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UOA 36 - Business and Management Studies

University of Nottingham

RA5a: Research environment and esteem

Nottingham University Business School & Institute of Work, Health & Organisations

( Nottingham University Business School and the Institute of Work, Health & Organisations are autonomous schools within the University of Nottingham and are being jointly returned to the Business and Management sub-panel)

1.  Introduction

Nottingham University Business School (NUBS)
has developed considerably during the current RAE period in terms of its reputation as a leading international centre for research and teaching of the highest quality in business and management. This has been accompanied by a strong increase in staff and student numbers, and in the range of undergraduate and postgraduate programmes.  Eight academic divisions cover the range of business school disciplines and these, together with its research centres and institutes, provide the framework for the further development of the School’s research profile. The scale and scope of the current activity reflect the University’s commitment to, and success in, establishing a major research-led international business school, with investment in academic and support staff reinforced by significant investment in state-of-the-art new infrastructure.  A strong network of relationships with business, policymaking and other communities is seen as essential in ensuring the relevance and impact of the School’s research agenda.  The extent of the School’s engagement with these communities is evident from the £2.4m of funding secured from UK Industry and the £2.4m of funding secured from UK Government, Regional Development Agencies and the EU during the RAE2008 period.  

During the period, NUBS has been at the forefront in the development of innovative research areas and agendas in Business and Management and in the cultivation of multi-faceted interfaces with business and policy-makers.  Examples include: the pioneering International Centre for Corporate and Social Responsibility (ICCSR), which was established in 2002 with endowment funding of £3.8m and has become a leading international centre for CSR research; the promotion of research and education in the areas of innovation and entrepreneurship.  The establishment of a new Entrepreneurship Division within the School in 2002 reflected the international research strength which has been developed in this area, notably through the world-renowned Centre for Management Buy-out Research (CMBOR). The long tradition of research into entrepreneurship, innovation and SMEs at NUBS has been both recognised and reinforced by the establishment of the University of Nottingham Institute for Enterprise and Innovation (UNIEI) in 2000.   

The Institute of Work, Health and Organisations (the Institute) was an autonomous centre located within NUBS from 1999 until 2002, when it was granted independent school status.  Research was focused on organisational and occupational health psychology. Since then, the Institute has extended its research to include health and clinical psychology. This expansion is consistent with a commitment to scientific research of societal value in the application of psychology to work, health and organisations.  It has been requested that the research of the Institute staff in health and clinical psychology be referred to the Allied Health Professions and Studies panel. 

The Institute is an international postgraduate research school with a strong reputation for applied research. It has developed rapidly over the last 8 years and, in doing so, has made a significant impact on the advancement of scientific knowledge in its area and on related governmental policy and real-world practice. The objective of the Institute is to promote ‘healthy people, healthy work and healthy organisations and communities’. Its core interests focus on psychological, social and organisational issues in occupational and public health and safety and on the healthiness of organisations and communities. 

During the RAE2008 period both NUBS and the Institute have enhanced significantly their international reputations for research.  Key indicators of performance include:

  • The number of NUBS staff returned has increased from 44 in RAE2001 to 78 in RAE2008.  The number of staff returned by the Institute has increased since 2001 from 9 to 12.4
  • Three new discipline based divisions have been established in NUBS (Entrepreneurship, Information Systems, Operations Management).  The Institute, has expanded its research programme with the development of Health and Clinical Psychology as a new cluster.
  • Staff in NUBS have published 981 journal articles, 38 authored books and 192 book chapters, respectively, over the RAE period. Staff in the Institute have published 218 journal articles, 17 authored books and 71 book chapters.
  • We believe that RA2 demonstrates a strong improvement in the quality of research output in terms of the proportion of publications in leading journals across the range of subject areas.  
  • Staff in both schools have provided wide ranging policy advice to, inter alia: Home Office; Treasury; National Audit Office; Department of Health; DTI; World Bank; OECD; United Nations; World Health Organisation; International Test Commission; Health and Safety Executive.
  • Research funding from external research councils has increased in NUBS from £361,000 in the previous RAE assessment period to around £1.84m in the current period. Total research income has more than doubled from £2.8m to £7.52m. Total research income for the Institute during the RAE period was £2.02m. A further £1.06m in research awards has been secured within the last year.
  • NUBS staff have been editors of 13 journals during the RAE period and 40 members of staff are on the editorial boards of 109 journals. 3 members of staff in the Institute are editors of 3 journals and 4 are on the editorial boards of 6 journals
  • NUBS graduated 96 PhD students over the RAE2008 period, in contrast to 34 in the last RAE period, and staff are currently supervising 139 PhD students.  The Institute graduated 23 PhD students during the RAE period and is currently supervising another 31.
  • The Institute is a designated Collaborating Centre in Occupational Health of the World Health Organisation. Currently, one of only four in the UK and the only Collaborating Centre worldwide of applied psychologists.

2. The Research Environment in NUBS and the Institute

2.1  The University Context

The research strategies of both units operate within a clearly defined university context which emphasises the importance of world leading curiosity driven and applied research.  To this end, the University has committed significant resources to support the continued development of NUBS and the Institute as leading research oriented international schools. NUBS currently operates on the purpose built Jubilee campus and recent developments to this campus include the Business School’s South Building, completed in 2004, incorporating a dedicated business library and excellent facilities for research, teaching and PhD students. The Institute is currently housed on the Nottingham Science & Technology Park but will be moving in 2008 to new accommodation in International House on the new International Square development on Jubilee Campus.  The latter is part of the state of the art University of Nottingham Science and Innovation Park, a significant £29m extension to the Jubilee Campus, which will also incorporate elements of the Business School’s Institute for Enterprise and Innovation (UNIEI).  This investment will enhance greatly the many initiatives and programmes that combine students, academics, businesses of all sizes, the public sector and other organisations. The ‘Ingenuity Centre’, for example, is a multidisciplinary collaboration involving NUBS, the School of Engineering, the Creative Arts and expertise from other universities, businesses and organisations regionally, nationally and internationally, and is a response to the Cox Review of Creativity in Business.

 The University has been extremely supportive, both in the context of strategic academic appointments and the continuing professionalisation of the administrative and support staff function.  The retention of high quality staff is also imperative, and the University has consistently recognised the quality of academic staff through internal promotions.  Since January 2001, there have been a total of 33 promotions in NUBS and the Institute to: Personal Chairs (11); Reader (8); Senior Lecturer (14).

More generally, the University has created a multi-tiered support structure to promote research across all disciplines.  The Humanities Research Centre (HRC) provides guidance and financial assistance for a range of research activities.  Over the review period 104 awards totalling £45,388 have been made to NUBS staff under the HRC Overseas Conference Attendance scheme, and awards in support of research totalling £126,616 have been won by NUBS staff from various University level schemes.

2.2  Research Management

Responsibility for the development, implementation and monitoring of research strategy within NUBS resides largely with the Research Directorate which reports and submits recommendations to the School Management Group. The Research Directorate meets approximately eight times per year and also undertakes reviews of divisional and centre/institute research activity, outputs and plans.  A similar system operates within the Institute where strategic management is conducted through the Research Committee and research group leaders, who report to the Institute’s Directorate. In the promotion of research by staff, both NUBS and the Institute have in place a number of mechanisms:

1.Individual Research Accounts. All new staff in NUBS receive an initial research account budget of £500 which can be supplemented via research grant overheads, Masters dissertation supervisions, etc. Academic and senior research staff in the Institute receive an annual budget of £750 for research-related matters.

2.Conference Funding. Each staff member in NUBS is allocated £1800 per annum to support conference attendance, where a paper is being presented. Since Jan 2001 NUBS has awarded funding to attend 446 conferences totalling £455,817.  In addition, a Strategic Conference Fund (currently £15,000 p.a.) supports attendance at conferences where a paper is not being presented. This is chiefly to support the career development of Early Career Researchers (ECRs).

3.Research Enhancement Awards. In 2007, the Institute reinvested its surplus income of £70,000 to provide internal research enhancement awards. These were on a competitive basis and were focused on pump-priming activities and the generation of research outputs.

4.Study Leave. NUBS staff are entitled to apply for one semester of paid leave from teaching and administrative duties after each seven semesters of service. Around 40 staff have benefited from this Scheme over the RAE2008 period. The Institute runs a similar scheme based on teaching-free research years.

5.Study Leave Support. NUBS actively encourages (and funds) staff on study leave to spend time at other high quality institutions. In recent years, staff have visited numerous prestigious institutions including:  Stanford University; University of Chicago; Wharton Management School; Again, similar schemes run in the Institute with staff having spent time at institutions such as Lund and Kristianstad Universities, the University of Helsinki, the Oregon Research Institute and the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health.

6.Research Support
. This Research Support Team in NUBS supports academic staff in the general process of research funding applications. Similar support is provided within the Institute through the heads of the research groups, through Research Committee and through its Professional Development Centre.

