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UOA 61 - Theology, Divinity and Religious Studies
University of Oxford
RA5a: Research environment and esteem
University of Oxford, UOA61 Theology
The Theology Faculty at Oxford, one of the largest in Britain, maintains a strong national and international reputation in all major areas of traditional Christian theology, while working to build and develop its coverage in the study of non-Christian religions and new methodologies in the study of religion. All fields of traditional theology are covered by University Professors and Lecturers, who are expected to be leaders or potential leaders in their fields. There are 4 academic staff in Old Testament Studies (with a fifth, Regius, Professor of Hebrew in Oriental Studies), 4 in New Testament, 10 in Historical (Patristics, Medieval, Reformation, and Modern) and Systematic Theology, 2 in Ecclesiastical History, 2 in Moral Theology, and 1 in Philosophy of Religion, 23 in all. During the current RAE period 3 Professors have retired, and 2 have moved. All have been replaced, and additional funds have recently been secured for a new Chair in Abrahamic Religions. In addition, a significant teaching and research contribution is made by Faculty members based in Colleges and Permanent Private Halls (four Roman Catholic, two Anglican, and one Baptist) or who have retired. Some of these hold University titles as Professors (2), Readers (2), and University Research Lecturers (3). Two British Academy Post-doctoral fellows are currently attached to the Faculty.
The wider study of religions is facilitated by our close relationship with the Oriental Studies Faculty, with the Ian Ramsey Centre for the Study of Religion and Science, and with independent Centres for Hebrew and Jewish Studies, Islamic Studies, Hindu Studies, and Buddhist Studies, as well as with individual scholars in, e.g., the departments of History, Byzantine Studies, and Anthropology. At the same time there are multiple research-related networks operating across the boundaries of the various sub-disciplines and of Oxford’s manifold institutions, the work of which is manifested in regular and occasional seminars, conferences, collaborations, and similar activities. These stimulate and service individual research and provide a context for collaborative research. Several endowed lectureships (Bampton, Hensley Henson, Wilde, Hussey, Speaker’s) enable all members of the Faculty to have regular opportunities to learn from leading international figures in theology and related disciplines. New appointments, together with the inclusion of staff from Centres not included in other returns, as well as college and PPH staff other than those with titles of distinction has led to a significantly larger return being made than in the last return.
The Faculty of Theology has doctoral students, mostly full-time, in all main areas of the field, including Biblical Studies, Patristics, Medieval Theology, Modern Theology, Ecclesiastical History, Philosophical Theology, the Study of Religions, Eastern Christian and Byzantine Studies, Science and Religion, and Judaism and Christianity in the Greco-Roman world. The Faculty receives applications for graduate degrees from a wide range of countries and universities. It has also been involved throughout the assessment period with schemes for visiting students, notably the Oxford Theological Exchange programme, bringing two students per year from Eastern Europe and the former USSR to study in Oxford each year, with funding support from the Foreign and Commonwealth Office and the Methodist Church.
Each student has at least one supervisor; where appropriate, co-supervision is offered. Students also receive support from Tutors for Graduates in colleges, the Faculty’s Director of Graduate Studies, and dedicated administrative staff. There are two ‘checks’ on a doctoral student’s progress—transfer of status and confirmation of status—when two assessors will read samples of written work and discuss the students’ progress with them, providing critical feedback and assessment. Graduate seminars are provided in all subject areas, with papers offered by graduate students themselves, Faculty members, and established scholars from outside Oxford.
Professionalization opportunities are offered, primarily through training for teaching tutorials and classes. In the last two years, the Faculty has been involved with the Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning (CETL) project. Students attend a one-day training course on skills required for tutorial and class-based teaching; they are given a mentor (someone in their field, not usually their supervisor) who is able to provide teaching advice and support as well as direct feedback and assessment on teaching skills. 15 students were involved in this training programme last year; 22 this year. Graduate students themselves have initiated workshops on issues such as networking, publication, and job applications. Of particular note is the AHRC-funded Regent’s Park College/ Theology Faculty/ King’s College London, theology and philosophy graduate training programme. This has to date held three one-day meetings and one 2-day meeting, at which students and Faculty staff have given presentations, focussing on the content of their research as well as on research methods and career development.
The initiative of Oxford’s graduate community is testified by their own activity in generating research-related activities, most recently the one-day conference ‘Transcendence Incarnate: The Corporeality of the Spiritual and the Spirituality of the Corporeal’ (September 2007; financially supported by an AHRC collaborative research award, as well as by Regent’s Park College and the Faculty).
The majority of graduate students go on to jobs in academia and get jobs in universities, divinity schools and theological colleges, here and abroad. In the current RAE period the following are amongst the career developments of our graduate students: Dale Coulter is Associate Professor of Historical Theology, Lee University (Tennessee); A. Ryrie has held posts at Manchester University (lecturer) and Durham (reader); W. Wizeman went from Oxford to an Assistant Professorship at Fordham (NY); S. Hampton has been Senior Tutor of St John’s College, Durham and is now Dean of Peterhouse; P. Hornbeck has succeeded W. Wizeman at Fordham; I. Isibarren is Chargé de Cours at the Université Marc Bloch de Strasbourg; S. Apetrei has this year gained a BA Post-doctoral fellowship; David Lamb is Assistant Professor of Old Testament at the Biblical Seminary, Hatfield PA; Francesca Stavrakopoulou held a HEFCE-funded Early Career Fellowship at Pembroke College (Oxford) and is now Lecturer in Hebrew Bible at Exeter University; Paul Foster is Senior Lecturer in New Testament at the University of Edinburgh; Donald Wood is Lecturer in Systematic Theology at the University of Aberdeen.
Amongst the theses of those graduating in this period, a number have been published, including Andrew Burgess, The Ascension in Karl Barth (Ashgate); Dale Coulter, Per visibilia ad invisibilia: Theological Method in Richard of St Victor (Brepols); Paul Foster, Community, Law and Mission in Matthew’s Gospel (Mohr); Anselm Hagedorn, Between Moses and Plato: Individual and Society in Deuteronomy and Ancient Greek Law (Göttingen); Isabel Iribarren, Durandus of St Pourcain: A Dominican Theologian in the Shadow of Aquinas (OUP); David Albert Jones, Approaching the End: a theological exploration of death and dying (OUP); W. A. Ryrie, The Gospel and Henry VIII: Evangelicals in the Early English Reformation (CUP); F. Stavrakopoulou, King Manasseh and Child Sacrifice (de Gruyter); Nigel Voak, Richard Hooker and Reformed Theology (OUP); Brent Waters, The Family in Christian Social and Political Thought (OUP); Rebecca Watson, Chaos Uncreated: A Reassessment of the theme of “Chaos” in the Hebrew Bible (de Gruyter); W. Wizeman, The Theology and Spirituality of Mary Tudor's Church: Catholic Christendom, 1300-1700 (Ashgate); Donald Wood, Barth’s Theology of Interpretation (Ashgate); John Yocum, Ecclesial mediation in Karl Barth (Ashgate).
