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UOA 44 - Psychology
Royal Holloway, University of London
RA5a: Research environment and esteem
The aims of the Psychology Department at Royal Holloway during this review period have been to reinforce and strategically expand a vibrant, creative, and productive research environment of international standing; to consolidate our existing research strengths and to invest in new streams of inquiry; to provide training of the highest quality to developing researchers; and to foster the creation of basic and applied knowledge. The department has experienced a number of significant changes during the period that have allowed us to meet these aims. Most importantly, retirements coupled with major College investment have provided an opportunity to restructure our research activities and to recruit 16 new Category A staff members. The Department now brings together internationally-recognized senior staff members and a number of high-performing early career researchers of great potential. Overall, these changes have resulted in a stronger and more cohesive department than ever before in our history that is making a major contribution to the discipline.
II. RESEARCH STRUCTURE
Since the 2001 RAE (when we achieved a rating of 5), we have implemented a major restructuring of our research activities. This restructuring has sought to respond to a rapidly changing discipline (e.g., the growing importance of neuroscience), to build on the experience of our established researchers and the enthusiasm of our newer researchers, and to foster synergies between research teams in the department. Our research is now organized into three groupings of approximately equal size: Adult & Child Cognition (ACC), Brain & Behaviour (BAB), and Clinical, Health & Social (CHS). The ‘convener’ of each of these research groups serves on our Research Committee that meets every month to develop research strategies, review funding opportunities, allocate departmental pump-priming funds, and guide postgraduate training. Research groups conduct regular meetings that enable academic staff, research staff, and postgraduates to exchange findings and develop collaborations, to receive mentorship in areas of research practice (e.g., writing grant applications), and to host visiting speakers. Our research groups are firmly embedded in larger national and international research networks, and there are also several active collaborations across groups that contribute to the vital research culture that we have built.
a) Adult & Child Cognition (ACC)
ACC comprises a thriving research community studying the mechanisms underlying human cognition and its development. This group has been rebuilt almost entirely during the review period. It includes Brysbaert*, Dalton*, Davis*, Eysenck, Leman*, Norbury*, Rastle*, and Shinskey* (* denotes new appointments in the review period), three of whom are professors and four of whom are early career researchers. Funnell retired during the period, though continues to contribute significantly to group activities as an emeritus professor. Harris left the department in 2006, her developmental expertise being replaced by Shinskey.
ACC’s major research strength lies in the area of normal and impaired language processing, especially in respect of the reading system (Brysbaert, Davis, Funnell, Rastle). Rastle is one of the authors of the DRC model (which has dominated the field of reading research for the review period) and is now using ESRC and Leverhulme funding to investigate the special problems posed by morphologically-complex words for models of reading. Similarly, Davis is developing the SOLAR model, which, with its sophisticated method of coding orthographic input, is regarded in the field of reading research as a leader amongst the new generation of computational models. Brysbaert (along with Funnell) has used ESRC funding to illuminate the importance of age-of-acquisition in notions of lexical experience, and has also used EU funding to investigate how the split foveal representation in the brain might constrain models of reading. Finally, Funnell (funded through the MRC) has continued to make major contributions to our understanding of language processing through her study of language impairments.
ACC has also invested systematically in growing its expertise in aspects of cognitive development (Leman, Norbury, Shinskey). Norbury recently joined the department on an RCUK fellowship intended to foster greater links between our adult language group and developmental researchers. During the fellowship period, she will be expanding her research on language processing in children with autism and specific language impairment to include mechanisms underlying language learning. Shinskey’s work (funded by NSF) tackles the problem of object understanding in infancy, and has recently expanded into the domain of number knowledge in early childhood, a theme that complements Brysbaert’s research on number processing in adults. Finally, Leman (funded through the British Academy and Leverhulme Trust) has illuminated the nature of social and moral reasoning in children through his research on children’s conversations. Our newly-recruited developmental researchers have been supported by the construction of the Developmental Studies Centre (DSC), a facility accommodating participants ranging from infants to teenagers, equipped with a reception area, observation rooms, eye tracking apparatus, and video analysis facilities. Our vision is that the DSC will build on its existing strength to become a major player in developmental research, serving as a hub for knowledge transfer across relevant academic, educational, and medical domains.
ACC has expertise in two additional areas that are central to cognitive psychology and provide links to the other research groups. Eysenck is internationally recognized for his processing efficiency theory of the effects of anxiety on cognitive performance, and provides a bridge to clinical researchers in the CHS group (especially MacLeod). Similarly, Dalton has published a number of elegant experiments on attentional capture, and is now exploring applications related to driving with Wann in the BAB group.
