bergson (December 2006), Deleuze (February 2007) and a series of workshops on Lacan; ‘The Cultural Studies of Organization’ (November 2005); ‘Theorising Entrepreneurship’ (September 2006); and three conferences on Performance Measurement (April 2002, February 2006, June 2007). These events have not only led to the generation of new research ideas and research output, they have also brought our staff and students into contact with a regular stream of research active academics from across the world, and in many cases directly led to special issues of journals on Levinas (Business Ethics: An European Review), and Popular Culture (Organization), and an edited book on critical marketing (Saren et al, 2007).

In order to expand our community of scholars we have also appointed a number of visiting and honorary staff. Some have the School as their sole or main affiliation (Ms Pippa Carter; Prof Robert Cooper; Prof Robert Grafton-Small; Dr Norman Jackson, Dr Ruud Kaulingfreks, Dr Warren Smith). Others are Honorary Scholars – Prof Barbara Czarniawska (Stockholm), Prof Cynthia Hardy (Melbourne), Prof Carl Rhodes (UT Sydney), Dr Matteo Mandarini (Queen Mary), Dr Sverre Spoelstra (Lund). We also host occasional Visiting Scholars for whom we provide desk and IT support. As a matter of routine, they participate in and contribute to our research-related activities. Visiting Scholars have included Dong (Beijing, 2004-5), Westwood (Queensland, 2005), Svensson (Lund, 2006), Khakwani (Bahauddin Zakariya, Pakistan, 2006 on a British Council fellowship), Barca (Sakarya, Turkey, 2006, on a Turkish research fellowship), Kumbhakar (2006, SUNY), Lozano-Vivas (2006, Malaga), Ozcan (Afyon Karahisar, Turkey, 2007, on a Turkish research fellowship), Milne and Ball (Christchurch 2007) and Kirstens (Lille, 2007).

Research Support Infrastructure

A high quality library environment, excellent print and digital collections, and institutional support are essential in order to conduct our research. The Library holds over a million volumes and resources for purchase are selected to ensure that the collections are aligned with research priorities. Since 2001, ULSM has spent £790k to support its expanding research needs for library materials and access to online databases. It is also relevant that the University is investing £32m in a major extension and refurbishment of the main building which will be complete at the end of 2007. The Library’s catalogue records have recently been accepted for inclusion on both COPAC (the Consortium of Research Libraries combined library catalogue of research -intensive Universities) and SUNCAT (the national combined catalogue of periodicals), a mark of the quality of the collections. Staff and PhD students have access to 16,750 academic journal titles, and the growing digital library is presented in a disciplinary context through an interlinked set of discipline-specific portals supported by expert Information Librarians. The Library has also developed and successfully launched the Leicester Research Archive which will act as an open access publishing vehicle for research outputs, as required by funding bodies, and be the repository for doctoral theses authored at Leicester, as part of the EThOSnet consortium project which includes many of the research-intensive Universities as partners. The research environment is supported by a campus network connecting 10,000 devices, a 1Gb/s connection to the JANET network, wireless hotspots across the campus, 1000 computers in Open Access Areas, Storage Area Network for general file and email storage, and a Service Desk and responsive user support. This physical infrastructure, together with the research related training activities of the university Staff Development Centre and the support of the Research Office, underpin our collective efforts.

Dissemination Policy

The creation and development of a vibrant research culture must be underpinned by a coherent and wide-ranging dissemination policy. At present ours comprises three elements. First, maximising the number of staff and research student presentations at external conferences and seminars. Second, encouraging staff and research students to organise (where possible, self-funding) local, national and international conferences and workshops. Third, the School encourages scholarly activity that supports dissemination, such as editing journals, editorial work for journals and publishers, refereeing and so on.

a) Conference Participation
The School endeavours to fund all requests from staff to present papers at UK and international conferences. Staff in this submission have presented at least 546 discrete conference and workshop presentations since the last RAE, over 14 per person. Not only is this important in terms of dissemination, it is critical for the construction and development of new ideas and for creating and building new research networks and collaborations. Conference participation is also a crucial element in career development.