7.Visiting Scholar Scheme. NUBS believes strongly in exposing staff to leading international academic figures and has an active Visiting Scholar scheme to support this.  In the last 3 years the School has welcomed 18 academic visitors.  The Institute has always welcomed Visiting Scholars and, during the RAE period, has been visited by some 20 academics from other countries.

8.Staff Development Provision. The strong emphasis on developing research skills within the Staff Development Programmes of both units includes regular events concerning: the supervision of postgraduate students; engaging with journal editors and referees; European funding opportunities, etc. Individual staff are also encouraged to identify their own particular development needs in relation to research.

9.Staff Seminars. Regular programmes of staff seminars featuring both internal and external speakers operate within NUBS and the Institute.

10.Induction and Mentoring. Mentoring is conducted by senior members of staff in both units.  Apart from the formal mentor/mentee relationship, there is a strong tradition of senior faculty developing joint work with junior academics, as is evident in the outputs presented for this exercise.

11.Research Away Days. Regular away days provide an opportunity for all academic staff to have an input into the continuing development of the research strategy for both units.  

12.NUBS has recently instituted a series of Research Days involving presentations by internal and external speakers around a theme where the School is seeking to scope its potential for developing coherent future research programmes, such as China-related research and Innovation. These events featured contributions from a number of ECRs.

13.Annual Performance Review.
 In 2006 the University introduced a new annual performance review system which informs decisions on the rate of salary progression. Targets for research outputs and research income generation are an integral part of this system.  

2.3  Staffing Policy

prioritise the recruitment of senior staff with outstanding research records and ECRs showing clear research potential together with a good strategic fit with existing or emerging areas of research strength. The expansion of professorial positions offers a strengthened research environment and is seen as particularly important in the context of providing academic leadership and the career development of ECRs as an integral part of NUBS’ overall growth.  There is an active policy of drawing ECRs into collaborative work with more senior members of the school.  Participation in journal special issues, edited volumes and specialist conferences/workshops are seen as particularly important ways of initiating research output among ECRs.  The priority accorded to the career development of ECRs is evident from the strong tradition of fostering and developing “home grown” academic talent. Sixteen of the current staff gained their PhDs at Nottingham, including 8 of the current NUBS Professoriate.  A further 2 Professors who departed during the RAE2008 period also gained their PhDs at NUBS (Crane, Toms). 

The recruitment policy of the Institute differs in that the emphasis is on early and middle career appointments and the identification of ‘rising stars’. Research performance and potential are key factors in the appointment decision. Staff are recruited who will add value to the existing research programme and who will strengthen the overall performance of the Institute. As with NUBS, several staff have been developed through the Institute but there is a strong preference for new blood and fresh ideas from external appointments. Experience is secured through good Special appointments particularly at Chair level. The Special Professors of the Institute form its Advisory Board. 

Both units have experienced the departure of some research active staff during the RAE2008 period.  It is a measure of the quality of academic staff, however, that these departures have typically reflected appointments to senior positions, often in other prestigious academic institutions.  Examples include: Clarysse, Klumpes (Tanaka Business School); Siegel (Rensselear Polytechnic Institute (RPI), New York); Matten, Crane (Schulich School, York University, Toronto); Brown (Bath School of Management); Huang, Westhead (Warwick Business School); Jenkins (Cranfield School of Management).  Furthermore, the replacement strategy, combined with the expansion of new posts (such as University funded and externally funded Chair posts) has enhanced and diversified the research activities of both NUBS and the Institute.

2.4  Research Students

NUBS and the Institute are strongly committed to the continued growth of a vibrant Doctoral community which both enhances their research environment and culture and contributes to the development of the next generation of academics.  NUBS have offered 6 full scholarships together with 2 ESRC Quota Awards. The Institute has had 3 full ESRC competitive awards and shared 5 ESRC (1+3) Quota awards with the School of Psychology as well as offering 7 school scholarships.   

We aim through our programmes to develop well rounded management researchers via an exposure to a wide range of research methods and issues. Both schools have ESRC recognition for their PhD programmes.  All students have dual supervision, are required to produce satisfactory performance on the extensive research training programme, present detailed annual reports on progress and pass a formal MPhil transfer panel (NUBS) or an annual progress review (the Institute) before proceeding to PhD registration or progressing on the PhD. 

Specific innovations within each unit include:

1.NUBS:  Introduction of a series of monthly seminars designed specifically for PhD students focused on the research and publications process. These are conducted by leading scholars in the Business School.
2.The Institute: Organisation of an Annual Postgraduate Conference at which all postgraduates present conference style papers or posters on their research to date and future plans. All staff attend the event and offer support and advice.

All PhD students enjoy a dedicated desk and computer, together with access to the University’s PGR facilities and an impressive number of online journals and databases. Doctoral students in NUBS receive a research account of £750 to assist with their studies. In addition, NUBS funds conference and doctoral colloquia participation by students. 

Finally, there is a strong tradition of working with research students in order to facilitate both conference presentations and the publication of academic papers.  Conference participation is viewed as a particularly effective motivational device for aspiring scholars (both PhD students and ECRs), a means of triangulating their research against best practice externally and an important introduction to academic networks. To this end, PhD students have attended major international gatherings, such as the Academy of Management meetings in the USA, the European Work and Organisational Psychology conference and International Congress of Gerontology and Geriatrics.

3.   Current Research Strategy in NUBS

The main objective of NUBS is to further strengthen our research capacity and to continue the enhancement of our international research reputation which has been evident in numerous indicators of academic standing in recent years.  In broad strategic terms, the realisation of this objective requires:
consolidating and continuing to develop established areas of strength
scoping the potential for new or more coherently configured areas of activity.

With respect to the latter, NUBS has been capitalising on the unique opportunities which the University of Nottingham’s international campuses in Malaysia and China offer in research terms and aims to position itself as a truly international business school and one which has a distinctive research expertise in relation to Asian / Chinese business.  The School already conducts a significant body of research in this area and is working actively to build the coherence of this research activity.  In this context, the School has made a number of recent strategic appointments to develop the scale and scope of its China-related research.  At the same time, the School is closely involved with the development of research capability, most especially in the areas of international finance, corporate governance and corporate social responsibility in China at the University of Nottingham’s Ningbo campus and, in particular, via the Global Finance Centre and the Centre for Sustainable Development.

3.1  Academic Divisions, Centres and Institutes

The School is structured, for research and teaching functions, around eight discipline-defined divisions.  Each division, as detailed below, has its own research themes and strengths which are evolving over time.  It should be stressed, however, that there is a strong tradition of cross-divisional research within the School, as evidenced by the lists of published output. The School is also populated by a number of centres and institutes, with thematic foci.

3.1.1  Accounting & Finance Division  

The research interests of the division encompass the broad disciplines of accounting, finance, financial economics and risk and insurance and involves a good deal of collaborative research with colleagues in the Industrial Economics Division and in the Centre for Risk and Insurance Studies (CRIS) and the International Centre for Corporate Social responsibility (ICCSR).  Within these broader areas, the research in the division is focused on the following themes:  behavioural, social and environmental accounting research (Hasseldine, Owen); corporate governance law (Lee); accounting and taxation (Hasseldine); accounting for financial instruments and accounting for stock (Pong); pensions reporting (Billings); management accounting (Pong); derivatives, real options and mathematical finance (Liu, Newton, Sorwar); real estate (Ebrahim, Newton); Islamic Banking (Ebrahim); initial public offerings / intelligent systems (Reber); business history (Billings, Pong).  Research in the area of risk analysis and measurement is conducted through the division’s strong links with CRIS.  This research agenda includes mortality and pensions risk (Billings)

The Accounting & Finance Division has been strengthened during the RAE2008 period by the recruitment of Liu, Newton, Owen, Pong and Sorwar. These appointments have considerably reinforced the division’s research capacity, across the areas of financial accounting, management accounting and  finance.  This period also saw the establishment of the Tax Research Institute (TRI).  The TRI, a joint research initiative with the School of Economics, was made possible by funding from the University Research Committee and the two schools and was launched in October 2004 with Hasseldine as a co-director.  Staff are drawn from both the Business School and the School of Economics and include 3 professors, Duncan (Co-Director, School of Economics), Disney (School of Economics), Paton (Industrial Economics, NUBS), together with other staff drawn from both NUBS and the School of Economics.  The initial themes of research at the TRI have included: compliance costs and compliance issues; tax administration; economic effects of taxes and benefits, and tax policy evaluation.  With respect to funding, under a framework agreement HMRC and DTI have approved the TRI to provide “economic research services” without the need to tender. Under this agreement Blake (Industrial Economics, NUBS) was awarded a contract with HMRC on general equilibrium work and the  U.K. tax system.  TRI has also received funding from the National Audit Office and the ACCA. 