The main areas of research for which income has been raised from outside bodies are the work of the Ian Ramsey Centre (a total of £262,112 received in the assessment period from the John Templeton Foundation and £117, 374 as a part of a £1,015,390 Templeton project in association with the Department of Pharmacology), the Prophecy Project (a total of £318, 561, including £300,663 from the Panacea Society, the remainder being from the AHRC and BA), and the Early Christian Gospels project (£239,104 from the AHRC). Details of these are given below (see under Research Structure: Centres and Projects). McGrath was one of four participants in the Oxford Templeton Seminars, which received $1,050,000, as well as receiving $75,000 for personal research support and £260,000 for the ‘Paley Project’ in natural theology—all from the Templeton Foundation. The Ian Ramsey Centre has also just been awarded a further £1,881,920 Templeton grant for a project on the cognitive study of religion in collaboration with the Department of Anthropology’s Centre for Anthropology and Mind.
Colleagues who have secured external funding for leave include Adams, who held a Luce Fellowship in 2002-3; Endean whose 2001 leave was funded by the Jesuit Historical Institute in Rome; Foot (Leverhulme 2001, AHRC 2007); Rowland (AHRC 2001); Shaw (University of Melbourne 2005, Rockefeller Foundation 2005, Australian National University 2006); MacCulloch’s leave for work on the history of Christianity has been funded by $1,200,000 from Penguin Press and £63,900 from the BBC.
Since 1 October 2000, the Faculty of Theology has been subsumed under the Humanities Division, the Board of which has overall responsibility for academic planning, resource allocation, and budgeting across humanities subjects. The Divisional Board aims to promote first-rate research in all subjects. To this end the Division offers the services of a three-person Humanities Research Support Team, who advise on the content and routing of funding applications. Financial aspects of applications are resourced by the Humanities and Social Science Divisions’ Research Services unit. The Division also serves as a conduit to the John Fell OUP Research Fund, which aims to foster creativity and a proactive approach to research opportunities in all subject areas, and particularly in interdisciplinary fields, funding innovative projects and proof-of-concept work, start-up funds for colleagues in the early stage of their research careers, seminar series, and international interactions.
The Faculty’s Research Monitoring Group meets each term, collating information on individual and collaborative research in the Faculty and reporting and making recommendations to the Academic Planning Committee. Subject Area groups cover all major sub-disciplines: (1) Old Testament, (2) New Testament, (3) History, Doctrine, and Ethics, (4) The Study of Religions. These discuss and make recommendations concerning teaching and research and also report to the Academic Planning Committee. The Academic Planning Committee considers all areas of the Faculty’s academic work, including applications for research leave, the setting up of new projects, attending to field-coverage and balance, and setting priorities for new posts, making recommendations to the Faculty Board. Regular collaborative research is focused in the work of the Faculty’s research centres and its range of subject-area seminars.
Research Centres and Projects
The Faculty has three research centres, and has close relations with other university- and college-based centres. It also has several well-institutionalized projects.
The Ian Ramsey Centre(Director: Harrison) was founded in 1985 for the study of religious beliefs in relation to science and medicine. It is largely funded by the Templeton Foundation. Until his retirement in 2006 the Director was Prof John Brooke. In addition to regular seminars, it hosts seminars in the Sophia Europa network, international workshops and conferences, and collaborates with the Oxford Centre for the Science of the Mind, having recently (September 2007), secured a major Templeton award for a project in the Cognitive Science of Religion. Conference themes in the assessment period have been Knowledge, Reality and Imagination (2001); The Meaning of the Person (2002); A Post Human Future (2004); Einstein, God and Time (2005); (in association with the University of California Santa Barbara) Putting Science-and-Religion in its Place (2006); Human Persons and the God of Nature. Speakers at these conferences have included such leading figures in the field as Niels Henrik Gregersen, David Brown, Fraser Watts, John Polkinghorne, Jürgen Moltmann, Richard Harries, Celia Deane-Drummond, Russell Stannard, and Nancey Murphy.
The Centre for the Reception History of the Bible (Directors: Rowland, Christine Joynes), was established in 2002 and aims to foster exchange between scholars working on the biblical text across the Humanities, and has created a research network focussing on the use and influence of the Bible. It organises a regular seminar series (‘The Bible in Art, Music and Literature’), runs conferences, and promotes publications. Speakers at seminars and conferences represent such disciplines as literary studies, art history, and musicology, in addition to many theological sub-disciplines. Its one-day conferences include ‘Blake and the Bible’ (2003), ‘Ruskin and the Bible’ (2004) and ‘Interpreting the Bible through the Arts’ (2006). Keynote speakers at the conference ‘Perspectives on the Passion’ (2005) were Neil MacGregor, John Butt, Regina Schwartz, Robin Jensen. It runs an AHRC-funded project on ‘Biblical Women and their Afterlives’ in conjunction with the Luce Progam in Scripture and Literary Arts at Boston University. Its work is reflected in the Blackwell Bible Commentary series, which especially emphasizes the reception history of biblical books, and the first volume of which (on Revelation) was co-authored by Rowland, who is also a series editor.
The Centre for the Study of Theology and Modern European Thought is the most recent of the Faculty’s centres (established in 2007) and aims to promote the interdisciplinary study of the relationship between theology and modern European thought. In May 2007 it hosted a 1-day conference of the Kierkegaard Society of the UK, with speakers from the universities of Liverpool, Cambridge and Tel Aviv as well as Oxford. It is currently holding a series of colloquia on Heidegger and Religion, and is planning future work on sacrifice, and on phenomenological approaches to religion.
Early Christian Gospels Project. This project is producing a series of editions of early, non-canonical gospel texts, published by OUP and edited by Tuckett and Gregory. Volumes commissioned so far include The Gospel of Mary (2007: Tuckett), the Gospel of Peter (Paul Foster), Epistola Apostolorum (Darrell Hannah), Jewish Christian Gospels (Andrew Gregory), Gospel Fragments [POxy 840, Papyrus Egerton 2 and other fragments] (Krugar, Nicklas, & Kraus).