b) Conference/Workshop Organization
Many members of the submission have organized panels and streams at major conferences and frequently acted as session chairs and as referees for conference papers. In addition, as well as the 19 local conferences and events noted above, major international conferences organised under the umbrella of the School include:
• ‘The 6th International Conference on Organizational Discourse: Artefacts, Archetypes and Architexts’, Free University, Amsterdam (July 2004)
• ‘Denaturing Darwin’ International School of Philosophy, Leusden, Netherlands (November 2004)
• ‘The 7th International Conference on Organizational Discourse: Identity, Ideology and Idiosyncrasy’, Free University, Amsterdam (July 2006)
• ‘Reclaiming the Economy: the Role of Cooperative Enterprise, Ownership and Control’ University of Wales Institute (September, 2006)
• ‘Signs of the Future: 25th Standing Conference on Organizational Symbolism’, Ljubljana (July 2007).

c) Special Issues of Leading Journals
During the review period, 17 staff have edited (or co-edited) 23 special issues of journals, an activity which has facilitated the dissemination of particular concerns and analytic themes.
Accounting, Business and Financial History 2004 (Batiz-Lazo)
Building Research and Information 2005 (Bresnen)
Business Ethics: An European Review 2007 (C Jones)
Compare: the British Journal of Comparative Education 2006 (Casey)
Culture and Organisation 2004, 2005 & 2006 (Brewis, Jack, Lightfoot, Lilley)
ephemera: theory and politics in organisation 2005 (Dunne)
Gender, Work and Organization 2007 (Dale)
International Employment Relations Review 2004 (Rainnie)
International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 2007 (Ellis, Keenoy)
International Studies in Management and Organization 2001 (Keenoy)
Journal of Organizational Change Management 2001 (Keenoy)
Kurswechsel 2002 (Hammer)
Language and Intercultural Communication 2004 (Jack)
Marketing Theory 2003 (Saren)
New Technology, Work and Employment 2005 (Rainnie)
Qualitative Market Research 2001 (Ellis)
Organization 2003 (Parker)
Organization Management Journal 2005 (Keenoy)
Organization Studies 2005 (Keenoy)
Qualitative Research 2006 (Bryman)
Time and Society 2005 (Keenoy)

Future Strategy

ULSM is now internationally recognised as a key centre for critical scholarship in Management, and our development since the last RAE is clear. Whilst the overall heterodox direction is established and will be maintained, there will be new emphases, and both a consolidation and an expansion of our research and dissemination activity. In this regard, we are particularly keen to recruit younger staff who will benefit from our energizing research culture, and work alongside our established senior researchers.

We are anticipating a broadening and a deepening of research interests. For example, the School has already gained the support of the University in a move towards green and environmental concerns in several sub-disciplines, as well as a further development of our interests in the intersections between philosophy, theory and organization. Drawing these concerns together is the broad area of corporate social responsibility, a term with connections to ethical theory, concerns about sustainability and natural limits, and the wider political and economic context of global capitalism. A conference on ‘Derrida and Business Ethics’ is planned for 2008. Understanding the variety of alternative organizational and economic forms (such as co-operatives) also becomes of central importance to our collective research effort insofar as they suggest ways to address the multiple problems caused by global warming and environmental degradation. So too does a more sophisticated understanding of consumption, particularly in the context of crises of over-production, and ever more invasive attempts at marketing.

The recent appointment of Casey and links with CLMS provide an obvious opportunity to develop more collaborative research projects centred on issues around the sociology of work (and its possible futures), labour markets and human resource management. Understanding all these issues as global phenomena, driven in part by the idea of a move to a knowledge economy, is particularly important. We are also exploring the creation of a formal centre for business history, with an emphasis on the histories of accounting and finance, but see this historical emphasis as underpinning much of the other research too, such as in marketing, where we already have significant strengths, and a number of high profile publications and events over the next two years. Researching the varied histories of global capitalism is one of the ways in which the contemporary world might be better understood.