During the review period, group members published 143 papers in ISI journals, and their research was cited in over 3,550 separate articles (as of September, 2007, Web of Science). They attracted research support to the value of £1,062,825. ACC members were on the editorial teams of 24 different journals during the period including JEP:GEN, JEP:LMC, JEP:HPP, JML, and QJEP, and served on the committees of the EPS, BPS, BNS (Funnell, president), and the Society for Stress and Anxiety Research (Eysenck, president).
b) Brain & Behaviour (BAB)
BAB represents an interconnected and integrated body of research that explores the neural systems underpinning perception, planning, and action. It includes Castiello, Durant*, Glover*, Hammett, Larsson*, Ramnani*, Smith, Thilo*, Tsakiris*, Walker, Wann*, and Zanker, five of whom are professors and six of whom are early career researchers. Morland left the department in 2006, his expertise in fMRI being replaced by Larsson.
A key strength of the BAB group concerns the processing of visual motion. Smith led the development of the first research-dedicated MRI facility in a UK Psychology department and, funded by a series of Wellcome, BBSRC, and EU grants, this achievement has driven pioneering research on defining the various visual areas of the brain and examining their functions (also Larsson, Morland). This imaging work is firmly embedded in a strong psychophysical and computational context (Durant, Hammett, Smith, Zanker). Hammett (funded through Wellcome) has been instrumental in the development of physiologically plausible models of motion sharpening and of speed encoding. Zanker (through BBSRC, EPSRC, and Leverhulme funding) has made substantial progress on a functional account of how the visual system processes distributions of local motion signals in many illusions, motion transparency, and natural flow-fields. This area of inquiry has now been expanded to include brain imaging methods by Durant, who recently started as a Leverhulme Early Career Fellow (and will subsequently take up a permanent academic position at the College). Wann contributes to this work on motion in natural scenes by showing how gaze control can simplify the use of the optic flow-field for steering. His work now includes fMRI studies to highlight focal areas implicated in the processing of collision detection and steering, and is the first fMRI project on human performance to be funded through EPSRC.
The group also investigates aspects of sensorimotor control from the behavioural level to its underlying neural mechanisms. Ramnani (supported by a BBSRC new investigator grant) has made significant progress in our understanding of the neural systems underlying the learning, preparation, and prediction of action. Similarly, Thilo has made a number of high profile contributions elucidating the role of primary visual cortex in saccadic suppression and the deployment of spatial attention. Castiello is internationally recognized for his work on manual control, which spans research into brain function, cross-modal interactions, unilateral neglect, and coordination in children. Some of this work is in collaboration with Glover (funded through ESRC), who has developed an influential theory arguing for separate visual representations in the planning and control of action. The work of Tsakiris also addresses sensorimotor integration and investigates the neuroscience of body ownership, a theme that complements work in the CHS group (Andrews) on dissociative experiences in cases of extreme trauma. Multimodal interactions in generating overt shifts of gaze, along with distractor effects, have been the focus of Walker (funded through Leverhulme and Wellcome). He has reported findings concerning the influence of distractors on gaze shifts that relate to Wann’s work on the relationship between gaze shifts and subsequent limb movements. Wann’s work on children with coordination disorders also complements that of Castiello and Glover, and bridges to interests in childhood disorders within the ACC group (Norbury).
During the review period, group members published 173 papers in ISI journals, and their research was cited in over 3,120 separate articles (as of September, 2007, Web of Science). They attracted research income to the value of £3,600,252. The group also engaged in various industrial collaborations during the period, including a spin-off company designed to explore the implementation of biological information processing mechanisms in intelligent technical applications (HolViz), as well as collaborations with e.g., Volvo Technology, Sharp Electronics, and Procter & Gamble to effect knowledge transfer (Wann, Zanker).
c) Clinical, Health, & Social (CHS)
Researchers from a broad range of areas in Clinical, Health, and Social psychology are brought together in the CHS group, which has established an international reputation for its research. The group includes Andrews, Bradley, Langdon, MacLeod, Pincus, Riazi*, Woodcock, and Zagefka*, three of whom are professors and two of whom are early career researchers. Due to the nature of their research (targeting behavioural and mental aspects of health related practices and policies) two other new staff members from our Clinical Doctorate (Hetherton*, Pote*) are closely linked to the research activities of the Health and Social Care department at the College, and have been included with their submission.