The Prophecy Project. The subject of this project led by Rowland and Shaw is the modern prophetic tradition, exemplified by Joanna Southcott. The Southcottian Panacea Society is funding research into the Society’s archive as a contribution to the study of prophecy and millennial thinking in the modern West. The work and life of the several ‘Southcottian’ and pre-Southcottian prophets and their influence in Britain, Australia and America will be the subject of future studies. Other work in the project includes Rowland’s work on Blake, Deborah Madden’s work on Wesley and medicine (Madden is a paid research assistant on the project), and Sklar’s D. Phil thesis on Blake.
Theology and its Institutions. This project explores the interaction between the institutionalization of theology and its theoretical conceptualization and draws on perspectives from history and sociology as well as theology itself, with special emphasis on the modern period. An initial series of lectures was held in 2007, with speakers from the UK, Germany and the USA: Andreas Stegmann, Tal Howard, Isabel Rivers, David Thompson, John Milbank and Christoph Markschies. Further seminars and a book are being planned.
Research Structure: Subject Areas
The Faculty has four principal subject area groups covering the major sub-disciplines: (1) Old Testament, (2) New Testament, (3) History, Doctrine, and Ethics, (4) The Study of Religions. These supervise and co-ordinate a range of activities, including regular seminars attended by graduate students and Faculty staff with presentations from scholars in other UK HE institutions and visiting scholars from abroad.
The Old Testament seminar has facilitated research collaboration within Oxford and internationally, often pursued in collaboration with scholars from Oriental Studies. In addition to internal presentations, seminars have been addressed by Hugh Pyper, Yvonne Sherwood, Wilfred Lambert, Kevin Cathcart, Philip Davies, Sara Japhet, Carmel McCarthy, John Collins.
Further seminars, organized by Day, have been integrated into a publication programme: the 2001-3 seminar series, In Search of Pre-Exilic Israel, was published in 2004, and the concurrent series Temple and Worship in Biblical Israel was published in 2005, both edited by Day (T. and T. Clark). The seminar series for 2006-2007 has been Prophecy and the Prophets in Ancient Israel.
In addition to a weekly graduate seminar, there is a Senior NT seminar, which has been a seedbed for research ideas which have been explored in other settings (for example the Early Christian Gospels and Reception History projects). Recent work is reflected in Rowland & Tuckett (eds.), The Nature of New Testament Theology: Essays in Honour of Robert Morgan (Oxford: Blackwell, 2006). Non-Oxford speakers have included: Ulrich Luz, Heikki Räisänen, Adela Yarbro Collins, Harold Hoehner, Gene Lemcio, Wiard Popkes, Brendan Byrne, Jonathan Draper, Graham Stanton, John Barclay, and Judith Lieu.
History, Doctrine and Ethics
There are 5 seminar series in this subject area:
1. Systematic Theology
The seminar explores doctrinal and philosophical issues in the field of Systematic Theology. Papers are presented by staff, students, and invited outside speakers. Some terms have themed topics (Hilary 2007 focussed on ‘Theology and the Contemporary University’, complementing the lectures on Theology and its Institutions). Invited speakers have included: Stephen Mulhall, Don Cupitt, Robert Adams, Denys Turner, Oliver Davies, Peter Ochs, David Ford, Gavin D’Costa, and Martin Warner.
2. The Joseph Butler Society (Philosophy of Religion).
The society is a forum for discussion of papers in analytic philosophy of religion. Recent speakers include: Robert Audi, John Cottingham, Eleonore Stump, Peter Forrest, Peter Byrne.
The seminar offers graduate students the opportunity to present their own work and to respond to papers from staff and visiting speakers, focusing on major texts from the tradition of Christian Moral Thought or from the contemporary debate. Recent external speakers have included Miroslav Volf, Amy Laura Hall, and John Wyatt.
4. Religion in the British Isles (jointly with History).
This seminar is devoted to the study of the Long Reformation and related themes about religion in early modern Britain. Recent speakers from outside the Faculty include Glanmor Williams, John Morrill, Eamon Duffy, and Ethan Shagan.
5. Themes in Modern Religious History (jointly with History)
This seminar is devoted to the study of the history of religions in the period from 1750 to the present. Recent speakers from outside the Faculty include James Piscatori, Jeremy Gregory, Francis Robinson, Zoe Waxman and Simon Coleman.
Study of Religions
The Study of Religions seminar series provides a forum for the interdisciplinary study of religions. The seminars are open to contributions from Theology, Philosophy, Anthropology, Sociology, Literary Studies, and Philology, as well as from newer disciplines such as Cultural and Film Studies. Invited speakers include: Mary Douglas, Harvey Cox, Eileen Barker, Diana Eck, Kim Knott, Michael Pye, and Geoffrey Samuel.
Research Structure: Lecture Series
Oxford’s research environment is enhanced by a number of endowed lectures and lecture series that both stimulate and share research. Endowed lectures include
- The Bampton Lectures—2001: David Fergusson; 2003: Oliver O’Donovan; 2005: Paul Fiddes; 2007: Lord Plant of Highfield).
- The Grinfield Lectures on the Septuagint—2001-2: Johan Lust; 2002-4: Scott Mandelbrote; 2004-6: Bas ten Haar Romeny, Peter Gentry, Alison Salvesen, Gerard Norton OP; 2006-8: Jennifer Dines.
- The Hensley Henson Lectures—2001-2: Brian Hebblethwaite; 2002-3: John Bowker; 2005-6: Sarah Coakley; 2006-7: Christopher Rowland, and Jane Shaw.
- The Hussey Lectures on the Church and the Arts—2001-2: Margaret Bent; 2003-4: Rosemary Hill; 2005-6: David Stancliffe; 2006-7: John Butt.
- The Speaker’s Lectures in Biblical Studies—2001-2: Brian Murdoch; 2002-3: Walter Moberly; 2004-5: Leander Keck; 2005-6: John J. and Adela Yarbro Collins; 2007-8: Margaret Mitchell.
- The Wilde Lectures in Natural and Comparative Religion—2000-1: Robert Audi; 2002-3: Geoffrey Samuel; 2003-4: Peter Forest; 2005-6: Eleanor Stump; 2006-7: David Gellner.
Research Structure: Collaborations with other institutions
The Faculty enjoys a number of collaborations with other institutions. The best established are those with Bonn and Leiden.
The Bonn-Oxford theological seminar was established in 1977, and both graduate students and Faculty members present papers at its meetings. Four meetings have been held during the review period (2001, 2003, 2005, 2007) and a formal agreement renewing the collaboration was signed with the Dean of Bonn’s Protestant Theology Faculty in September 2007. Associated with the seminar is an on-going senior research group, funded by the British Council and the German Academic Exchange service, meeting twice each year, and producing a number of collaborative volumes; in this period The Unity of Scripture and the Diversity of the Canon was published (de Gruyter, 2003), ed. John Barton and Michael Wolter, and another volume is in preparation.