The PhD programme will grow steadily, but with an emphasis on maintaining our high quality training and supervision, and further building our reputation in this area. We will be collaborating with CLMS on their distance learning PhD aimed at public sector professionals, and we believe this fits well with our research strengths and intentions.

Finally, in terms of dissemination, alongside a continuation of our present activities, we propose to supplement work in scholarly journals with more accessible writing for more popular and professional publications. In addition, we are in the process of developing an open access approach to our publications. For research of any kind to be useful and influential, it must be available. We have provided financial assistance for an online journal in the past (ephemera), and are currently assisting a new not for profit publisher co-founded by C Jones (mayfly). Further, we propose to link up with the University’s ‘Leicester Research Archive’ in order to develop an online repository of research output by ULSM staff, and to explore other ways in which our academic work can gain a wider audience.

In sum, since 2001, as this submission demonstrates, management research at Leicester has been transformed. The School is on a clear developmental trajectory. We have established a coherent staffing policy to enhance and expand our research capabilities; developed an intellectually robust research strategy to facilitate a creative and productive work environment; constructed a rigorous Doctoral programme to train new scholars; and created a set of integrated management policies and practices to ensure we are meeting our objectives. Staff numbers, publications, conferences, PhD completions and esteem factors are all very clearly moving on an upward trend. Collectively, these developments are designed to provide a platform from which to articulate positive ‘alternative’ management knowledge in the years to come.

Esteem Factors

All the activities listed above under ‘Dissemination Policy’ have also contributed significantly to the developing international reputation of the School and could also be read as indicators of esteem. Further, the fact that the ideas generated by Leicester staff have been presented at 149 invited research seminars at other institutions, 30 of which were overseas, suggests a clear link between dissemination and esteem. More specific indicators of esteem are listed below.

a) Editorships of Journals
13 school staff have been editors for academic journals during the period.
British Journal of Social Psychology (Brown)
ephemera (Dunne, C Jones)
International Journal of Business Performance Management (Jackson)
Journal of Consumer Behaviour (Davies, Fitchett)
International Journal of Co-operative Management (Davis)
Labour & Industry (Australia) (Rainnie)
Marketing Theory (Saren)
Organization (Bresnen, Burrell, Parker)
Theory and Science (Weik).
Both Burrell and C Jones have been editors of two different book series for Palgrave during this period, and Batiz-Lazo has been general editor of New Economic Papers (as well as editor for some of the specific series).

b) Editorial Boards of Journals
Virtually all staff routinely act as referees for a very wide range of management and social science journals, and the majority have sat on the editorial boards of 45 academic journals:
Accounting Organizations and Society (Armstrong)
Advanced Studies in Theoretical Physics (Haven)
Athenea Digital (Brown)
Business Strategy and the Environment (Saren)
Building Research and Information (Bresnen)
Capital and Class (Hammer)
Construction Management and Economics (Bresnen)
Consumption Markets and Culture (Fitchett, Jack)
Critical Perspectives on Accounting (Armstrong)
Critical Perspectives on International Business (Parker)
Culture and Organization (Grafton-Small, Lilley)
Economic Analysis and Policy (Jackson)
Economics e-journal (Haven)
European Journal of Marketing (Saren)
Financial Accountability and Management (Jackson)
Gender Work and Organization (Brewis, Burrell, Dale, Fournier)
Human Resource Development International (Brewis)
International Journal of Financial Services Management (Batiz-Lazo)
International Journal of Healthcare Technology and Management (Jackson)
International Marketing Review (Jack)
Journal of Applied Behavioural Science (Keenoy)
Journal of Consumer Marketing (Saren)
Journal of Co-operative Studies (Davis)
Journal of Critical Postmodern Organization Science (Parker)
Journal of Customer Behaviour (Saren)
Journal of Management History (Batiz-Lazo)
Journal of Management and Organization (Bryman)
Journal of Mixed Methods Research (Bryman)
Journal of Organizational Change Management (C Jones)
Language and Intercultural Communication (Jack)
Leadership (Bryman, Parker)
Leadership Quarterly (Bryman)
Marketing Theory (Fitchett)
Memory Studies (Brown)
Methodological Innovations Online (Bryman)
New Technology Work and Employment (Rainnie)
Organization (Brewis, Carter, Casey)
Organization Studies (Brewis, Casey)
Public Money and Management (Jackson)
Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management (Bryman)
Revista Romana de Economie (Haven)
Risk Management (Jackson)
Romanian Journal of Economic Forecasting (Haven)
Sociological Review (Parker)
Work, Employment and Society (Rainnie)