Some of the most influential research in the CHS group concerns the psychological aspects of chronic medical conditions. Bradley’s group has long been recognized as a leader in research on quality of life in chronic medical conditions. Her Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaires have been linguistically validated in 72 languages and are licensed by all of the major pharmaceutical companies though her spin-off company Health Psychology Research, Ltd. Some of Bradley’s research has been in collaboration with Riazi and Woodcock, both of whom have gone on to develop fully independent research programmes in related areas (e.g., Riazi in obesity and MS; Woodcock in immunisation). Chronic medical conditions are also a focus of our clinical researchers. Pincus investigates the cognitive biases associated with long-term persistent pain and leads a multinational project (funded by the British Academy and BackCare) aiming to produce standardized recommendations for the assessment of the risk factors associated with the development of back pain. Similarly, Langdon has served as the lead neuropsychologist on several multinational studies investigating cognition in MS. Recently, Pincus and Langdon have both gained funding (from BackCare and Schering AG, respectively) to explore associated research questions using MRI in collaboration with members of our BAB group, demonstrating how our research strategy fosters new and highly promising scientific interactions.
The CHS group has also made significant contributions to our understanding of the social and cognitive aspects of clinical conditions ranging from depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), to schizophrenia (Andrews, MacLeod). One of the highlights of this group is Andrews’ MoD-funded research investigating war veterans receiving pensions for immediate and delayed-onset PTSD, in which context she has recently published recommendations for the next edition of the DSM. Andrews has also just completed an ESRC-funded project on mental health in undergraduates that has received considerable media attention. Our clinical interests in emotional disorders overlap with some of the social psychological research in the group. Specifically, Zagefka investigates the role of emotions in the context of intergroup relations between ethnic minorities and majorities, and despite finishing her PhD only three years ago, has already secured two ESRC grants to take her work forward.
During the review period, group members published 103 papers in ISI journals, and their research was cited in over 2,715 separate articles (as of September, 2007, Web of Science). They attracted research and consultancy income totalling £2,620,455. This group was particularly successful in the area of knowledge transfer during the period, with several of its senior members serving on advisory groups that contribute to practice guidelines on medical conditions ranging from diabetes to MS, and disseminating influential outputs offering scientifically-motivated recommendations for such policy (see Section V.c). Group members also served on the editorial teams of eight different journals including British Journal of Clinical Psychology, British Journal of Health Psychology, and Cognition & Emotion.
III. RESEARCH ENVIRONMENT
The academic staff members in our department work together with postgraduates, research staff, and technicians in a vibrant, supportive, and collaborative culture, in which formal and informal mentoring is provided on several levels. They benefit from an environment characterized by outstanding material and personnel resources, and enjoy an extensive network of national and international links.
a) Staffing Policy
Together with retirements and other leavers, the expansion of our Department has enabled us to recruit 16 new Category A staff members during the period. Our strategy in making these appointments has been research driven, aimed at building critical mass in key areas and fostering interaction within and between our research groups. Our new appointments benefit from a variety of initiatives that assist them in establishing their research programmes. These initiatives include (a) generous start-up packages that comprise lab space, equipment, consumables, research support, and/or research studentships; (b) significantly reduced (50%) teaching loads and light (30%) administrative duties in the initial year of their appointment, with these loads increasing gradually over the subsequent two years; (c) preferential access to departmental research funds and studentships; and (d) generous support through key components of our departmental infrastructure (e.g., technical support, space, equipment) in setting up their laboratories. Early career staff members also receive formal support through the College probation and training schemes, at the heart of which is one-to-one mentorship from one of the 11 professors in the department for a period of three years. The success of these initiatives is demonstrated by the fact that 14 of our 16 new staff members have already secured external research funding (totalling over £2m). The remaining two new staff members (both hired after August 2006) are awaiting decisions on submitted grant applications.
Each staff member benefits from the College appraisal system, offering continuous training and feedback designed to strengthen individual research portfolios. The appraisal system extends to contract research staff members, who are further advised and supported in their career development by informal mentoring through their supervisors. Permanent staff are encouraged to use regular research sabbaticals (at the rate of one term in every nine served) to pursue specific research initiatives, leading to a typical uptake of three staff members in any one of the last years. Similarly, staff members are normally able to organise their teaching such that it falls into a single term, thus ensuring that they have a sustained period for research each year. Finally, outstanding researchers in the College are eligible for Research Chair appointments in which they are exempted from teaching and administrative duties for an initial period of five years (Smith was awarded a Research Chair under this scheme in 2006).