The Leiden-Oxford Biblical Studies seminar met three times (2002, 2004, 2006) being expanded in 2006 to include the University of Bonn. In the first period, collaboration was between Oxford and Leiden, leading to two volumes: The Book of Zechariah and its Influence (ed. Tuckett: Ashgate 2003), and The Book of Ezekiel and its Influence (ed. J. Tromp and H. J. de Jonge: Ashgate 2007). The most recent meeting involved a three-way collaboration between Oxford, Leiden and Bonn, resulting in a volume Moses in Biblical and Extra-Biblical Traditions (ed. M. Wolter: de Gruyter 2007).
Several faculty members participate in overseas-based research projects: Pattison is on the editorial board overseeing the translation of Kierkegaard’s Journals and Papers, funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities (USA) and the Danish National Research Council (one volume published, one in press); Zachhuber is a member of the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities Interdisciplinary Research group on the World as Image, which has one book, Die Welt as Bild (ed. Zachhuber and Markschies), in press, and another in preparation.
Research Structure: Conferences
Conferences are a perennially important means of organizing and enabling collaborative research. The following are amongst the conferences 2001-7 in which Faculty members were part of the inviting organization (conferences held under the auspices of Centres have already been listed).
The Patristics conference has evolved from a small gathering of international scholars held in 1951. Conferences are now held at 4-year intervals. The present chair of directors is Dame Averil Cameron (returned to UOA59). The directors are now afforced by the presidents of the North American Patristics Society and the Association International des Études Patristiques. Since 1999 the board of directors has been a committee of the Oxford Theology Faculty, and Edwards is the academic organizer.
The conference allows for any aspect of late antique history which involves ecclesiastical personalities or impinges on the study of life and doctrine in the Church of the first millennium. In 2007 there were 800 attendees, offering 500 papers, with 30 seminars and about 40 workshop sessions with topics including ancient philosophy, Coptic studies, Syriac studies, Armenian Christianity, women in the early Church, and Patristic studies in the third world. This is the most inclusive conference of its kind, and may be regarded as the parent of numerous smaller events which take place around the world. Speakers in the RAE period have included Henry Chadwick, Rowan Williams, Richard Sorabji, Frances Young, Christoph Markschies, Elizabeth Clark and Timothy Barnes, as well as Oxford colleagues such as Averil Cameron and Robin Lane Fox. The proceedings of the conferences are published in five volumes by Peeters.
2003: ‘Sacred Conjectures: The Context and Legacy of Robert Lowth and Jean Astruc’.The conference marked the 250th anniversary of the publication of two seminal works in the study of the Hebrew Bible, Lowth’s On the Sacred Poetry of the Hebrews and Astruc’s Conjectures on Genesis. Speakers included: Scott Mandelbrote, Anna Cullhed, Stephen Prickett, Christoph Bultmann, John Rogerson, Markus Witte, Wilfred Watson, Rudolf Smend, Pierre Gilbert, Jan Christian Gertz, Aulikki Nahkola, and Otto Kaiser. Papers from the conference have been published by Continuum (title as per conference, edited by Jarick).
2004: ‘The New Testament and the Apostolic Fathers’. The conference marked the centenary of the seminal publication in 1905 and investigated a broad range of issues dealing with the relationship between the NT writings and those of the Apostolic Fathers. Conference papers published in Tuckett & Gregory (eds), The Reception of the New Testament in the Apostolic Fathers and Trajectories through the New Testament and the Apostolic Fathers (Oxford: OUP, 2005). Invited speakers included: Helmut Koester, Bart Ehrman, William Petersen, Michael Homes, Clayton Jefford, Andreas Lindemann, Joseph Verheyden, John Kloppenborg.
2006: ‘Bonhoeffer’s Theology through the Lens of His Poetry’. The conference explored a fresh approach to Bonhoeffer’s theology through the lens of nine poems written in prison. Speakers each engaged with an assigned poem in order to render an imaginative account of a major concept in Bonhoeffer’s theology. Speakers included Stanley Hauerwas, Renate Bethge, Michael Northcott, Stephen Plant, and Hans Ulrich.
2007: On The Work Of Hans G. Ulrich’s – Wie Geschöpfe Leben: Konturen Evangelischer Ethik. This is a work published in 2006 by one of Germany’s leading moral theologians,and the conference aimed to introduce this work to the Anglophone world. It was sponsored by the Society for the Study of Christian Ethics and papers will be published in the Society’s Journal, Studies in Christian Ethics. Speakers included Brian Brock, John Webster, Wolfgang Palaver, Hans Reinders, Susan Parsons and Hans Ulrich.
2007: Transcendence Incarnate: The corporeality of the spiritual and the spirituality of the corporeal. This one-day conference in Theology and the Continental Philosophy of Religion deserves special note as it was organized by current postgraduates in the Faculty under the direction of Anderson, and gained support from the AHRC. Speakers came from universities in the UK and abroad, including Liverpool, UCD, Warwick, Glasgow, Toronto, Sussex, Reading, Nottingham, Calgary, Manchester, Edinburgh, Guelph, Iowa, and St Thomas.
Research Structure: Other
Faculty members are also integrally involved in the work of the following Centres:
The Oxford Centre for Hebrew and Jewish Studies, founded for scholars in any field of Jewish studies in 1972; The Oxford Centre for Hindu Studies, founded in 1997 for the study of Hindu culture, religion, languages, literature, philosophy, history, arts and society; The Oxford Centre for Buddhist Studies, founded in 2002 as a world centre of excellence in research, teaching on all aspects of the Buddhist tradition;The Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies, established in 1985 to encourage the scholarly study of Islam and the Islamic world and to provide a meeting point for the Western and Islamic worlds of learning. Each of these Centres is a recognized independent Centre of the University of Oxford. Many of their staff and associated researchers contribute to undergraduate and graduate teaching in the Theology Faculty, and to the Faculty’s seminars, conferences and other research-related events (e.g., Freud-Kandel, Goodman, Weinberg, and Ramadan [all returned under UOA48], Flood, and Michot).
Regent’s Park College hosts several research activities that contribute to the Faculty’s research. These include (1) The Oxford Centre for Christianity and Culture, providing research opportunities for scholars, and bringing together practitioners and artists to reflect upon the place of faith and spirituality in contemporary culture, from ‘popular’ culture through to law and economics. (2) A project on Equity and Exceptionalism in Theology, Law and Literature was mounted in 2005-2006 in collaboration with the Columbus Law School of the Catholic University of Washington, including lecture series in both places and an international conference (speakers included: John Finnis, John Gardner, John Haldane, Martin Golding, Tracy Strong). (3) A research seminar on Critical Theory and Spiritual Practice, which is being developed into a research network.