c) Prizes and Honours
More direct reflections of esteem come from the prizes and honours awarded to our staff during the review period.
Arnold won the Basil Yamey prize for the best article in Accounting Business and Financial History in 2002
Bresnen’s 2001 CMS2 paper at Manchester was selected as best in stream and his 2001 paper at the 21st Strategic Management Society conference in San Francisco was considered for the Best Conference Paper Prize.
Bryman’s sustained contribution to social scientific methodology has been recognised with an OUP prize which is named after him (the Bryman and Bell Prize).
Burrell and Jackson were both elected Academicians of ALSSS in 2005.
Casey was awarded the James Cook Fellowship from the Royal Society of New Zealand for 2007-2009 and, in both 2004 and 2005 was awarded a Grade A on Research Assessment by the New Zealand Tertiary Education Commission.
Ellis and Fitchett won the best paper award in their streams at the 2002 Academy of Marketing conference in Nottingham.
Jack won the Research Methods division best paper award at the Academy of Management conference, New Orleans 2004; collected a BJM citation award in 2004 and also won an honorarium from Illinois-Chicago to present at a symposium there in 2004.
Keenoy was nominated Best Developmental Reviewer by the Academy of Management (CMS Interest Group) in 2004.
Lim – one of our emerging scholars – has been awarded four prizes: the Glynn Jones Prize at Cambridge in 2002, the Postgraduate Prize for Business Ethics awarded by EBEN/IBE in 2004, the best paper prize at the Judge Business School Doctoral conference, Cambridge, and the best paper award at the Academy of Management colloquium, Manchester in 2006.
Parker, Fournier and Reedy’s Dictionary of Alternatives (Zed, 2007) was book of the week on openDemocracy.net.
Saren won best paper in Electronic Marketing at the Academy of Marketing conference Nottingham 2002, and was made an Honourary Fellow of the UK Academy of Marketing in 2007.
Wagner-Tsukamoto won Most Original Paper award at Western Business and Management conference, Las Vegas 2006.
Wisniewksi has four awards: the best paper prize from the New Zealand Institute for the Study of Competition and Regulation in 2005, the best student paper at FMA Europe conference in 2005, the Emerging Researcher award from Auckland University of Technology in 2005 and the best paper award from the NZ Institute of Finance Professionals in 2007.