The department has capitalized on its expansion to develop a first-class research infrastructure. Our most significant achievement in this area has been to lead the development of the first research-dedicated high-field (3T) MRI scanning facility to be housed in a UK Psychology department (2002). The establishment of this £1.5m scanning facility (made possible largely through SRIF) has greatly enhanced our research environment by enabling several members of the department to pursue new research questions. It has also had a major impact on staff recruitment, with two of our recent appointments working almost exclusively in MRI (Larsson, Ramnani) and several others being attracted to the department partly by its presence (Dalton, Norbury, Tsakiris, Wann). Finally, the facility has enhanced the research infrastructure of the region and of the three psychology departments (Reading, Brunel, Surrey) that are partners in this endeavour. It now has some 40 registered users.
Other specialist facilities that we have recently established include: (a) new laboratories for computerized behavioural and psychophysical testing, each comprising a number of workstations including several VSG systems; (b) a speech perception and speech production studio housed in a sound-treated room that contains specialized equipment for taking speech physiological measures; (c) an eye-movement laboratory equipped with an Eye-Link II eye tracker suitable for cognitive and psychophysical research; (d) laboratories equipped with electromagnetic and infra-red motion recording systems used for the analysis of reaching and grasping; (e) an infant and child research laboratory comprising several observation rooms, eye-tracking equipment, and a video analysis suite; and (f) a TMS laboratory equipped with the Magstim system. The recent appointment of Wann has also seen the development of the Action Research Laboratory, a purpose-built set of labs for driving simulation, gaze tracking and 3D gait analysis. The construction of these new facilities has been made possible through a combination of external research income and major College investment.
The development of these facilities relies on continued investment in our technical and administrative support teams. The department currently employs nine administrative and seven technical support staff who assist academics in running their laboratories and managing their research finances, and who also maintain an efficient and reliable IT infrastructure. Regular training opportunities, such as the annual Association of Technical Staff in Psychology conference (which we hosted in 2004), support their professional development and keep their expertise up-to-date. The quality of our technical support has been recognized publicly, with the award of an MBE to our chief technician (Westley), who retired in 2006 after 50 years of service.
c) Postgraduate Support
Postgraduates bring creativity to our research community, and we invest in them significantly. Our postgraduate strategy during the period has been to maintain an emphasis on the quality of research training (noted in the feedback from RAE 2001), while creating new opportunities to expand our postgraduate population at a time when studentship funding has been limited nationally. Three steps have been taken to create these opportunities. First, we forged a consortium with Reading University that has achieved recognition since 2003 as an ESRC training outlet (1+3 and +3 schemes). The ESRC has awarded our department between one and two studentships per year for the past three years and we are now in receipt of a quota studentship. Second, we have put increasing emphasis on winning postgraduate funding through charity-funded research grants, CASE studentships, and other industry-funded schemes (e.g., Zanker supports two CASE students in association with HolViz and Procter & Gamble; Brysbaert and Smith support students through their European training networks; and Langdon supports one student through funding from Schering AG). Third, the College provides us up to £45K per year in regular studentships (plus additional studentships targeted to particular strategic initiatives), and we supplement this by around £41K per year from our operational funds. Our students are given an annual budget to cover research expenses (e.g., brain imaging) and travel (sufficient for one UK conference), along with desk space and full access to the computing facilities, specialist laboratories, and other resources (e.g., participant recruitment schemes) that characterize our research infrastructure.
Outstanding training facilities exist for our postgraduate research students. Formal training is provided during the first year in areas including advanced statistics and IT skills, research planning, bibliographic techniques, presentation skills, ethical and legal issues, and publishing. Training in later years operates within established departmental and College frameworks and is managed by the supervisor. Each postgraduate is also assigned an advisor that provides pastoral support, and progress is monitored regularly by the Director of Graduate Studies. Yearly progress reviews involving the student, supervisor, advisor, and another colleague outside of the supervisory team provide a formal opportunity to reassure students of their achievements, to update their time plans, and to advance them towards the next phase of their training (or to identify areas in which additional support is needed). Informal mentoring is provided through the research group structure. Postgraduates frequently present their findings to the research groups and at our annual postgraduate conventions, and they take an active role in organizing journal clubs, methods meetings, and seminar activities in the department. The quality of our research training is demonstrated by the fact that 65% of our current cohort of 2nd and 3rd year students has already submitted manuscripts for publication (and 78% of this group has already had them accepted; as of September, 2007).