Many other research-related activities take place in other colleges and permanent private halls, and examples include the Aquinas Seminar (Blackfriars), the Annual Aquinas Lecture (Blackfriars), the Annual D’Arcy lecture (Campion Hall). Similarly there are several extra-curricular graduate seminars, such as those on Law and Religion and Literature and Religion, as well as the Graduate Theological Society, which attract outside speakers as well as providing a forum for graduate debate.
Research Structure: Resources
Oxford is particularly rich in library resources. The University’s central library facilities are provided by Oxford University Library Services (OULS) across 38 libraries. Library provision for Theology is centred on the Bodleian (whose theological collections run to 400,000+ volumes, with annual accessions of 2,000 volumes/year) and the Theological Faculty itself (whose holdings number 35,000 volumes with accessions of 800 volumes/year), with OULS journal subscriptions running to 25,000+ and Theology’s current subscriptions holding at 550+. Certain individual college libraries have unique collections of theological works (e.g. Mansfield College, the Angus Archives at Regent’s Park College, and the library of Archbishop William Wake at Christ Church), as does Pusey House (an independent foundation housing Pusey’s archives and containing 100,000 volumes). Likewise available are libraries of the Oriental Institute, the Philosophy Faculty, and of the Centres for Hebrew and Jewish, Islamic, and Hindu Studies. These resources are augmented by electronic material through OxLIP, which houses 13,600 e-journals and 600 bibliographic or full-text databases.
All newly appointed lecturers are assigned a mentor for their first five years at the University. The mentor advises and supports in all aspects of professional activity, including research plans, publication strategies, time management, advising on applications for assistance etc. The situation of each newly-appointed lecturer is discussed at the Faculty Board after an initial two years, and at the end of the official probationary period. All lecturers will be assigned to one of the subject groups and are expected to participate in the group’s research seminars. Both Faculty and colleges seek to limit the administrative responsibilities in the probationary period in order that new staff might establish their research base as securely as possible.
Each holder of a University appointment is a member of one of the subject groups within the Faculty and is expected to participate in the research activity of that subject area. Each staff member is also required to undergo a process of peer-review assessment. This assessment will often typically focus on the research plans of the individual and also provides an opportunity for the assessor to make representations to enable someone to have more time for research.
Research Leave and Support
University policy allows research leave entitlement of one term’s sabbatical for every six terms of service. All those with University posts make regular use of this provision. Faculty Boards also have flexibility in allowing more extended periods of sabbatical leave in cases of, for example, someone having completed a particularly onerous administrative load.
The Faculty provides financial support of £1000 p.a. for each individual to pay for research expenses, conferences, etc. Individual colleges often give similar assistance. The Faculty also provides support of up to £500 p.a. for individual members of the Faculty who do not hold University positions and whose college is unable to provide financial assistance. Academic staff are also able to apply for research funds to the University’s John Fell Fund (£5m. per year).
Development of younger staff
The Faculty promotes the research activity of younger researchers and has made several full-time appointments of individuals at an early stage in their careers (Zachhuber, Rasmussen, Papadogiannakis). It has participated in the Career Development Scheme, and has had two Career Development Fellows during the review period, Ludlow and Stavrakopoulou. Both have now gained full-time lecturing posts (both in Exeter). The Faculty currently hosts two BA Research Fellows, De Visscher and Apetrei. There are several Junior Research Fellows in colleges (mostly funded by the colleges, though the Faculty provides support for the Gordon Milburn fellowship). These all enable promising scholars to continue with their research activity in the period after their doctorate. Thus Nile Green held the Gordon Milburn fellowship for 2002-6 and is now in a full-time post in Manchester; Gregory held a fellowship at Keble College and is now an active researcher with a full-time post in Oxford. These colleagues are all active members of the Faculty’s research community. In the case of individual research projects providing funding for post-doctoral researchers, the Faculty offers the full facilities they need for their work (e.g. with the AHRC project led by Tuckett, the support given successively to Paul Foster, Gregory, and Hannah).
In the three years prior to the census date, the Faculty has appointed to a number of replacement posts. These are Papadogiannakis (Patristics), Zachhuber (Modern Theology), Harrison (Science and Religion), Bockmuehl (New Testament), Foot (Church History), and Biggar (Moral and Pastoral Theology/Ethics). Appointments have also been made to two new posts: Rasmussen (19th century theology), and Nichols (Roman Catholic theology). A Faculty Lectureship (a short-term post) in the Study of Religions (held by Bettina Schmidt from 2004-6) is to be replaced by a permanent appointment. Via these appointments, the Faculty has been able to maintain a strong degree of continuity in the strength, breadth, and coherence of its overall research profile. The Faculty aims to maintain this coverage whilst developing into new areas, especially in relation to the study of non-Christian religions and of newer methodologies in the study of religion.
Several retired staff remain research active. Mayr–Harting has been a Fellow of the British Academy throughout the RAE period: he is Chairman of the project for the publication of the Corpus of British Medieval Library Catalogues, and a member of two other projects. He was President of the Ecclesiastical History Society from 2001-2; he has given many invited lectures, has been a guest researcher at the Herzog August Bibliothek in Wolfenbüttel, and continues to publish, notably Church and Cosmos in Early Ottonian Germany (OUP 2007). Swinburne has been a visiting professor at the universities of Lublin, Yale, St Louis and Biola and has given a lecture tour in China. The philosophy faculty of Münster is holding a conference on his thought in November 2007. Ward is a Fellow of the British Academy and serves on their senior research fellowships committee and is a member of the executive committee of the Royal Institute of Philosophy. He has given many invited lectures in Europe and the United States, was Chair of Governors of the Oxford Centre for Hindu Studies from its inception until 2006, and will be giving the Hensley Henson Lectures in 2007-8.
In the application and extension of the research strategy outlined in the 2001 RAE return, the Faculty has developed a fourfold strategy, covering individual research in traditional areas of strength, research in the study of religions, collaborative research and inter-disciplinary research. In more detail, the strategy:
(1) encourages the research of individuals, focusing on traditional strengths in Biblical Studies, Christian history, Doctrine, Philosophy of Religion and Ethics, where the largest number of post-holders is located;
(2) works closely in the study of religions with the Faculty of Oriental Studies and with the Independent Study Centres in Judaism, Hinduism, Islam, and Buddhism;
(3) facilitates collaborative research projects, mainly based on subject groups within the Faculty, and encourages the search for external funding of their projects;
(4) fosters the development of inter-disciplinary work, mainly through research centres, as listed above.