d) Plenary Addresses
Since 2001, 21 members of staff have been invited to deliver 58 plenary addresses at conferences and scholarly events:
Armstrong (Glasgow 2007)
Arnold ( Bocconi Milan 2004)
Batiz-Lazo (Biera Interior Portugal 2004, UNAM Mexico 2005)
Beck (Central England)
Bresnen (Salford 2001, Hong Kong 2003, UWE 2003)
Brown (UvH Utrecht 2004, Oxford 2004, Durham 2005, Sheffield 2005)
Bryman (Cranfield 2006, Cambridge 2007)
Burrell (Groningen 2001, Cork 2001, Paris 2002, Cardiff 2003, Halifax Canada 2003)
Casey (Wuppertal 2001, European University Institute, Italy 2001, Barcelona 2002, Crete 2002, Bremen 2003, Paris IV 2003, Osnabruck 2006)
Dale (Cardiff 2003)
Davis (Hong Kong 2001, Seoul 2001, Asan Korea 2004, Parana Argentina 2005, Sao Paulo 2006, Manaus Brazil 2006)
Fitchett (Nottingham 2003, Office of Fair Trading London 2005)
Harvie (Bristol 2007)
Jack (Dublin City 2004)
Keenoy (Washington DC 2001, Vrije Amsterdam 2002, Cardiff 2003, Leicester 2004, Dublin City 2006)
Lightfoot (Lancaster 2006)
Lilley (Lancaster 2006, Maastricht 2006)
Parker (LSE 2001, Greenwich 2002, Nottingham 2003, Turku Finland 2004, Amsterdam 2004, Glamorgan 2004, Nijmegen 2006, Liverpool 2006, Cardiff 2007)
Rainnie (Noosa, Australia, 2003, Gold Coast, Australia, 2003)
Saren (Porto 2003, Middlesex 2006, Kingston 2007)
Weik (Erfurt 2002)

e) Honorary Appointments
During the review period, 13 members of staff have held honorary and visiting appointments at overseas institutions:
Batiz-Lazo (Kassel; Bancaria, Portugal; Southern Stockholm; Institute for International Management, India; Wroclaw)
Brown (UVH Utrecht)
Burrell (Melbourne)
Casey (Trinity College, Dublin; European University Institute, Italy)
Hammer (ILO Geneva)
Haven (Bucharest)
Jack (Linz, Austria; Massachusetts; Queensland)
C Jones (Copenhagen Business School)
Lightfoot (UVH Utrecht)
Lilley (Budapest)
Saren (Trinity)
Weik (NTNU Norway; Linköping)

f) External Examiners for PhDs
21 staff have been asked to be external examiners on higher research degrees:
Arnold (Nottingham)
Armstrong (Cardiff)
Batiz-Lazo (Madras, Liverpool, Monterrey, Mexico)
Brown (Leicester before appointment twice, Bath, Rotterdam, Barcelona, Aarhus)
Bresnen (UCL, Lancaster, Cardiff, Deakin, Melbourne, Linköping, Chalmers UT, Gothenburg, Keele, QUT, Brisbane)
Brewis (Keele, Manchester)
Bryman (Wellington, Staffordshire, Sheffield, Oxford, Surrey twice)
Burrell (Cambridge, LSE, Lancaster, Queensland, Western Australia)
Casey (Otago, Waikato Massey, Wellington, Monash)
Davies (Strathclyde)
Davis (Leeds, Brunel)
Haven (Manchester twice, Växjö)
Jack (Keele, Thames Valley)
Jackson (Glamorgan, Strathclyde, Ulster, Central England, Sussex)
C Jones (Stockholm, Rotterdam)
Keenoy (Melbourne, Nijmegen, Vrije, Amsterdam)
Lightfoot (UCE, Keele, UVH Utrecht)
Lilley (Exeter, Sunderland, Erasmus Rotterdam, UVH Utrecht, Keele)
Parker (Caledonian, Danish Technical, Lancaster three times, Liverpool, Manchester twice, Newcastle, Salford, Staffordshire, Strathclyde, Sunderland, Warwick four times, Wolverhampton)
Rainnie (Strathclyde, Brighton, South Australia, Adelaide, New South Wales)
Saren (Cardiff, Manchester, Nottingham, Oxford, UWE, Salford, Auckland, Otago, Lund, Dublin, Queensland, Lancaster, Cork, Cambridge, Gloucestershire, Stirling, Murcia, Manchester Metropolitan, Dublin City, Victoria)

Davis is a member of a PhD committee for four students at Capella, Minneapolis; Parker was external assessor on a PhD student upgrade at Copenhagen Business School.