The research capacity which has been established across the research themes outlined above has resulted in publications in major journals within the accounting and finance sphere:  Accounting, Organizations and Society, British Accounting Review (3), Critical Perspectives on Accounting, Journal of Banking and Finance, Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Journal of Financial Economics (3), Review of Financial Studies.  Furthermore, the well established links with other divisions and centres, and the commitment of the division to cross-disciplinary research, has resulted in numerous publications in more specialized field journals: European Accounting Review (2), European Financial Management (2), Journal of Economic Behaviour and Organization, Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics (2), Mathematical Finance, Real Estate Economics. 

Research students are an important component of the division’s research strategy and there are currently 24 PhD students enrolled, plus 10 offsite.  The latter are supervised by Newton with Duck at the Manchester School of Mathematics in a continuing collaboration with new joint doctoral students at both sites since Newton's move to NUBS in early 2005.  Integration of new faculty is also being accompanied by expansion with the arrival of two new doctoral students supervised by Liu (jointly with Newton), and an additional postdoctoral research fellow, in October 2007. 

Over the next five years, the division is committed to a continued expansion of its mathematical finance research, building on new common research themes involving CRIS (Dowd), Newton and the Manchester arm of Newton's research group with Duck.  Links have also recently been established with the Nottingham School of Mathematics (Cliffe) to develop a third arm in research, cemented by new Masters level teaching from 2007 onwards involving the Nottingham Schools of Business, Mathematics and Computer Science.

3.1.2 Entrepreneurship Division

Entrepreneurship was singled out by the RAE2001 panel as an area of particular  international research strength and, following the establishment of a distinct academic division of Entrepreneurship in 2002, the aim has been to strengthen this position during the RAE2008 period with the objective of becoming one of the leading centres for entrepreneurship research in Europe.   

Research in the Entrepreneurship Division is centred around three core programmes: 

The Nature of Entrepreneurs and Entrepreneurship:  Research in this area focuses on habitual entrepreneurs, entrepreneurial teams, international entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship in emerging economies, returnee entrepreneurs, and corporate entrepreneurship (Hughes, Noke, Ucbasaran, Vanaelst, Wright). Special issues of Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice and the Journal of Business Venturing on these topics were edited during this period. 

Entrepreneurial Finance:  Research in this area focuses upon management buy-outs, venture capital and private equity, governance in private firms, and bank finance for SMEs (Binks, Wright, Hanley (Industrial Economics)). The Centre for Management Buy-out Research (CMBOR), which continues to be base-funded by Deloitte and Barclays Private Equity, has developed a unique dataset of over 25,000 management buy-outs and is the world’s leading source of information and analysis on management buy-outs and related issues. 

CMBOR is directed by Wright and has one other full time director, 3 full-time RAs and 2 part-time RAs. Collaborative work on buyouts and related topics is carried out within NUBS with Amess, Bacon, Chapple, Lockett, Haynes, Paton and Thompson. The Centre welcomes a number of visiting researchers and has internships for post-graduate students.  CMBOR has active collaborative research projects with over 20 affiliates including:  Erasmus (Bruining, Verwaal); Ghent (Manigart); Tilburg (Renneboog); University of California Riverside (Siegel).  During the RAE2008 period CMBOR received research funding totalling approximately £1.5 million from industry, commerce (e.g. Barings Private Equity), international agencies (e.g. OECD), the ESRC, etc. CMBOR publishes a Quarterly Review of UK MBO market trends and a twice-yearly review of European MBO market trends. The Journal of Management Studies, which is edited by Wright, has continued to establish itself as one of the leading international journals in the management area, with an Impact Factor of 2.0 and being ranked 11th in the Business and Management ISI in 2006. 

CMBOR held a 20th anniversary academic conference and practitioner roundtable with Rensselear Polytechnic Institute (RPI) in the U.S. in 2006, the results of which feature in special issues of the Journal of Corporate Finance and the Journal of Applied Corporate Finance. A special issue of Human Relations on private equity and employee relations is in progress.  Visitors to CMBOR during the period included Michael Jensen of Harvard Business School and Douglas Cumming (RPI).

Entrepreneurship and Innovation in and Around Universities: Research in this area focuses on academic entrepreneurship, research-based spin-offs, the financing of high tech firms, and entrepreneurship education and training in universities (Binks, Mosey, Noke, Vanaelst and Wright).  The University of Nottingham Institute for Enterprise and Innovation (UNIEI), established with initial funding of £2.5 million from the Science Enterprise Challenge initiative, has developed as a leading centre for research in this area.   Significant funding was raised from the ESRC and EU to study spin-offs from universities in the UK and across Europe, and a joint conference was held between UNIEI and the US NASF [Chuck Wesner] on technology transfer and spin-offs. Special issues on this topic have been edited in numerous journals including Industrial and Corporate Change, Journal of Business Venturing, Small Business Economics, Research Policy and Journal of Technology Transfer, with a further special issue of the Journal of Management Studies in progress.   

Current members of the division have published extensively in leading entrepreneurship and general journals during the period, including: Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice (5); Journal of Business Venturing (5); Research Policy (7); Small Business Economics (9); Journal of Management Studies (3); Journal of Business Finance and Accounting (2); Journal of International Business Studies (2); Review of Economics and Statistics; Regional Studies (2); Journal of Technology Transfer (3); Omega (2); Journal of Economic Behaviour and Organization; Academy of Management Executive (2); International Journal of Industrial Organization. There is a symbiotic tradition in the division of both publishing in leading academic journals and in engaging closely with practitioners and policymakers.  Analyses from CMBOR’s database were featured regularly during the period in the Economist, the Financial Times, Wall Street Journal, Bloomberg, Times, etc.  Major research projects were carried out for the European Venture Capital Association as well as for numerous private equity firms, funds of funds, and leading consulting firms such as Bain, etc.  CMBOR’s work has also been quoted in recent reports by the Financial Services Authority, etc. A report analysing private equity was undertaken for and published by the OECD and presentations were made to the Bank of England and the Treasury.  Work on high tech firms and university spin-offs was conducted across Europe and was funded by the World Bank, EU, the ESRC, the University Companies Association, AURIL, the government of Flanders, etc.  The division’s work in this area was also extensively quoted in the Lambert Review of University-Industry relations. UNIEI is working closely with the Office for Science and Technology in the development of a strategy for entrepreneurship education and training.  Finally, research on bank finance for SMEs has resulted in considerable attention by banks in terms of development of their relationships with clients and members of the division have worked closely with the OFT on competition issues relating to the relationships of banks with their business clients. 

The division will continue to build its international reputation based on established core research areas. It is also intended to develop areas such as corporate entrepreneurship, specifically exploring the relationship between human capital and corporate entrepreneurship (Hughes, Ucbasaran).  The issue of entrepreneurial teams is also being developed by focusing on the nature of relationships and the impact of founding conditions on subsequent behaviour (Vanaelst). Finally, the areas of the internationalisation of venture capital (Wright), social capital and networks (Mosey, Wright), entrepreneurship education (Binks, Mosey) and returnee and transnational entrepreneurs (Wright), which were relatively new in this period, will be developed further.

3.1.3.Industrial Economics 

Research in the division covers a range of themes and issues.  However, the majority of the research activity is focused in two main areas: industrial organisation (including managerial economics and the economics of innovation) and financial economics (including banking, insurance, and risk analysis and management).  These areas continue to be strengthened by appointments made since the last RAE (Drake, Hanley, Haynes, Girma, Swann, Tan, Skovoroda and Sun), with a significant cluster of expertise emerging in relation to the measurement of productivity and firm performance.   

The industrial organisation area of the division’s research activity includes work on the economics of advertising (Paton); the economics of innovation (Swann); outsourcing and offshoring (Hanley); corporate governance and executive remuneration (Bruce, Girma, Haynes, Skovoroda, Sun); the economics of tourism (Blake); evolutionary economics (Hoffman, Tan); and the measurement of productivity and firm performance (Girma, Drake). 

The financial economics area of the division’s research activity includes work on the analysis of betting and wagering markets (Bruce, Paton); the economics of insurance and banking sectors (Drake, Diacon, Fenn, Vencappa); financial risk measurement and management (Dowd); mortality and pensions risk (Diacon, Dowd, Fenn); the law and economics of liability and causal uncertainty (Fenn, Young); and monetary analysis and monetary policy (Dowd, Drake). 

Given the range of research interests outlined above, the division naturally has strong collaborative research links with a number of centres and institutes within the Business School.  Chapple is Deputy Director of the ICSSR, Paton is a member of the TRI, Blake is a member of the Tourism and Travel Research Institute (TTRI), whilst four of the professors (Diacon, Dowd, Drake, Fenn), and one of the associate professors (Hanley) are members of CRIS.   

CRIS is one of the largest centres of its type in the world and in 2002 hosted the Geneva Association Conference of European Risk & Insurance Economists.  The centre has a dual aim of producing high quality academic papers and engaging closely with practitioners and policymakers.  International collaborators include researchers at: the Cato Institute; University of Texas (Austin); the Wharton School, etc.  The CRIS centre was also instrumental in the development of the Financial Services Research Forum and continues to have strong links with the Forum.  