The department also offers a three-year NHS-funded Clinical Doctorate, admitting around 24 students per year to the department through this programme. Though the Clinical Doctorate comprises a large taught component, these students must also produce a 25,000 word empirical thesis. These students contribute to our research environment in several ways: (a) they all present their research to the department at the ‘Clinical Doctorate Fair’; (b) many also present their work at national and international conferences and in the NHS settings in which they conducted their research; and (c) around 40% are successful in publishing their research in peer-reviewed journals.
d) Engagement with National and International Research Communities
Our researchers are embedded in an extensive network of national and international links. In addition to the seminar series organized by each research group, the department hosts a more general series that has attracted numerous distinguished speakers. The department also benefits from a steady stream of visitors that include research collaborators (funded by e.g., British Academy, EC networks), postdoctoral scholars bringing research fellowships from their home countries (e.g., Foundation Fyssen), and younger researchers associated with the Socrates scheme. Our staff members also engage in funded visits to laboratories around the world (e.g., Zanker was appointed Distinguished Visitor at the University of Western Australia in 2006), and hold honorary associate positions in these laboratories (e.g., Rastle is an external member of the Macquarie Centre for Cognitive Science, Sydney).
The department has strong links with community organizations that contribute to our research by providing material resources (e.g., special participant populations, research funding) and opportunities for knowledge transfer. These links include: (a) schools across London, Surrey, Sussex, Berkshire, and Oxfordshire; (b) NHS trusts throughout the UK and hospitals worldwide; (c) charities including e.g., Combat Stress, Diabetes UK, Back Care, MS Trust, and MS International Federation; (d) government agencies including the MoD and the Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology; (e) and industrial organizations including e.g., GlaxoSmithKline, Schering AG, Olympus Japan, Sharp Europe, Eli Lilly, and Procter & Gamble. Members of the department regularly act as experts and provide advice to these bodies in contexts including media appearances, exhibitions, and science programs.
Exciting prospects for advancing our research in partnership with St. George’s University of London have recently been provided through our strategic (‘SWAN’) alliance (made possible by an award of £4m from HEFCE’s Strategic Development Fund). The department is already benefiting from two studentships associated with this alliance that will enable us to capitalize on SGUL’s outstanding clinical and neuropsychological infrastructure (including one of the largest stroke databases in the UK). Our expectation is that these opportunities will continue to grow as we develop collaborations across our institutions on themes such as ‘motor control’ and ‘the ageing brain’.
IV. FUTURE PERSPECTIVES
Our investment over the next five years will focus on consolidating our research strengths, expanding our research base in areas that complement our existing strengths, and capitalizing on the synergies that have emerged as a result of our expansion and SWAN alliance. The expansion of our department is set to continue with a minimum of four new positions anticipated over the coming two years. Our vision is to continue to capitalize on this expansion by making further strategic appointments that will enable us to establish ourselves firmly as one of the top centres for driving the international research agenda. Outlined below are the major priorities for each research group over the next five years.
The key goal for the ACC group will be to systematically strengthen its position as a leading centre for research on normal and impaired language processing. The language group that we have developed during this review period is already known internationally for its behavioural, computational modelling, developmental, and neuropsychological research. The College will now invest in further strategic appointments designed to build on the strength of this group, and to create synergies with other research groups in the department (e.g., the MRI and oculomotor teams), in the College (e.g., the Computer Learning Research Centre in Computer Science), and with our SWAN partners (e.g., the stroke research group at SGUL). Our vision is to capitalize on the breadth of our expertise, our success in winning research funding, and our strong international collaborations to establish a European Centre for Language Research that will foster comparative work on language processing. Besides fostering language research of the highest quality, this centre will house a virtual network integrating the numerous computational models, psycholinguistic utilities, and databases used in language research, thus becoming a global hub for information exchange and a platform for international collaborations.
A major focus for the BAB group will be on growing its expertise, links, and research output in the area of functional neuroimaging. Our strategic plan for meeting this objective combines three main approaches. First, several members who have not previously used fMRI have become interested in using this approach to complement their behavioural work (e.g., Pincus in pain management, Dalton in selective attention, Glover in reaching behaviour, Walker in eye-movement control) and we expect further growth of the MRI user base. Thus, we have recently invested in a high-level technical post so that these new users will be properly supported in the practicalities of fMRI data acquisition and analysis, and we will invest in future technical support posts as necessary. Second, the College will invest in further new staff appointments in research areas that offer high future potential but that are presently under-represented in our existing MRI work. Finally, we will continue to monitor new technologies (e.g., optical imaging in behavioural contexts), exploit new methods (e.g., DTI), and foster the combination of established methods (e.g., MRI and TMS) in our research. Through this expansion of our current activities, we aim to retain our leading position in using different neuroimaging approaches to answer important functional questions.