This strategy thus combines the research done by University postholders with research by senior members of colleges and the recognized Centres. The strategy provides an integrative approach, including involvement in appointments of and the provision of Faculty membership (where appropriate) to scholars in the Centres, and the arrangement of supervision for postgraduate taught and research degrees.
Evaluation of research plans from 2001 RAE
The primary aim stated in 2001 was to cover the full range of topics in Christian theology – Biblical Studies, Christian History and Thought, and Doctrine. RA2 demonstrates how well this has been fulfilled in individual research. Details given elsewhere in this narrative relating to subject groups, Centres, and projects associated with the Faculty give evidence of extensive collaborative research.
A second aim stated in 2001 was to strengthen research programmes in the study of religion, involving further appointments in Hinduism, Buddhism, Study of Religions and Sociology of Religion. New appointments in Independent Recognized Centres have helped to fulfil these aims, including: Flood (the Oxford Centre for Hindu Studies) and Ramadan (the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies). As noted above, a short-term lectureship in the Study of Religions was established and filled by Schmidt; a new permanent University Lectureship in this field has now been established to be filled at the earliest possible date. A major benefaction for a Chair in Abrahamic Religions has recently been received, to be filled from October 2008. Attention is drawn above to the activities of the Study of Religions group within the Faculty, including an international conference; in addition, the Oxford Centre for Hindu studies in collaboration with the Oxford Centre for Christianity and Culture held a day conference (2006) on the theme of desire in Indian Religions and Christianity.
A third aim was to develop more interdisciplinary research. In fulfilment of this intention, the Ian Ramsey Centre has developed a joint project on ‘Empirical Expansion in Cognitive Science of Religion and Theology’ with the Centre for Anthropology and Mind in the Department of Anthropology, and a project on a comparative study of religious experience in Britain and China (in collaboration with the University of Wales in Lampeter). Research in the Study of Religions, as mentioned above, has involved interdisciplinary work with the Faculty of Oriental Studies. Interdisciplinary work between theology and science has been achieved, especially through the research of the two consecutive Idreos Professors of Science and Religion, Brooke (recently retired) and Harrison, and through McGrath’s Templeton-funded project. Two of the Centres of the Faculty described above – those for Theology and Modern European Thought and for the Reception History of the Bible – have been established in this period with the purpose of interdisciplinary research, engaging other Humanities scholars in particular in a wide range of collaborations.
Fourth, the statement of 2001 intended the strengthening of research collaboration with two international partners in particular, the Universities of Bonn and Leiden, and an account is given above of the collaboration and the publications achieved. A final aim was to keep individual research projects under peer review: a process for the termly collection of research data is now in operation, and keeping this under review is part of the work of the Research Monitoring Committee, described above.
Planning for the next five years
Following the fourfold strategy as outlined above, existing areas of research will be strengthened, specific areas will be prioritized, and new areas will be developed.
In existing areas, there is a wide range of individual research projects which will come to completion in the next few years, chiefly in the form of authored or edited books. These include: Adams: on Anselm and medieval theories of the Eucharist; Anderson: a pioneering contribution to revisioning gender in philosophy of religion; Fiddes: the publication of the Bampton Lectures 2005, developing a dialogue between ancient wisdom texts and late-modern concerns about the self in the world; Finn: asceticism in the Greco-Roman World; Flood: text and self in scriptural religions; Gregory: a critical edition of the so-called Jewish-Christian Gospels; Harrison: a contribution to the New Cambridge History of the Bible 1450-1750, on the Bible and the emerging scientific world view, and editing the Cambridge Companion to Science and Religion; Houston: the biblical challenge to justice; Leftow: Aquinas and metaphysics, and God and necessity; MacCulloch: a critical survey of ‘the first three thousand years of Christianity’; Methuen: George Bell and the Ecumenical Movement 1918-1938; Papadogiannakis: a pioneering study by on the Quaestiones et responsiones of Pseudo-Justin; Pattison: continuing co-editorship of the first complete English edition of Kierkegaard’s Journals and Papers; Rowland: works on Blake and on Jewish mysticism; Wannenwetsch: political ethics and a theology of work; Zachhuber a book on Theologie als Wissenschaft im 19. Jahrhundert. The two new Regius Professors come with major projects—Biggar: an edited collection on religion and public reason, and a monograph each on the ethics of war and of nationalism
Foot: a biography of Æthelstan, the first English monarch; co-editing the Oxford History of Historiography, II, 600-1400; and co-editing the Sage Handbook of Historical Theory.
The work of existing research groups will be developed. The Old Testament group will complete a project on Prophecy and Prophets in Ancient Israel, leading to a volume of essays to be published by Day. The research group with Bonn will publish a project on ‘Spirit and Letter’, tracing the historical tradition of the theme and its reversal in the postmodern mood. The Hensley Henson Lectures by Shaw and Rowland on prophecy and millenarianism in the modern world will be published. McGrath’s ongoing project on a new-style natural theology, funded by the Templeton Foundation, will include a major international conference in 2008 on ‘The Renewal of Natural Theology’. The Study of Religions group will be focusing on sacred art, leading to an international conference. The Ian Ramsey Centre will develop its involvement in the Oxford Centre for the Science of the Mind, which will provide two post-doctoral students. The Oxford Centre for Theology and Modern European thought is developing a series of colloquia on the theme of ‘Heidegger and Religion’ in the academic year 2007-2008 (speakers to include Theodore Kisiel, Thomas Sheehan, Jack Caputo, and Gianni Vattimo), followed by an examination of recent debates about sacrifice in continental thought.
New areas of research are already in the planning and early development stage. The Faculty is running a new interdisciplinary project on Theology and its Institutions, assisted by funding from the John Fell Fund, examining the institutionalization of theology inside and outside of universities. In the Study of Religions, a project on ‘religious reading’ is being constructed in collaboration between the Oxford Centre for Hindu Studies and King’s College London. The Faculty participates in a new research project with Yale Divinity School and King’s College London led from Oxford by the Oxford Centre for Christianity and Culture; this project studies the link between ecclesiology and ethnography, integrating theology and social studies. The last two projects are accompanied by AHRC bids.
In all these developments, priority will be given by the Faculty to the following: developing the Oxford Centre for Theology and Modern European Thought; projects associated with Science and Religion; the funding of a post in the study of religions whose occupant will oversee several of the research projects in that area; and the development of the multi-volume series on Oxford Early Christian Gospels Texts. Integral to the research strategy will be encouragement of staff to seek external funding for research, working with the Humanities Research Facilitators team.