The Christel DeHaan Tourism and Travel Research Institute (TTRI),  established in 1999, is Directed by Cooper and has facilitated a significant research cluster in the area of tourism economics (Blake, Hanley, Young), and in particular the application of computable general equilibrium models (Blake) to tourism and tourism taxation. Significant publications in tourism economics include: Annals of Tourism Research (6); Tourism Management (2); Tourism Economics; Regional Studies; Journal of Sustainable Tourism; Current Issues in Tourism.  In addition, TTRI has been involved with a variety of externally funded research projects. These include work on: tourism economics modelling for the Department of Culture, Media and Sport, and the national tourism organisations of Cyprus, Malta, Scotland, Brazil and the Canary Islands; taxation modelling for HM Revenue and Customs. 

The focus of the division’s research output on the two core areas of industrial organisation and financial economics has resulted in publications in high quality mainstream economics journals: Economic Journal (3); Economica (2; Economic Inquiry (2); European Economic Review; Oxford Economic Papers (3); Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics (3), as well as numerous publications in the leading field journals associated with these two themes:  Journal of Industrial Economics (2); Journal of Economic Behaviour and Organization (2); Journal of Productivity Analysis; Journal of Banking and Finance (5); Journal of Risk and Insurance (6); Insurance: Mathematics and Economics (3); International Review of Law and Economics (3); Small Business Economics (3); European Journal of Operations Research, etc. 

In support of this research activity, members of the division have obtained a significant number of peer-reviewed research grants. These include three major awards from the ESRC (Firm performance and executives’ incentives (Bruce); Risk measurement in financial institutions (Dowd); and Liability, risk-pooling and health care quality (Fenn)). The output from Dowd’s three-year ESRC funded Fellowship was officially rated as ‘outstanding’. In addition members of the division have been highly successful in bids to government departments for policy-relevant research projects, including projects for the Department of Trade and Industry (4 projects), Department of Culture, Media and Sport (8 projects), Department of Health (3 projects), Department of Constitutional Affairs (2 projects), and HM Revenue and Customs (5 projects). Grants have also been obtained from industry (ABI, Aviva, ABN Amro) and from the Financial Services Research Forum

A significant number of division staff have been involved in high level government/industry policy advice; for example, key advice has been provided by Swann in relation to innovation policy; Paton in relation to gambling policy; Diacon and Blake in relation to insurance in the wider economy; Drake in relation to public sector productivity performance and Fenn in relation to the reform of medical negligence and the legal services market. 

Over the next 5 years the division aims to continue to develop a strong and coherent research group and to raise the profile of key research clusters in the areas of industrial organisation and financial economics.  It is also intended to further develop research in the area of productivity measurement and firm performance, following the development of a critical mass in this area towards the latter part of the RAE2008 period.  Research in this area will focus on both the financial sector, where it will dovetail into an emerging high priority cross-disciplinary research agenda within NUBS, and on industry more generally.  In the context of the latter, the division was awarded a DTI project grant of £89,950 in 2006 to examine “Competitiveness in the UK Electronics Sector".  

3.1.4     Information Systems Division 

Recognizing the vital and growing importance of information systems and technology in the management of modern businesses, a series of strategic appointments were made over the RAE2008 period leading to the establishment of an independent Information Systems (IS) Division in early 2005.   

The division’s research reflects the interdisciplinary nature of the IS field, covering technological, methodological and social scientific strands. General interests include: electronic government (Wastell, Kuk, Shaw), knowledge management (Kuk), human computer interaction (Wastell), virtual communities (Kuk), e-business (Shaw).  Papers have been published in well-rated management journals, including Management Science and Journal of Business Ethics, as well as leading journals specializing in IS and HCI: Journal of Information Technology (3); Information and Organization; Journal of Strategic Information Systems; Information Technology and People; Information and Management; Human Factors (3) and Ergonomics (2). 

Research in the division clusters around two strategic areas: Virtual Communities and IT-Enabled Change in the Public Sector. 

Virtual Communities:  As the Internet increasingly permeates work and social life, the study of on-line communities is an emerging priority for the IS field.  Kuk is engaged in developing this agenda, with his paper in Management Science breaking new ground with its innovative analysis of strategic interaction in the open source movement.   

IT-Enabled Change in the Public Sector:  Historically, the IS research community has largely worked with commercial organisations, but IT now plays an equally pivotal role in the public sector, enabling service modernization and new organisational arrangements such as partnership work. Research on electronic government thus represents an important area of synergy for the division.  Wastell co-edited a Special Issue of the Journal of Information Systems (2005) devoted to e-Government. Shaw is applying complexity theory to public networks, extending his earlier work in the commercial sphere. British Academy funding was gained by Kuk to examine partnership work in local e-Government, and Wastell has won ESRC funding (c£250k), in collaboration with Cardiff and Huddersfield universities, to study performance management in social care as part of the “Public Services: Quality, Performance and Delivery Programme”. 

Applied research with practitioner organisations is an important priority for the division, especially with public sector bodies. Notable achievements are the Multi-Agency Data Exchange (MADE) project in Lancashire (Wastell), which continues to support crime reduction partnerships across the County (and is enjoying an expanding role as the Government’s “New Localism” agenda develops) and the development of the Salford Process Re-engineering Involving New Technology (SPRINT) methodology (Wastell) for public service re-engineering, a collaboration with Salford and Leeds City Councils. A SPRINT user group was formed in 2004, and currently has nearly 1000 members representing over 100 different institutions. Over 700 practitioners have been trained in SPRINT and the first annual User Group conference was held in January 2006 and hosted by NUBS. The division’s public sector strategy also has a significant international dimension.  Wastell’s research on the cognitive ergonomics of complex systems with Professor Sauer at the University of Fribourg, for example, was originally funded by the German Research Council, and a further grant of 100k ECU from the Swiss Research Council has recently been awarded. 

The future strategy of the division is to build on existing research strengths, particularly in the public sector, and to retain and develop the strong connection with practice. In this context, the division recognizes the need to embrace theoretical innovation as well as the development of practical tools and frameworks to support design and innovation in IS development, and management practice in general. 

3.1.5. Marketing Division

The current research strategy of the group combines the flexibility of “curiosity-driven” research with a focus on core areas of interest in providing the basis for building particular competences, expertise and reputation.  During the RAE2008 period, research in the division has developed around three overlapping foci of interest: 

Consumers and Consumer Policy (Devlin, Ennew, Hibbert, McKechnie, Roberts, Smith, Tynan):  From a general interest in consumer behaviour (satisfaction, loyalty, changing consumption patterns) the division has developed a particular interest in the interactions between marketing activities, consumer behaviour and consumer policy. Other projects have focused on ethical dimensions and social aspects of consumption.

Services Marketing (Devlin, Ennew, McKechnie, Nath, Winklhofer):  The division has a long-standing interest in services marketing, in particular in the financial services sector, investigating issues such as service quality, consumer behaviour, competitive marketing strategies, branding strategies and distribution and e-marketing. 

Marketing Relationships (Mitussis, Winklhofer, Tynan):  Research in relationship marketing naturally complements service-based research. Interests focus on service relationships, supplier relationships and customer relationship management. The published output of the division is diverse, but retains a strong emphasis on the core themes discussed above.  In addition to general marketing and management journals: Journal of Marketing Research; Journal of Business Research (3); International Journal of Research in Marketing; European Journal of Marketing (5); Journal of Strategic Marketing (4); Journal of Marketing Management (10), outputs have appeared in both specialist marketing journals: Journal of Service Research; Psychology and Marketing (2); Journal of Public Policy and Marketing; Service Industries Journal; Advances in Consumer Research; Industrial Marketing Management (3), and other significant field journals within the management area. The paper by Winklhofer in the Journal of Marketing Research (2001, Vol. 38) has been particularly influential and is currently the second most cited article in the journal in the period 2000-2005. 

A particular feature of the division’s research funding record is the integration of academic rigour with user-relevant research. An important funding source has been the Financial Services Research Forum (FSRF) which comprises 24 organisations with interests in the financial services sector, and represents a unique collaboration between industry and academia.  The Forum funds a programme of research which is long term, strategic in orientation and relevant to members’ interests. Devlin is currently Research Director of the Forum and Ennew is a member of the Steering Committee.  Many publications in the area of financial services marketing are ultimately underpinned by work funded by the FSRF

In addition to the FSRF, funding has also been obtained from the Financial Services Authority (Devlin) for research on financial advice and from the DTI in the form of 2 Knowledge Transfer Partnership (KTP) programmes (Tynan, McKechnie) in the area of relationship marketing, again emphasising the integration of academic work and practitioner needs. Further funding from the OFT supports research addressing consumer responses to price comparison advertising, and this research also has a strong policy orientation. 