The major objective for the CHS group will involve an expansion of research and knowledge-transfer activities in issues surrounding the psychological aspects of health and health management. Specifically, the CHS group will continue to develop its strong international focus in the context of health management in developed and developing nations. Building on our success in leading and contributing to large multinational studies (e.g., Pincus in pain management, Langdon in cognitive aspects of MS), our health psychology group is well placed to target government and EU agencies to effect knowledge transfer in global forums. For example, a number of initiatives are in preparation or under consideration that link to recent UN, WHO, and charity initiatives on diabetes, obesity, and HIV. Our vision is that the international profile of this group will continue to grow through strategic appointments and systematic engagement with key stakeholders in health organizations and the industrial sector, thus addressing an area of great relevance for the global community.
Our members are internationally renowned for their research activities and scholarship. Our senior staff members are represented on the editorial teams of 30 different journals; they include Fellows of the BPS and Royal Society of Medicine; and their research has gained international media attention. Our early career staff members have been awarded numerous young investigator prizes; they have written invited research reviews for prestigious journals; and they have developed software being used in laboratories around the world. Key esteem indicators are given for each individual below.
a) ACC Research Group
- Laureate of the Royal Society of Arts and Sciences of Belgium (since 2002).
- Associate Editor of Psychological Research (1998-2004), QJEP (since 2005), European Journal of Cognitive Psychology (since 2001), and Psychologica Belgica (since 2000).
- Editorial Boards of Journal of Memory & Language (2001-2005), JEP:LMC (since 2007), and Behavior Research Methods (since 1997).
- Member of the Advisory Committees for the award of Research Masters (2002-2004) and Psychology Degrees (2006-2007) in Holland.
- Three-month secondment to the Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology funded by the BPS (2004) to research a briefing document on dyslexia and dyscalculia.
- Reviewer for several journals (e.g., JEP:HPP, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, Perception & Psychophysics).
- Fellowships from the ESRC (2004-2005), St. Anne’s College, Oxford (2004-2006), and the UCL Bogue scheme (2004) to support her postdoctoral work.
- Invited symposium organizer on ‘Attention & Distraction’ (BPS conference, York, 2007).
- Invited presentations at several international conferences (e.g., ESCOP symposium on computational modelling, 2007; Sydney Workshop on Words, 2005; Spanish International Conference on Psycholinguistics, 2005; ESCOP symposium on orthographic coding, 2003).
- Invited symposium organizer on ‘Orthographic Processes in Visual Word Recognition’ (ESCOP, 2007).
- Reviewer for several journals (e.g., Psychological Review, JEP:HPP, JEP:LMC) and funding agencies (e.g., ESRC, NSF).
- President, Society for Stress and Anxiety Research (2006-2008).
- Associate Editor of Anxiety, Stress, & Coping (1996-2004).
- Editorial Boards of JEP:Gen (2002-2006), European Psychologist (since 2002), and Ansiedad y Estres (since 2002).
- Over 10 keynotes at international conferences including International Conference on Biological Approaches to Human Behaviour (Lisbon, 2004), International Conference on Brain-Mind Development (Beijing, 2002), and the Stress and Anxiety Research Conferences (Mallorca, 2001; Benidorm, 2002; Lisbon, 2003; Amsterdam, 2004; Crete, 2006).
- President, British Neuropsychological Society (2002-2004).
- President, Psychology Section, British Association for the Advancement of Science (2004).
- Associate Editor of QJEP (2002-2005); Editorial Boards of Cognitive Neuropsychology (since 2003) and Aphasiology (since 1999).
- Awarded honorary membership of the EPS (2007).
- Key roles in the BPS including Standing Conference Committee Chair (2006-2010), Developmental Section Committee (2004-2007), Research Board (2006-2010), and Representative Council (2006-2010).
- British Academy/Leverhulme Trust Senior Research Fellowship (2005) to support his research.
- International media attention in television (BBC, CNN, ITN, Sky, ABC) and newspaper sources (Economist, Times, Independent, Guardian, Der Spiegel, La Nacion, Chicago Tribune, La Presse, Herald Tribune, Time Magazine) for his research on conspiracy theories, along with a feature article on this work in New Scientist (July, 2007).
- Associate Editor of British Journal of Developmental Psychology (since 2007).
- Wellcome Trust Prize Studentship to pursue her doctoral work (2001-2004) and a Nuffield Foundation New Career Development fellowship to pursue her postdoctoral research (2004-2007).
- BPS Neil O’Connor award for the best published paper on developmental psychopathology by a new investigator (2004) and the International Society for Autism Research Dissertation Award for the best clinical investigation of autism arising from a doctoral thesis (2005).
- Invited addresses at the Mac Keith Lecture Series (Royal Society of Medicine, 2005) and at the BPS (Leeds, 2005).