g) Research and Policy Advice
Our staff are also influential in terms of providing research and public policy advice.
Batiz-Lazo was a member of the OFT Consumer Strategy Panel in 2003-4.
Beck co-chair of the ESA research network on gender and the labour market, and on the steering group of gender and tourism project for Thames Gateway Forum/ESF.
Bresnen an elected member of the EPSRC Peer Review College in 2003-5, a member of an EPSRC Construction Sector Target Advisory Group in 2001, and a member of the DTI Partners in Innovation appraisal team in 2001-2.
Brewis was a member of the SCOS Executive Board in 2000-4, and became chair elect in 2007.
Bryman has performed a significant role in the ESRC: he was a member of the ESRC Grants Board in 2003-7 and the Senior Vice Chair of that Board during 2006-7, Chair of the ESRC Research Seminar competition in 2007, and member of the ESRC Subject Area Panel for the 1+3 recognition exercise in 2001. He was also external assessor for the Open University in developing their Masters in Research degree.
Burrell was a Commissioning Panel Member for the £3.5m ESRC ‘Identities in Action’ programme in 2004.
Casey has fulfilled an extensive range of advisory and professional roles. These include acting as an Expert Scientist for the European Commission on six occasions (mainly in relation to EC Framework 4, 5, 6 and 7 research projects) and as an Expert Consultant for the European Network on Education and Training.
Davis was Chair of the UK Society for Co-operative Studies from 2001-03, is a Special Advisor to the International Co-operative Alliance; and was Rabobank Fellow in Co-operative Agribusiness in 2003.
Haven was elected an Honorary Member of the Romainian Institute for Economic Forecasting in 2005.
Jack is the Leicester representative on the Tourism Research Intelligence Partnership.
Jackson was Specialist Advisor to the Scottish Parliament Finance Committee on Public Private Partnerships in 2004-5, is an advisor to the Czech Social Science Grants Committee, a member of the Academic Advisory Board of the Institute for Economic Affairs and Academic Advisor to the Governing Board of the Cyprus University of Technology.
C Jones is deputy chair (and chair elect) of the European Business Ethics Network.
Keenoy is National Economic Advisor to the Sergeants’ Central Committee of the Police Federation and has twice (2003, 2007) acted as the external reviewer of departmental Research Programmes for the Department of Anthropology and the Department of Culture, Organization and Management at the Free University, Amsterdam.
Lim was a member of the development team an online tool for entrepreneurs funded by East England Development Agency from 2002-4, a judge on an Expert Panel for British Telecom’s Broadband Challenge in 2003, and is on the steering committee of the Academy of Marketing SIG on brand and corporate identity.
Parker was International Advisor for a ‘Radical Organization Change’ project at Aalborg University, Denmark in 2001-3.
Saren is a Member of the Academic Senate for the Chartered Institute of Marketing from 2003 and a member of the Assessment Panel for ESRC Research Studentships in 2001-2.
Williams was a council member for the Global Labour University in 2005-6.

In addition to these responsibilities, many staff have also reviewed research proposals for various grant awarding bodies:
• AHRC (Brown)
• Belgian Science Policy Office (Beck)
• British Academy (Parker)
• British Council (Brown)
• EPSRC (Bresnen, Brown)
• ESRC (Brown, Bresnen, Dale, Fitchett, Jackson, Keenoy, Parker)
• EU 6th & 7th Frameworks (Beck, Casey, Hammer)
• Leverhulme (Bresnen)
• MRC (Brown)
• Nuffield Foundation (Bresnen)

Senior ULSM professorial advice concerning chair candidates at other institutions has been sought from: – Armstrong (Wisconsin); Bresnen (Kent, Hong Kong, Reading); Burrell (Kings, Cardiff, Kent, Stirling, UCD, Aberdeen, St Andrews) and is also the ‘subject expert for all relevant promotions’ at LSE; Parker (Hull); and Saren (Lancaster, Keele, Queen Mary, Surrey).