The Faculty has been designated as one of the first wave of faculties to be accommodated at the new Humanities Centre to be constructed on the Radcliffe Observatory Quarter. The planning for this milestone development includes integrated library facilities, and dedicated space for research groups and centres, as well as for post-doctoral researchers and doctoral students.
Contributions to the broader Research Environment
Barton is one of the editors for the Beihefte zur Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft and The Journal of Theological Studies, and is a delegate of the Oxford University Press. He and Muddiman edited the Oxford Bible Commentary. Chapman is co-editor of the Zeitschrift für neuere Theologiegeschichte. Cross is co-editor for Changing Paradigms in Historical and Systematic Theology. Day is assistant editor for the Journal for the Study of the Old Testament, and is editor of the annual Society for OT Study Book List. Edwards is series editor for Philosophy and Theology in Antiquity (Ashgate). Fiddes is co-editor of Ecclesiology, The Journal for Ministry, Mission and Unity. MacCulloch is co-editor of the Journal of Ecclesiastical History. Rowland co-edits the Blackwell Bible Commentary series that integrates reception history of the Bible. Tuckett edited New Testament Studies until 2003, is on the editorial board of The Biblical Tools and Studies series, and co-edits the Forschungen zum Literatur des Alten und Neuen Testaments series, as well as being co-editor (with Gregory) of the OUP Oxford Early Christian Gospel Texts and Oxford Apostolic Fathers.
25 Faculty members serve on editorial or advisory boards, as follows: Adams—Faith and Philosophy, Documenti e Studi, Medieval Philosophy and Theology; Anderson—Sophia. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion, Metaphysics and Ethics and Philosophical Compass; Barrett—Journal of Cognition and Culture; Baun—Studia Patristica; Biggar—Journal of Religious Ethics, Studies in Human Ethics, the Georgetown UP series Advancing Human Rights; Bockmuehl—Bulletin for Biblical Research, Journal for the Study of the New Testament, New Testament Studies, Studies in Theological Interpretation; Carroll—Humanitas (Chile); Clarke—Journal of Mental Health, Religion and Culture; Cross—British Academy Medieval Texts; Medieval Studies: Texts and Studies (Fordham UP), European Journal for the Philosophy of Religion; Edwards—Church History and Religious Culture; Endean—Contact: the Journal of Pastoral Theology, ET: the Journal of the European Society of Catholic Theology, Review of Ignatian Spirituality, Ignaziana; Farias—Time and Mind: The Journal of Archaeology, Consciousness and Culture; Fiddes—New Critical Thinking in Theology and Biblical Studies (Ashgate); Flood—Journal of the American Academy of Religion, Religion, Religion and Culture; Foot—Storia della storiografia, BBC History Magazine, Oxford History of Historiography; Jarick—Library of Hebrew Bible/Old Testament Studies; Joyce—Scottish Journal of Theology, Society for Old Testament Study Monographs Series, Oxford University Theological Monographs; Kreitzer—Journal for the Study of the New Testament; Leftow—Faith and Philosophy, Religious Studies, Philosophical Compass, Medieval Philosophy: Texts and Studies (book series: Fordham UP); MacCulloch—Church of England Records Society, Peter Martyr Library, XVII-XVIII: Revue de la Société d’Études Anglo-Americaines des XVIe et XVIIIe Siècles, Oxford University Theological Monographs; Pattison—Kierkegaard’s Journals and Notebooks (Princeton UP); Rasmussen —Kierkegaard Research (multi-volume reference work); Rowland—Political Theology, Journal for Study of NT in South Africa; Shaw—Teaching Theology and Religion and Anglican and Episcopal History; Wannenwetsch—Pro Ecclesia; Zachhuber—Millennium: Yearbook on the Culture and History of the First Millennium CE.
25 colleagues refereed book manuscripts or journal articles, excluding manuscripts read by them as editors or members of editorial boards. Anderson has read book manuscripts for 3 publishers, Barrett for 1, Bockmuehl for 2, Cross for 3, Endean for 2, Fiddes for 2, Flood for 5, Foot for 4, Gillingham for 4, Harris for 2, Harrison for 5, Leftow for 4, MacCulloch for 8, Methuen for 1, Pattison for 5, Rowland for 2, Shaw for 3, Tuckett for 3, Wannenwetsch for 6. Numbers of journals for which colleagues refereed articles are as follows: Adams 1, Anderson 3, Barrett 5, Bockmuehl 1, Carroll 1, Clarke 1, Cross 7, Flood 3, Farias 1, Foot 4, Gillingham 7, Harris 2, Harrison 8, Jarick 5, Joyce 2, Leftow 3, MacCulloch 8, Pattison 3, Shaw 2, Tuckett 2, Wannenwetsch 4. Mayr-Harting has refereed historical papers for the Austrian Academy of Sciences.
Excluding Oxford D. Phils, 27 colleagues examined over 70 Ph. D or higher doctoral degrees. Many of these were abroad, including at the universities of Bochum, Geneva, Kampen, Copenhagen, Dublin, Aarhus, Leuven, Paris 1, Helsinki, Lund, Melbourne, Sydney, Yale, Western Michigan, and at the Faculté Libre de Théologie Evangélique, Vaux-sur-Seine.
Evidence of Esteem
Adams, Anderson, Barton, Day, Baun, Biggar, Carroll, Chapman, Clarke, Day, De Visscher, Edwards, Endean, Fiddes, Flood, Foot, Gillingham, Harrison, Ker, Leftow, MacCulloch, McGrath, Michot, Pattison, Rasmussen, Rowland, Shaw, Tuckett, Wannenwetsch and Zachhuber are amongst those invited to give lectures at international conferences and universities. Many of these included invitations to be keynote speakers or were prestigious named lectures—Adams gave the DuBose Lectures at Sewanee, the Warfield Lectures at Princeton Theological Seminary, and the Shlomo Pines lecture at the Israeli Academy; Barton gave Croall Lectures at the University of Edinburgh, the Ethel M. Wood lecture (London), the William Anderton Chisolm Lecture (Yale) and the Stirling Lecture at Princeton Theological Seminary; Bockmuehl gave the Ryan Lectures at Ashbury Seminary; MacCulloch gave the Folger Institute seminar and the Erasmus Lecture at University of Toronto; Shaw gave the Marshall lecture at Melbourne University. Locally, Fiddes delivered the Bampton Lectures, while Rowland and Shaw gave the Hensley Henson Lectures. A number of colleagues have held visiting lectureships and professorships abroad.