In addition to the financial services orientation outlined above, the group has strong links with TTRI through research in services marketing (Ennew) and ICCSR through interests in the social and ethical dimensions of marketing (Devlin, Smith, Hibbert).  Members of the group also have strong external links and, in order to enhance the group’s external network and to foster further collaboration, the group has invited a number of high profile scholars to visit the University including Professors Rod Brodie, Steve Worthington and Nicole Coviello. 

Over the next 5 years, the group anticipates an increasing focus on the interface between marketing and society.  In particular, on the impacts of marketing practice on individuals and more generally on economic and social well being. Contextually, plans for research funding in this area focus heavily on the financial services domain but this is not intended to constrain research contexts and the importance of curiosity based research, in line with overall university strategy, is acknowledged.

3.1.6  Organisational Behaviour & Human Resource
Management Division (OB/HRM)

During the RAE2008 period the OB/HRM Division has raised its profile considerably in terms of research output, funding and esteem indicators. Research covers a wide range of aspects of organisational activity, working lives and employment relations issues. Researchers draw on social science theory in order to enhance the understanding of the interaction between people, processes and practices in the work setting. More specifically, the division’s research clusters around three priorities: 

Organisation Studies:  This area comprises several research streams and is characterized by the use of interpretative and ethnography-based approaches to the study of organisations and their management.  It includes the study of: managerial and entrepreneurial identities, narratives and discourses (Coupland, Humphreys, Watson); the analysis of processes of organisational knowing, sensemaking and organising (Patriotta); critical management studies and the study of politics and ethics in the workplace (Learmonth); the analysis of macro organisational phenomena, including studies of international management in emerging and developing countries (Soulsby), and the examination of inter-organisational relationships and organisational embeddedness (Spedale-Latimer).

 Employment relations:  Key themes here are: employment relations in SMEs (Bacon, Hoque); equal opportunities (Hoque); teamworking (Bacon); training (Bacon, Hoque); trade unions and partnership arrangements (Bacon, Samuel). These works serve to produce analyses of employment relations governance, management practice and trade union policy effectiveness. The Industrial Relations Journal is edited within the division by Bacon and this field hosted the British Universities Industrial Relations Association Annual Conference (2004) and the annual conference of the BAM Human Resource Management Special Interest Group (2005). 

Public services management (Currie, Hoque, Humphreys, Learmonth):  This strand draws primarily on organisation theories to assess critically current managerial practices in the public sector. Studies, supported by significant research grants, have addressed a variety of organisational settings such as the NHS, social services, educational institutions, and the Inland Revenue. Research outputs are aimed at developing new managerial practices that support both national and international public policies.

 The above research areas often overlap, generating research collaborations among members of the division. Examples include: the exploration of identities and narratives in the context of HRM and public sector policies (Coupland, Currie, Humphreys, Learmonth, Patriotta, Watson); management learning and education (Currie, Humphreys, Learmonth, Watson); knowledge management practices in public sector organisations (Currie); leadership, teamworking, and employment relations in the public sector (Currie, Hoque, Humphreys). 

Within the current RAE period, members of the division have published well over 100 articles in a wide range of high quality academic journals. Recent outlets include: Academy of Management Review; Academy of Management Learning and Education; British Journal of Industrial Relations (4); Human Relations (8);  Journal of Management Studies (13), Organization Studies (4), Public Administration (7) and Work, Employment and Society (6).  Collaborative work has taken place across divisions on the interface between OB/HRM and, respectively, finance, entrepreneurship, strategy, marketing and business ethics (e.g. Bacon and Wright; Currie and Lockett; Currie, Tempest and Starkey; Humphreys and Mitussis). There are also significant ongoing collaborations with colleagues at other institutions both in the UK and abroad.  Members of the division have also contributed influential books and monographs.   

Intellectual exchange is supported by a divisional seminar series featuring prominent scholars in the field of OB & HRM. Recent speakers have included Professors Narasimhan Anand, Bob Cooper, Tim Clark, Barbara Czarniawska, Yannis Gabriel, and Andrew Pettigrew. Research seminars also provide valuable opportunities to integrate PhD students into the research activities of the division.

Grants from charitable bodies and the public and private sectors have funded research totalling over £ 1.2 million over the RAE2008 period.  Within this total, Currie is leading two major projects that have been developed with the aim of the evaluation of policy within the NHS. £752,477 was raised, in conjunction with the Institute for Science and Society at the University of Nottingham, from the Department of Health to examine organisation structures and processes within the new genetics initiatives (2004-2008). Currie is also leading a team awarded £388,528 by the NHS Service Delivery and Organisation R&D Programme to assess the relative success of mandated and non-mandated networks within children's services, with particular reference to effective knowledge sharing (2007-2009).  

 Research conducted by division members will continue to be characterized by strong theory-developing capacity, methodological rigour and the ability to apply theory to business and government policy, and managerial practice. The divisional publication record testifies to a significant academic impact within the field and continued success in research funding will reinforce strong links with public and private institutions as well as ground theoretical advancement in rich empirical research.  These constitute significant strengths to build upon for future developments, especially in the public services management area, and stronger links with other divisions in the school are also seen as important in terms of developing areas of shared interest such as business ethics, entrepreneurship and strategy.

 3.1.7  Operations Management Division 

The Operations Management (OM) Division has demonstrable and sustained achievements in published research outputs, international recognition, research funding and doctoral completions.  In addition to the complement of permanent staff, the division currently has 20 research students and 9 research staff employed on research projects.

 The major research themes pursued address key areas across the OM discipline. The division has demonstrated international research excellence in the following areas: 

Supply Chain and Logistics Management: This is a major focus for the division with a portfolio that spans operations strategy, systems design, management and analysis (Byrne, MacCarthy, Muyldermans, O’Brien, Pawar). Issues such as high performance supply chains, logistics strategy, and distribution/collection design are being addressed in sectors as diverse as food, aerospace and electronics.  A prominent stream of research has focused on planning and order fulfilment in the extended enterprise. 

Management of New Product Design and Development: Over the last decade, research led by Pawar has gained an international reputation in the development of tools and methods to support concurrent engineering, product design management, product design and development in the extended supply chain, and knowledge sharing in new product development (NPD). Recent studies have focused on mapping and analysis of interaction and collaborative patterns in new product design and development in a multi-cultural context. 

Mass Customisation: This major research activity led by MacCarthy has a strong international profile. The research has adopted a critical perspective on the customisation of products on a mass scale. Fundamental questions on the meaning of customisation have been addressed with new taxonomies published on customisation and modes of operation for Mass Customisation. These have been coupled with in-depth studies of applications across consumer and industrial product sectors. Significant ongoing work has been carried out in the automotive sector with the Ford Motor Company on delivering customer-focused variety, including analysis and modelling of the Virtual-Build-to-Order (VBTO) concept.   

Quality Management:  Led by Tannock, this is a strong ongoing area of research for the division. One theme within the research has used simulation methods to investigate the quality economics of manufacturing. Quality management in the developing world, an issue of growing importance internationally, is being addressed and results have been published relating to Thailand and Malaysia. Current work focusing on China and Sudan aims to develop a theory of quality management adoption. The division has identified quality in the global supply chain as an important area for future research.

Staff recruitment during the RAE2008 period has complemented and extended the research portfolio e.g. Muyldermans in reverse logistics, and has further enhanced our analytical and modelling capabilities e.g. Ramanathan in optimization and DEA, Muyldermans in modelling and optimization and Tan in decision support techniques. 

All members of the division publish in high ranking journals in Operations Management and related areas, particularly Operational Research. Examples include: International Journal of Production Economics (8); International Journal of Operations and Production Management (3); Journal of the Operational Research Society (2); International Journal of Quality and Reliability Management (5); European Journal of Operational Research (3); International Journal of Production Research (2) and Operations Research. 

The division has been involved in significant European research projects. Pawar, for example, has led several major international, multi disciplinary research projects such as CE-NET, a research and industry network, linking researchers and practitioners across Europe. EU funding has also led to the development of an innovative simulation game using multimedia and telecommunications for training students, designers and managers in Concurrent Engineering/New Product Design (CE/NPD) through the internet. This has been used at BAE systems and Rolls Royce, as well as on a number of courses at Cranfield, Nottingham and Bremen Universities. The division is the largest University partner in the VIVACE FP6 Integrated Project (Tannock, MacCarthy) conducting business and value chain modelling for future aerospace collaborations, as well as modelling and simulation of logistics, supply chain and manufacturing scenarios. It is also active in European research networks linking the EU with India/China (Pawar, Ramanathan, Tan).  MacCarthy has had significant funding from EPSRC and EU for research in Mass Customisation, leading to a rich stream of publications. The division is a partner in Nottingham’s EPSRC-funded Innovative Manufacturing Research Centre (NIMRC) and MacCarthy sits on its Strategic Review Board. 