- Associate Editor of Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research (since 2007).
- Associate Editor of JEP:LMC (since 2007) and Language and Cognitive Processes (since 2002).
- Editorial Boards of JEP:HPP (since 2002), Perception & Psychophysics (since 2003), Memory & Cognition (2005-2007), and European Journal of Cognitive Psychology (since 2005).
- ISI Hot New Paper (2002) for her Psychological Review article on the DRC model (currently over 400 citations).
- Invited presentations at several international conferences (e.g., Sydney Workshop on Words, 2005; Society for Morphological Processing, France, 2003, 2007).
- Reviewer for several journals (e.g., Psychological Science, Developmental Psychology, Child Development).
- Media coverage for her research in Scientific American (July, 2005).
- NRSA award from the National Institutes of Health to support her postdoctoral research (2001-2003).
b) BAB Research Group
- DSc from the University of Melbourne (2001).
- Guest Editor of Perception special issues (2004) on shadows and illumination.
- Organized two international symposia: “Shadows, from Art to Neuroscience” (Trento, 2003) and “Shadow Cognition” (Venice, 2005).
- Media coverage of his research in the NY Times (June, 2004), Science online (January, 2004), and New Scientist (December, 2004).
- Leverhulme Trust Early Career Fellowship (2007) and a Royal Society International Fellowship (2004) to support her postdoctoral research.
- Invited talk as a ‘younger researcher’ at the Rank Prize Mini-Symposium on Self-Calibrating Sensory Systems (2007).
- Reviewer for Perception.
- Reviewer for over 20 journals (e.g., Science, Behavioral and Brain Sciences, JEP:HPP) and three granting agencies (ESRC, NSERC Canada, SSRC Netherlands).
- Fellowship from NSERC (2001-2002) to support his postdoctoral work.
- Invited to review his planning-control theory for Trends in Cognitive Sciences (2002, 6, 288-292).
- Invited by MCC (Lord's Cricket Ground) to provide advice on visibility regulations.
- Research cited in Bruce, Green, and Georgeson’s “Visual Perception” and Mather’s “Foundations of Perception”. The former is widely adopted as a core text in Perception modules.
- Reviewer for several journals (e.g., Vision Research, Perception) and for The Wellcome Trust.
- External PhD examiner (Aston, 2004).
- Swedish Research Council grant to support his postdoctoral work (2003).
- Author of SurfRelax, an MR reconstruction and analysis software suite, used by research groups around the world including Stanford, UC Berkeley, Karolinska Institutet, and Nottingham University.
- Reviewer for several journals (e.g., J. Neurophysiology, Current Biology, HBM).
- Invited to write three review articles describing his research for Nature Reviews Neuroscience (2004, 5, 184-195; and 2006, 7, 511-522) and Biological Psychiatry (2004, 1, 613-619).
- Editorial Board of Neuroimage (since 2005).
- Media coverage of his research on BBC Radio (Radio 4 ‘Frontiers’ series, 2004; World Service ‘Outlook’ series, 2004) and in New Scientist (January, 2004; April, 2004).
- Elected member, British Neuroscience Association committee (2004-2007).
- AVA Burton Memorial Lecture 2001 and invited keynotes at ECVP 2004 and 2006 (over 800 delegates each).
- Associate Editor of J. Vision (since 2007).
- Reviewer for over 30 journals (e.g., Neuron, TINS, Current Biology) and 8 granting agencies (e.g., MRC, BBSRC, HFSP).
- Plenary address at the New Directions in Cognitive Neuroscience Symposium (London, 2007) selected for sponsorship by Cambridge Research Systems http://www.crsltd.com/research-topics/hbm/smith.html.
- Reviewer for over 10 journals (e.g., Brain, Experimental Brain Research, J. Vision) and granting agencies (BBSRC, MRC).
- Research on saccadic suppression featured in Mind Hacks, a novel textbook on neuroscience that has received much acclaim (ISBN: 0-596-00779-5).
- Organizer of symposium on “The body-in-the-brain: linking body-experience to body-representation” (2nd European Cognitive Science Conference, 2007).
- Organizer of symposium on “Neuroscientific and Psychiatric Perspectives on the Self” (2nd Dual INA-WFSBP Congress on Psychiatry and the Neurosciences).
- Leader of pan-European project on bodily experiences funded by Volkswagen (€117,000).
- Invited papers at XXII Attention & Performance Meeting (2006), 10th TWK-Tübingen Perception Conference (2007), and BASIC-CNCC Meeting of the European Science Foundation (2007).