Learned Societies and Service to Scholarly Bodies
In the current RAE period, Anderson has been an Executive Member of the UK Society for Women in Philosophy; Barton was made a Fellow of the British Academy in 2007; Biggar has been Chair of the Irish Theological Association, a Board member of (a) the Center for Ethics and Culture (Notre Dame), (b) the (US) Society for Christian Ethics (2003-7) and (c) the (European) Societas Ethica (2002-); Jarick is Home Secretary for the Society for OT Study; while Joyce has been a committee member and an editorial board member as well as the Program Unit Chair for the Ezekiel Section of the Society of Biblical Literature and a member of the AHRC Peer Review College. Leftow is President of the British Society for Philosophy of Religion. MacCulloch was made a Fellow of the British Academy. Tuckett is a member of the AHRC Postgraduate Panel 8 (2003-), and from 2006 convenor of Panel 8 and a member of the AHRC Postgraduate Committee.
Prizes and Distinctions
MacCulloch’s book Reformation: Europe’s House Divided 1490-1700 won the 2003 Wolfson History Prize, 2004 British Academy Prize, 2005 Non-Fiction Award from the National Book Critics Circle of the USA.
Dayand Fiddes were awarded the title ‘Professor’ and the DD by Oxford University. Fiddes also received an honorary doctorate from the University of Bucharest and an honorary fellowship at St. Peter’s College, Oxford. Ker was awarded an Hon D. Litt from the University of Leicester. Pattison took his DD from University of Durham. MacCulloch received a D. Litt, honoris causa, from the University of East Anglia. Shaw was awarded a DD, honoris causa, by Episcopal Divinity School (Boston, MA). Adams received a Distinguished Alumna of the Year Award from Princeton Theological Seminary andShaw a University of California Alumna Award for Distinguished Achievement.
During the period under review, many members of the Faculty have been consulted by British and international universities or equivalent institutions on appointments, and on tenure, promotion or title reviews. Amongst these Adams advised the universities of Creighton (Nebraska), Notre Dame, Georgetown, Wisconsin, Glasgow; Barton the universities of Aberdeen, Bangor, and Durham; Biggar the universities of London (KCL), Nottingham, and McMaster University (Canada); Bockmuehl the universities of Nottingham, British Columbia, and Princeton Theological seminary, Israel Academy, Netherlands Council for the Humanities; Carroll, Gonzaga University (Spokane), St Francis Xavier University (Nova Scotia); Clarke the universities of Lancaster, Griffith (Australia), Foguanshan (Taiwan), Kobe (Japan); Cross Toronto, Ohio State, Notre Dame; Day the University of Bremen; Edwards McGill-Queen’s; Flood the universities of Hong Kong, London (SOAS); Foot Penn State University; Harrison Harvard Divinity School; Joyce Duke University; Leftow the universities of Colorado, Notre Dame, Purdue, Delaware, South Florida; MacCulloch the universities of Aberdeen, Birmingham, Cambridge, Exeter, Fordham, Glasgow, Kent at Canterbury, Lancaster, London (Royal Holloway and Westfield College), Northwestern, Reading, St Andrew’s, Sheffield, Simon Fraser (British Columbia), Stanford, Strathclyde, Vanderbilt (Nashville), Warwick, St Mary’s University College (Strawberry Hill), Lambeth Palace, Crown appointments Secretary; Methuen the University of Bochum (Germany); Pattison the universities of Kent, Sheffield, Guam, Florida State, Drexel; Rowland the universities of Cambridge, London (KCL), Exeter, and Birmingham; Shaw Claremont McKenna College (CA); Wannenwetsch Duke, Baylor, and the University of Edinburgh.
The Faculty is regularly approached for expert contributions to news and current affairs programmes. In addition, a number of Faculty members have contributed to more in depth programmes: Adams, Cross, and Foot have all been guests on Radio 4 ‘In our Time’. Swinburne and Pattison have (separately) given extensive interviews on their work to Channel 4 Iran. Pattison has contributed to two Australian Broadcasting Corporation programmes on Kierkegaard. Shaw was interviewed on her work on prophecy, also by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Swinburne has contributed extensively to a forthcoming PBS television series ‘Nearer the Truth’. The most substantial contribution is that of MacCulloch, currently preparing a series of six one-hour BBC 2 programmes on ‘A History of Christianity’.
Service to Society and to Religious Organizations
It is in the nature of the Faculty that the primary field in which Faculty members contribute to the wider life of society is that of religious organizations. Activities and evidences of esteem in this area include the following: Adams, Barton, and Biggar are, or have been, members of the General Synod of the Church of England; Barton, Maltby, Methuen, Rowland, and Shaw have, or have had, honorary appointments as Canon Theologian (at the Cathedrals of Winchester, Leicester, Gloucester, Liverpool, and Salisbury respectively); Biggar sat on the Doctrine Commission of the Church of Ireland (2004-7); Boxall is Vice Chair of the Catholic Biblical Association of Great Britain; Endean has been facilitator to the General Chapter of the Society of Jesus (2002), a member of the Catholic Bishops’ Conference Theology Committee, and Secretary to the Society of Jesus European Formation Commission; Fiddes has been co-chair of international theological conversations between the Baptist World Alliance and both the Anglican Communion and the Roman Catholic Church, and a theological advisor to the Faith and Order Committee of the World Council of Churches; Finn is Regent of Studies for the English Province of the Order of Preachers; Harris has been a member of the Faith and Order Advisory Group of the Church of England (2004-) and has been a delegate to ecumenical discussions with the Church of Scotland and the Church of Sweden; MacCulloch is President of the Church of England records Society; Maltby was Chair of the Theological and Training Committee of the Church of England (2003-7), a member of the Anglican/ Roman Catholic Committee for England and Wales, and a member of the research Degrees Panel of the Church of England; Methuen has been a Church of England delegate to the Anglican-Lutheran International Commission and to the Meissen Commission, both since 2006; Muddiman is examining chaplain to the Diocese of Europe and was a member of the Anglican-Roman Catholic International Commission (ARCIC II, 2001-5); Pattison is a Vice-President of the Modern Churchpeople’s Union; Shaw has also been theological advisor to the House of Bishops of the Church of England (2001-3); Wannenwetsch has been Theological Adviser to the General Synod of the German Lutheran Church in Britain (2002-); Zachhuber has been Vice -Chair of the Committee on work and Social Issues of the (Protestant) Diocese of Berlin. Biggar has also been a member of the Committee on Ethical Issues in Medicine of the Royal College of Physicians (2000-).