The division has strong engagement with research users in business and industry. Many research projects involve user collaboration and support. Collaborators in the RAE period include: BAE Systems, Bombardier, Bosch, CORUS, Courtaulds Textiles, Fiat, Henkel, Motorola, MTU, Nokia, Rolls-Royce,  Stanton-Bonna and Volvo Aerospace. The division also has strong national and international collaborations and attracts research visitors and PhD students from across the world.  Such collaborations include: Cambridge University; Tsinghua University, Beijing; Jiao Tong University, Shanghai; Indian Institute of Management (IIM); Hong Kong University of Science and Technology; Politechnico di Milano; Sultan Qaboos University, Oman; INSEAD; ETH, Switzerland. 

In looking forward, the division has identified three generic themes as important for OM research across its research portfolio: the supply chain paradigm; managing international operations; and sustainable operations. Specific areas for future work include: collaborative research with partners in India and China on manufacturing supply chains; the development of a collaborative virtual environment for strategic innovation through simulation gaming (in design management); the modelling, analysis and design of open pipeline planning systems for the dynamic allocation of products to customers; and operations and supply chain management in the aerospace sector with planned initiatives for the FP7 programme.

3.1.8. Strategy Division 

The research interests of the division reflect the interdisciplinary nature of strategy, with members drawn in equal numbers from the process (i.e. behavioural methodology) and content (i.e. economics methodology) backgrounds.  On the process side the focus of research has been on the links between strategy and organisation. The focus in content research is mainly on the resource-based view of the firm paradigm.  The division also incorporates the International Centre for Corporate Social Responsibility (ICCSR), which focuses on research and teaching in CSR. 

Within this context the research of the division can be delineated as follows: 

Research with a core strategy focus:  Examples include: an ERSC-funded study on the Future of Business Schools (Starkey, Tempest); research on the development and status of the resource-based view of the firm (Thompson, Lockett); the development of dynamic capabilities (Lockett); international business (Wang); the organisation of the “creative industries”, especially television (Starkey, Tempest). This subject-specific research is reflected in a stream of publications in the core strategy/strategic management journals, including: Strategic Management Journal, Academy of Management Review, Journal of Management, Journal of Management Studies (4).   

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR):  Issues relating to CSR are  increasingly influential in business decision making and strategic behaviour and  ICCSR, which was founded in 2002, has rapidly established itself as a leading centre for high quality research in this important emerging area. The Centre draws on multi-disciplinary expertise in the areas of Economics (Chapple, Deputy Director), Organisational Theory and Management (Gond), Political Science (Moon, Director), International Development (Muthuri), Organisation Theory (Orlitzky), and Social Accounting (Owen [0.5]). 

When the Business School was ranked 12th globally and 1st in the UK in the 2005 ‘Beyond Grey Pinstripes’ index, it was one of only 3 in the top thirty schools to achieve the top score (5*) for research.  In the subsequent 2007 index, the School was ranked 2nd globally for research and this in large part reflects the contribution of ICCSR research and is indicative of the research profile established by the Centre since its inception.  Its active network is now very wide with numerous Visiting Fellows, including two former staff who now hold distinguished Chairs at the Schulich School, York University, Toronto (Crane, Matten) and four PhD students at other UK universities (Manchester, Cambridge, Cranfield, Brunel). 

Collaborative Research.  Strategy, as a focus of study, provides an important role in integrating research, and much of the division’s research output reflects wider collaborations across the Business School and beyond.   Among the most productive collaborations are Lockett’s work on technology transfer and spin-off companies, and venture capital, with internal co-authors in the Entrepreneurship Division (Wright) and external associates in Europe (Clarysse, Mustar) and N. America (Siegel). This has led to a string of publications in leading journals in the area, including papers in Research Policy (7),   Small Business Economics (4) and Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice (3) and Journal of Business Venturing.

Amess and Thompson have jointly and separately explored the impact of control transactions, including mergers and management buyouts, on firm performance in the UK and in transition countries. This has led to publications in the Journal of Industrial Economics (2), Scottish Journal of Political Economy (2), Journal of Economic Behaviour and Organization.  Cabantous, a recent appointment, is exploring the rationality of decision-making and has published in Theory and Decision.  Starkey and his collaborations with Tempest and co-authors across a wide range of topics, from organisational learning to the performance of the insurance industry, have resulted in papers in a range of journals including Organization Studies, Organization and Human Relations (5).  Thompson has produced papers on control transactions, executive remuneration and internet markets in journals such as the European Economic Review, Economica, Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics and the Manchester School.  Finally, Wang has collaborated with a number of co-authors in international business and has published two papers in that field’s leading journal, the Journal of International Business Studies. 

The collaborative emphasis of the Strategy Division also extends to funded research projects where most of the funded work is inter-divisional. Recent examples include: the Starkey-led ESRC project on the dynamics of knowledge production in the business school which drew on expertise in the entrepreneurship and OB/HRM divisions; Lockett’s EU-funded PRIME network grants on technology transfer, with members of the Entrepreneurship Division, and the participation by Amess and Thompson in the DTI Electronics Industry project, with colleagues from Industrial Economics. 

Over the next 5 years, the division aims to maintain its existing research strengths in the creative industries, the role of the business school, and corporate governance and corporate control transactions while developing its research strengths in innovation. This includes building on current work which explores the problems of sustaining competitive advantage under conditions of fierce price competition as seen in consumer electronics and computers, and the related issue of building and sustaining competitive advantage in electronically enabled markets where search costs are trivial.

3.2  Esteem Indicators

Staff at NUBS have recorded a wealth of Esteem Indicators over the RAE2008 period.  In addition to the indicators detailed below, 40 staff serve on the editorial boards of around 109 journals including: Journal of Management Studies; Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice; Journal of Business Venturing; Journal of Business Finance and Accounting; Journal of Technology Transfer; Long Range Planning; Human Relations; Organisation Studies; International Journal of Operations and Production Management; International Journal of Production Economics.  In addition, 16 staff have been involved as editors or co-editors of 20 special editions of journals including: Economica; Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice (3); Human Relations; Research Policy; Industrial and Corporate Change; International Journal of Production Economics; Journal of Business Venturing; Journal of Management Studies; Journal of Technology Transfer; Small Business Economics (2).

3.2.1  Honours and Awards from Professional Societies and other Public Bodies  

O’Brien: awarded an OBE; awarded Doctor of Science Honoris Causae, University of Lappeenranta Finland, and the Technical University of Cluj Napoca, Romania; Moon: “Beyond Grey Pinstripes” Faculty Pioneer Award (2005); Wright: Honorary Degree University of Ghent (2006); Swann: awarded an OBE “for Services to Business and Economic Policy”; awarded the Rybczynski Memorial Prize for Economics Writing, Society of Business Economists.

3.2.2  Prestigious Fellowships or Visiting Appointments 

Dowd: awarded a £242k three-year ESRC research fellowship on ‘risk management in financial institutions’, this was rated as outstanding; Cooper: Honorary Professor, Shanghai Institute of Tourism, Xinjiang Normal University; Drake: Visiting Professorial Research Fellow, Hong Kong Institute for Monetary Research; Wright: Visiting Fellow Max Planck Institute; Visiting Professor INSEAD, Erasmus, Sienna; Patriotta: Visiting Professor, University of Bologna, Stanford University; Moon:  Visiting Professor, Deakin University; O’Brien: Fellowship,  International Foundation for Production Research; MacCarthy: Fellow, Institute of Mathematics and its Applications; Fellow, Institute of Operations Management;  Byrne; Fellow, Institute of Operations Management; Starkey: Fellow of the Sunningdale Institute; Swann: Visiting Professor, Birkbeck College, London; Pong:  Awarded fellowship of the Canon Foundation; Awarded an Academic Fellowship from the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales. 

3.2.3   Recognition, Academic Community 

Dowd, Drake: Listed in the ranking of the World’s Top 1000 Economists (two of around 90 UK Economists) in research funded by the European Economics Association, 2002; Wright: Ranked #1 worldwide for publications in academic entrepreneurship 1981-2005 [Rothermael et al, Industrial and Corporate Change, 2007]; Ranked #2 worldwide for publications in entrepreneurship 2001-2005 [“Entrepreneurship Today”, Technovation, pp139-141, 2006]; AMJ 2000 paper with Hoskisson et al ranked as #1 cited AMJ paper published 2000-2005 and also most cited paper in transition economies published from 2000 (Meyer and Peng, JIBS, 2005); JMS 2005 paper with Filatotchev et al #1 cited JMS paper published 2003-2005; Orlitzky: Most cited paper in Organization Studies in 2003 by a wide margin; Starkey: 1998 paper (with Tranfield) remains one of the most cited papers in the British Journal of Management; Winklhofer:  Journal of Marketing Management,(2006) selected as one of the fifty best articles published in 2006 in management and won an Emerald Management Reviews Citation of Excellence.