- Reviewer for several journals (e.g., J. Neurophysiology, Experimental Brain Research, Neuropsychologia) and granting agencies (e.g., EPSRC, BBSRC, Wellcome Trust).
- External examiner for three PhDs (Bristol, 2001 and 2003; Aston, 2005).
- Invited addresses at Smith-Kettlewell Eye Institute (2003) and at the Workshop on the Exogenous and Endogenous Control of Eye Movements (Amsterdam, 2003).
- Organiser of plenary symposium for the European Conference on Eye Movements (Potsdam, 2007).
- Editorial Boards of JEP:HPP (2001-2005), Journal of Motor Behavior (since 1999), and Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology (since 2002).
- Elected to EPSRC College (2006-2010).
- External research reviewer for the University of Leeds (Exercise Science, 2006) and the University of Hong Kong (Institute of Human Performance, 2005).
- Several keynote addresses including International Conference of Motor Control, Australia, 2007 and International Conference on Developmental Coordination Disorder, Trieste, 2005.
- External advisor to ‘Centre of Visual Sciences’ at the Australian National University (since 2001).
- Member of EPSRC College of Experts (since 2006) and panel member for European Commission FP5, FP6, and FP7 programmes “Future Emerging Technologies”.
- Several invited lectures and keynotes including the German Neuroscience Association (Göttingen, 2003), ECEM (Bern, 2005), and First Portuguese Forum of Experimental Psychology (Braga, 2004).
- Distinguished Visitor, University of Western Australia (2006).
c) CHS Research Group
- National media coverage for research on student mental health and achievement in television (BBC1 London News, ITV news) and newspaper (e.g., Daily Telegraph, Evening Standard, Financial Times, Independent, Guardian) sources.
- Member of Board of Examiners for the ESRC Research Studentship competition.
- Editorial Board of Psychology and Psychotherapy (since 1995).
- Fellow of the BPS.
- Editorial Boards of Health and Quality of Life Outcomes (since 2000) and British Journal of Health Psychology (since 1995).
- Fellow of the BPS and Royal Society of Medicine.
- Member of scientific advisory group of the Macular Disease Society (since 2001), research strategy group of the Royal National Institute of the Blind (since 2006), and Eli Lilly European Health Outcomes Advisory Boards (since 2001).
- Six keynotes at international conferences including Research Society for the Study of Diabetes in India (Bangalore, 2005), 7th Hong Kong Diabetes and Cardiovascular Risk Factors symposium (Hong Kong, 2005), and the 19th International Advanced Training Course in Diabetology (Jena, 2007).
- Trustee of the MS Trust and member of their Research Committee (since 2001).
- Lead neuropsychologist on three international studies dealing with psychological aspects of MS including two studies spanning 48 countries evaluating cognition in precursor and early MS and a long-term study of IFNB-1b comprising 16 North American centres.
- Member of the American Academy of Neurology MS expert practice guideline committee on cognition and emotion.
- Lead neuropsychologist on UK project investigating psychological effects of prescribed cannabis in MS.
- Associate Editor of British Journal of Clinical Psychology (until 2002).
- Editorial Boards of Psychology and Psychotherapy (since 2006), Cognition and Emotion (since 2006), and Mental Health, Religion, and Culture (since 2000).
- Invited speaker at International Positive Psychology Summit (Washington, 2005).
- Editorial Boards of The Psychologist (2001-2006) and Journal of Osteopathic Medicine (since 2004).
- Member of MRC College of Experts (since 2006) and Research Board of the BPS (2001-2004).
- International coordinator of MMICS (Multinational Musculoskeletal Inception Cohort Study, since 2003).
- Honorary Associate Professor, British School of Osteopathy.
- Young Investigator Prize at the meeting of the International Society for Quality of Life Research (2003).
- Reviewer for several journals (e.g., Multiple Sclerosis, J. Neurology, J. Neurology and Neurosurgery) and granting agencies (e.g., Health Research Council of New Zealand, Italian Multiple Sclerosis Society).
- Contributed to NICE guidelines on Type 2 diabetes.
- Contributed to National Service Framework guidelines for diabetes, and reviewed other guidelines for Type 2 diabetes on behalf of the BPS.
- Invited address at the Diabetes Foot Conference (London, 2002).
- Prize for 'Outstanding PhD Thesis of the Year' by the Social Psychology Section of the BPS (2005).
- Invited plenary address at the BPS Social Section Conference (August, 2005).
- Several invited addresses on multiculturalism sponsored by the British Council in Chile (2003, 2005) presented to audiences of policy makers, community leaders, academics, and the general public.