3.2.4   Prize Winning Publications

 Dowd: British Actuarial Journal 2006 paper won the Faculty of Actuaries in Scotland Best Paper Prize; Smith: awarded `Best Paper’, Academy of Marketing Conference 2001; Ennew: best paper in track award, Academy of Marketing 2003; Currie:  BAM Best paper award, Public Management and Governance Track, Oxford (2005); Learmonth: Best Critical Management Studies Doctoral Dissertation (abridged thesis), Academy of Management Conference, Seattle, USA (2003); runner up in 1st Annual Emerald/EFMD Outstanding Doctoral Research Awards (2005); Brabazon, MacCarthy: Best Paper, 2nd World Congress on Mass Customisation and Personalisation, Munich, (MCP03): Orlitzky: Organization Studies Paper, 2003, won the 2004 Moskowitz award for outstanding quantitative research relevant to the social investment field; Tan: Best Paper award at the 2nd International Supply Chain Management and Information Systems Workshop ; Moon: best paper award, European Business Ethics Network, 2003; short-listed, Carolyn Dexter best paper award, Academy of Management, 2006; Lockett: G2 best paper award (2004) and High Potential Award in the AOM Entrepreneurship Division (2003); Pong: Best Paper award, Managerial Auditing Journal 2006;Nath: Award for the “Most Outstanding Paper”, Emerald Publishing, 2003; Muyldermans:  Best paper award within the track, Transportation and Logistics, at INCOM 2006 Conference.

3.2.5  Learned Society Involvement

Cooper: Member, UN World Tourism Organisation’s: Leadership Forum; Market Panel of Experts; Business Council; Chairman, UN World Tourism Organisation Education Council;  Dowd: Member of the Faculty and Institute of Actuaries’ Working Party on Risk Management in Life Assurance; Member of the Academic Advisory Board, Institute of Economic Affairs;  Tynan: Chair, Academy of Marketing, 2003-05; subsequently, Chair, Academic Senate, Chartered Institute of Marketing;  Winklhofer: Member, Academy of Marketing’s Research Committee;  Wright:  Elected Representative at large, SMS Entrepreneurship Interest Group; Doctoral and new faculty Consortium presentations and organiser at Babson Conference, Academy of Management conference, SMS conference;  Bacon: co-founder, BAM Human Resource Management Special Interest Group. Coupland: co-founder and member of the steering committee, BAM Identities Special Interest Group;  Paton: Member, Royal Economic Society Conference Programme Committee, 2006-2009; Watson: Trustee, Society for the Advancement of Management Studies; Chartered Fellow, Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development; Pawar; Panel Member, Institute of Logistics (IOLT) Seedcorn Research Fund and for their annual PhD and Masters dissertation award committee; O’Brien, MacCarthy;  board members, International Federation of Production Research (IFPR); 

3.2.6  Recognition, Consultancy or Policy Advice 

Drake: Advisor to the UK Treasury & Home Office on the project Public Sector Productivity Performance (Spottiswood Report) &  the Police Efficiency Demonstration Project;  Currie:  Non-Executive Director, Nottinghamshire Healthcare Trust; Fenn: Advisor to Department of Constitutional Affairs on legal aid forecasting models; Advisor to Department of Health on reform of clinical negligence; Placement with HM Treasury to advise on insurance underwriting cycle; Advisor to Civil Justice Council on conditional fee arrangements; Girma: Numerous consultancy projects for the Department of Trade and Industry; Econometric advisor to the policy evaluation team of HM Revenue and Customs (Treasury); Paton: Advisor to National Audit Office on gambling regulation; Advisor to Department for Culture, Media and Sport on productivity in creative industries; Advisor to National Audit Office on gambling regulation; Advisor to HM Revenue & Customs on tax reform in gambling; Expert witness, Judicial Review of Department of Health Guidelines on Confidentiality for Minors; Invited speaker at House of Commons on ‘Economics of Teenage Pregnancy’; Wright: Work on habitual and international entrepreneurship has been disseminated through reports published by Scottish Enterprise and the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, respectively; Work on private equity has been disseminated by OECD and European Venture Capital Association; Work on university-industry links has been disseminated by World Bank; Hasseldine: co-chair of the Tax Management Research Net; Council Member, Institute of Fiscal Studies; Member of the HMRC Powells Committee (appointed by the Paymaster General); Steering Group Member, OECD International Network of Tax Research; Owen: shortlisting and judging panels, ACCA Sustainability Reporting Awards Scheme  Drake:  consultancy for Newcastle Building Society; Ennew: consultancy for inter-alia Barclays, Lloyds-TSB, HSBC, Bank of Scotland;  Winklhofer: consultancy for Scottish Equitable; Shaw:  consulted for Salford City Council on “Strategic Partnering in Local Government Services”; assisted in a good-practice survey of CRM applications in Local Authorities for the ODPM; collaborated on research commissioned by Leeds City Council on the effectiveness of their employee administration service; Wastell: Advisor to Lancashire County Council and Lancashire Constabulary, MADE project; commissioned research for Salford and Leeds City Councils on public service re-engineering; Bacon: advises Corus and the Community trade union on employment issues. Currie: member of the steering advisory group to a research team at Newcastle University, funded by the Department of Health (2006-2009); Hoque: advisor to the Japan Institute of Labour Policy and Training (international information programme); ICCSR team: on the future of CSR, Business in the Community Leadership Group; Moon: on CSR and governance for policy-makers, UK Embassy, Ecuador; invited expert to advise Rhetoric And Realities: Analysing CSR in Europe, project within the EU's Sixth Framework Programme; Starkey: Member, Council for Excellence in Management and Leadership, Business School Advisory Group; Amess: Work on employment effects of private equity widely covered in the media, the Work Foundation, Treasury Select Committee; Tannock:  commissioned by the Consumers’ Association to study the impact of quality management standards on the consumer; Swann:  Member of Ofcom Spectrum Advisory Board; Member of the Academic Panel for HMT/DTI Innovation Review.

3.2.7 Participation in the Work of Advisory, Review, Funding, Standards or Planning Bodies

This section offers a representative survey of activity. A large number of staff are involved in the review processes of research councils, notably ESRC, EPSRC and other funding agencies (EU, Leverhulme, Nuffield, British Academy).

Binks:  External Assessor, Centres for Research Excellence Fund Competition, Royal Society of NZ; Cooper:  Member TEDQUAL Assessment Committee, UN World Tourism Organisation; Devlin: Member, Financial Services Authority Advisory Panel on Consumers Purchase Outcomes; Member, Financial Services Authority Expert Panel (Consumer Division); Ennew:  Member, ABS Journal Ratings Panel;  Moon: Member, Scientific Committee, ‘Managing at the Edge’ International CSR Conference, University of Nijmegen, The Netherlands; member of the CSR Panel, Norwegian Research Council; chair, International Advisory Committee, Research Priority Area 'Globalisation and Citizenship', Deakin University; Ennew: served on the Advisory Boards for projects funded by Friends Provident trust relating to Community Development Finance and Access to Basic Bank Accounts; Member, Advisory Board, Financial Services Forum; MacCarthy: Member, Development Panel of the Institute of Operations Management; Member, O’Brien: Reviewer for the Finnish and Italian Research Councils; Chairman, Board of Portland College; Pawar: invited by the European Commission to chair Logistics@work community in Europe; Member, Academic and Research Committee, Institute of Logistics and Transport; expert advisor on INNONET project, Cranfield. 

3.2.8  Journal Editorships 

Ennew: International Journal of Bank Marketing; Dowd:  Greek Economic Review (Associate Editor); Journal of Risk (Associate Editor); Bacon: Industrial Relations Journal; Owen: British Accounting Review (Associate Editor); Wright:  Journal of Management Studies; Wastell: European Journal of Information Systems, Associate Editor; Pawar; International Journal of Logistics: Research and Applications, Editor-in-Chief; International Journal of Logistics: Research & Applications;  Gond: Responsible Organization Review; Swann: Economics of Innovation and New Technology (Associate Editor);  Information Economics and Policy (Associate Editor); Tynan:  Founding editor of The Marketing Review.

3.2.9   Plenary/Keynote Addresses

 There are numerous examples of School staff presenting plenary/keynote addresses. This summary confines attention to a small selection of the more significant contributions.

Fenn: invited by Thai government to speak at an international conference on Cost Containment in National Health Insurance Systems; Hanley: invited speaker at OECD Workshop on the Globalisation of Production: Impacts on Employment, Productivity and Economic Growth; Blake: keynote address to 2nd International Conference on Tourism Modelling and Competitiveness, World Tourism Forum, Rio de Janeiro; Wright: invited speaker, World Bank seminar on university-industry relations, Paris, 2006; OECD conference on governance and private equity, June 2007; American Economic Institute in Washington on Private Equity, November 2007; Devlin: keynote speaker at Office of Fair Trading conference “Developing an Understanding of Consumer Detriment”; keynote speaker at Financial Services Authority symposium “Young People and Personal Finances: The Academic-Practitioner Interface”; Bacon: keynote speaker, Dutch HRM Network Conference (2005); Currie: Keynote speaker, 'Forum for Healthcare Management Research', University of Copenhagen (2001); Hoque:  keynote address, Black Leadership Initiative Conference, Birmingham, May 2006; Watson: keynote speaker, American Business Communication Association, European Conference, Lugano (2003); keynote speaker,  ‘Managing Identities: New Media, New Methods’, international research symposium at Copenhagen Business School (2005); MacCarthy: invited plenary for World Congress on Mass Customisation and Personalisation, Hong Kong, 2001; Invited plenary session for Autex 2005, Slovenia;  O’Brien: invited plenary papers at: 2000 International Conference on Production Research, Bangkok; 17th International Conference on Production Research, 2003, USA; 18th International Conference on Production Research, 2005, Italy; Pawar: Keynote speech at Smart Manufacturing Conference, Oman, 2006; Starkey: invited seminars for BAM, DTI, ABS .

4. The Institute of Work, Health and Organisations 

The Institute is an international postgraduate research school. It has 3 full time Professors (1 vacancy), 4 Special Professors, a Reader, 4 Associate Professors, 4 Lecturers (2 vacancies) and 3 Research Fellows. There are 11 salaried research staff, 31 postgraduate research students, and 6 seconded clinical staff. 

Research Strategy

The Institute’s research is positioned on the boundaries between applied psychology, organisational behaviour and development, occupational health, public health and medicine. It is dedicated to applying psychological science to solve problems for the benefit of individuals, organisations, and the community. 

Research Income 

During the RAE 2008 period, the Institute received £2.02m in research funding with a further £1.06m in awards being secured within the last year from the ESRC, Stroke Association and European Commission (FP VI).  Support was received from governmental and international sources including Health & Safety Executive (HSE), National Health Service Executive, European Commission, European Social Fund, European Agency for Safety & Health at Work, and World Health Organisation (WHO). Funding was also received from the private sector and other organisations, including Shell International, Ford, London Underground, Rail Safety & Standards Board, SHL Group plc, Engineering Employers Federation, British Association for Women in Policing, Royal College of Nursing and UNISON, Alcohol & Education Research Council, British Occupational Health Research Foundation, Stroke Association, and Alzheimer’s Society. 

Research Groups 

The Institute’s research is managed through two groups: (i) Organisations, Work & Health, which combines the occupational health psychology and organisational and social psychology clusters, and (ii) Health and Clinical Psychology. The groups collaborate on projects such as the impact of chronic ill health on working life, the impact of work on reproductive health, ageing and health, organisational and health related behaviours, and web-based psychometric assessment. 

Organisations, Work & Health

 Research by T.Cox and Griffiths on organisational-level approaches to the prevention and management of work-related stress has contributed directly to national and international policy through HSE and WHO. They have developed innovative methodologies for the management and evaluation of organisational-level interventions. Projects funded through Framework Programme VI (Leka and T. Cox) have introduced a European policy dimension to this work. The group has a long standing interest in the management of an ageing workforce and is part of an inter-university application under the Research Councils’ New Dynamics of Ageing initiative (Griffiths). The roles of new organisational constructs such as justice and trust have been examined in relation to organisational and health-related behaviours through collaboration on the longitudinal Finnish Public Sector study (Kouvonen, T.Cox, S.Cox). 

Research on disruptive workplace behaviour includes the management and consequences of workplace violence (Leather, Santos) and counterproductive behaviour, workplace bullying and more recently cyber-bullying (Coyne). Coyne was recently awarded an ESRC First Grant to examine productive and counter productive behaviours within a cross-cultural framework. Coyne’s research on the development of International Guidelines on Computer and Internet Testing (International Test Commission) is beginning to influence the testing community’s use of internet tests. 

Health & Clinical Psychology 

This group is dedicated to applying psychological principles to solve problems in health and clinical practice and for the benefit of patients and sufferers, sometimes in the context of their working lives. It is well known for its work in neuropsychological rehabilitation through its involvement in large randomised controlled trials of complex interventions and in systematic reviews (Lincoln). Its work has informed the National Clinical Guidelines for Stroke (Department of Health). Thomas has recently received further major funding for this work through the Stroke Association. Hunt is working with a Europe-wide team to explore the long-term psychological impact (trauma) of experiences during WWII. Research on reproductive health is broadening its perspective on issues of parenthood to include a focus on working life (S.Cox). This research has been presented by invitation at several international conferences and has led to collaborative projects with Australian researchers. Coulson and Buchanan are leading an innovative research programme on internet based support groups for those with chronic illness and are developing novel research methodologies for web-based studies. 

Journal Output 

Within the current RAE period, staff have published over 200 articles in a wide range of strong international academic journals including: Human Relations; Work and Stress; International Journal of Human Resource Management; Journal of Applied Social Psychology; European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology; Ergonomics; Journal of Occupational & Environmental Health; Social Science and Medicine; British Medical Journal; Stroke; Clinical Genetics; Fertility and Sterility and Human Reproduction.


The Institute promotes inter disciplinary research with other schools and institutes in the University (including NUBS, Sociology and Social Policy, Community Health Sciences and the Institute of Mental Health). It has helped establish the development of a Cross-Disciplinary Research Group which seeks to promote interdisciplinary research and support for ECRs. 

The Institute has active international collaborations with the national institutes of safety and health and universities in the Australia, US, and Canada and in most Member States of the European Union through formally established networks and funded programmes.

4.1  Esteem Indicators

 Staff have recorded over 150 substantive esteem indicators including service on 33 advisory panels and 15 Editorial Boards, 11 new Fellowship awards, acting as External Examiners on 24 occasions, involvement in 20 international consortia, involvement in the organisation of 10 major conferences and presentation of 38 invited addresses. Buchanan, T.Cox, S.Cox, Coulson, Coyne, Griffiths, Houdmont, Leka and Lincoln have all played major roles in the organisation of international conferences for national and international bodies. 

The Institute’s staff have played key leadership roles in a variety of national and international organisations as follows. T.Cox: President, European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology; Non-Executive Director of the Rail Safety & Standards Board and Chair of its Advisory Committee; Chair, Board of Trustees of the CIRAS Trust. Griffiths: Past Honorary Secretary, Scientific Committee on Work Organisation and Psychosocial Factors, International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH), Work and Ageing Scientific Committee (ICOH), Executive Committee (European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology), Occupational Health Advisory Committee (Engineering Employers' Federation), and Research Committee of the Faculty of Occupational Medicine (Royal College of Physicians). Leka: Honorary Secretary, Scientific Committee on Work Organisation and Psychosocial Factors Committee (ICOH). Coyne: International Test Commission. Lincoln: Rehabilitation Clinical Studies Advisory Group (Stroke Research Network); Northern Ireland NHS Research and Development (Nursing and Allied Health Professions) and Award Panel (UK Stroke Forum). Coulson, S.Cox and Buchanan are members of the Divisional Committee for Health Psychology (British Psychological Society). 

Staff have achieved peer recognition for their work. T.Cox: Fellowships of the British Psychological Society, Royal Society for Arts, Commerce and Manufactures, Academician of the Academy of Learned Societies in the Social Sciences, Honorary Fellowships of the Faculty of Occupational Medicine, Royal College of Physicians of Ireland, and Ergonomics Society, and holds a CBE for services to occupational health. Griffiths: Academician of the Academy of Learned Societies in the Social Sciences, Visiting Research Chairs, Universities of Lund and Kristianstad. Lincoln: Fellow, British Psychological Society; Honorary Fellow, College of Occupational Therapists. Hunt: Visiting Research Fellowship, University of Helsinki. TCox, SCox, Griffiths and Leka: Fellows, Royal Society for the Promotion of Health. Buchanan, S.Cox, Coyne, Griffiths, Hunt, Leather: Associate Fellows, British Psychological Society.

4.1.1  Learned Journals

T.Cox: Managing Editor, Work & Stress; S.Cox: Editor, Health Psychology Update; Hunt: Associate Editor, The Psychologist; Coyne: Guest Editor, International Journal of Testing. Several members of staff are or have been on Editorial Boards for leading journals: T.Cox: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology; Revista Psicologica Applicada y Sociale; International Journal of Workplace Health Management; Personality and Mental Health, Griffiths: Work & Stress; International Journal of Workplace Health Management, Leka: International Maritime Health, Lincoln: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation. 

4.1.2  Engagement with research constituencies 

Griffiths has acted as expert witness in civil court proceedings for personal injury (work-related stress) cases, on behalf of both claimants and defendants. T.Cox and Leka are Expert Advisors to the WHO on mental health and working life. Coyne sat on the Steering Committee for the Chartered Management Institute’s project on workplace bullying in managers and is on the British Psychological Society’s Steering Committee on Test Standards. S.Cox and Hunt were on the BPS’ Working Party on Post Traumatic Stress and Debriefing. 

The Institute has received attention from media outlets (print, radio, television and online), for example with contributions to the Financial Times, Economist, Guardian, and Times Higher Education Supplement, and frequent requests to provide expert commentaries for radio and television, both in the UK and abroad.