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UOA 25 - General Engineering and Mineral & Mining Engineering

De Montfort University

RA5a: Research environment and esteem

1  Research strategy


1a  Background


The Textile Engineering and Materials research group (TEAM) is a small multi-disciplinary and autonomous group administered within the Department of Fashion and Textiles. Restructuring of the undergraduate ‘textile’ provision within DMU in 2003 resulted in a new Department (Fashion and Textiles) and transfer of TEAM from the Faculty of Computing Sciences and Engineering into the Faculty of Art and Design.


TEAM was established in 1990 to act as a focus for textile-related research in the new university. Since 2001 TEAM has increased modestly from four to seven permanent posts, comprising three professors, one reader and three senior research fellows (one post currently vacant). The remaining members comprise seven postdoctoral RAs, five Postgraduate RAs, two KTP Associates and postgraduate students bring the total to over 30 at the census date.


TEAM strategy reported in the 2001 RAE proved to be very successful. Research grant income remained fairly constant during the first half of this RAE period; it then increased rapidly from an average of £32k to over £100k per capita per year. 


In 2001 we anticipated a need to focus upon high quality fundamental and applied research in three inter-related areas: 


i) modelling the properties of fibrous assemblies: topics included traditional textile engineering/science and theoretical underpinning for engineering design of textile products. Specifically, we stated that “Our overall goal is to increase knowledge of structural mechanics of yarns and fabrics by theoretical analyses and computer modelling”.

ii) bio–engineering in textile processing: including replacement of chemical treatment of fibres by environmentally-friendly processes. Specifically we stated that research would focus upon “textile processing with particular emphasis on the modification of mechanical properties using enzymes and surfactants”. 

iii) technical and medical textiles: specifically focusing upon “mass customisation and improving body measurement extraction from 3D images”.


There have been some changes in direction associated with staff retirement and recruitment of new staff and also with our expansion of technical textiles and natural fibre research. However the three general themes encompass all aspects of research for the foreseeable future.


TEAM members have been influential in shaping the priorities of European research in textile modelling, bioengineering and technical textiles. These priorities are included within the “European Technology Platform for the Future of Textiles and Clothing” strategy document. 


Priorities aimed towards better understanding of materials that meet future performance, sustainability and processing requirements have featured regularly within calls by the Technology Strategy Board/DTI. These priorities are of direct relevance to TEAM strategies.


The nature of the research mix led to our first RAE submission being made into General Engineering (1996) but was directed to Materials and Polymers in 2001. The diversity of research now makes our activities more appropriate to UoA 25.


1b  Modelling

Work on theoretical analyses and computer modelling of the structural mechanics of yarns and fabrics has continued according to the strategy established in RAE2001. Modelling fabric mechanics using finite element methods and innovative approaches to structure analysis have been successful. The work undertaken revealed limitations in methods of textile engineering/design and the lack of a general model describing textile structures. This led to the advancement of engineering practice and expansion of research activities into totally original work on the application of knot theory tools to technology-independent characterisation of textile structures.


TEAM established links with the Knot Theory Group in the Department of Mathematics at Liverpool University (led by Prof Hugh Morton). Exciting developments led to the appointment (November 2006) of Prof Vassiliev, a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, who is internationally acclaimed for his contributions to topology. Vassiliev’s earlier discovery of new types of invariant generated a dramatic impact on topology resulting in more than 500 publications on “Vassiliev Invariants” by other researchers in recent years. The first ever papers on application of topology/knot theory to the characterisation of textile structures have recently been accepted for publication in high-quality international journals: Vassiliev,  Grishanov and  Meshkov; “Recognizing textile structures by finite type knot invariants”, Journal of Knot Theory and its Ramifications, accepted for publication, July 2007 and Grishanov and Vassiliev; “Two constructions of weight systems for invariants of knots in non-trivial 3-manifolds”,Topology and Applications, accepted for publication November 2007.


Application of queuing theory to yarn structure modelling, in collaboration with Leeds University and industry, is being undertaken within the EPSRC-funded research project (GR/S77325/01). This led to a universal model describing the colour and fundamental structural characteristics of multi-component yarns. This model will be extended for the prediction of yarn mechanical properties and has been implemented in a new generation of YarnCAD (yarn design system) developed with EPSRC support in the previous RAE period (GR/J40553 and GR/L03538). The system generates realistic 3D images and close colour simulation of yarns.


The theoretical concepts have been successfully applied to practically important areas described in section 4.


Future modelling will focus on fundamental issues related to linking new methods of characterisation using knot theory to structural properties and textile engineering. We will strengthen our collaborative links with specialists in other institutions who can contribute complementary skills and knowledge required.  Collaboration with Liverpool University and other specialists in knot theory will be extended along with inputs from academic colleagues in St Petersburg State University of Technology & Design. 


Collaborative links with the School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Queen’s University, Belfast (McCartney) on fabric mechanics modelling will be sustained. Links with Leeds University (Cassidy and Westland) will continue to develop colour prediction and measurement methods for textiles. 



1c  Bio–engineering 

Biotechnology, including enzyme-based textile processes and effluent treatment, has been an important research area for over 15 years. Shen has made significant contributions to knowledge by continuing to target the replacement of traditional chemical processes with low environmental impact alternatives. 


Since 2006 investigations have focused more upon reaction kinetics and absorption characteristics of enzyme-fibre interactions. Two sequential EU projects (both led and coordinated by Shen) have progressed successfully by targeting methods of enzyme immobilisation to produce protease complexes whose activity could be confined to the surface of fibres; the industrial aims are to replace wet chlorination/polymer coating processes for shrink-proofing wool. Important academic successes continue to advance knowledge of protease chemistry; recent breakthroughs are in the process of patent protection. 


Shen’s work contributes to specific themes contained within the European Technology Platform for Sustainable Chemistry, links with which have been maintained through the Biotechnology Group of the Royal Society of Chemistry.


Huddersman joined TEAM in 2004 following earlier collaborative work on the treatment of textile effluents and this led a series of grant awards (from Defra, EPSRC, DTI, Home Office) which extended the work on water treatment into areas of novel oxidation catalysts. The recent developments in alternative methods of water treatment using fibre-based catalysts are an important area for commercialisation and future research. 


Bio-engineering to produce ‘immobilised’ enzymes offers exciting opportunities for the production of enzymes with specific activities. The work correlates closely with national and international priorities for novel processes which are more energy-efficient and have low environmental impact. Synthesis of enzymes with controllable properties and extension of the study of reaction kinetics and mechanisms are key areas for future investigation.


Natural cellulosic fibre research did not feature highly in 2001 (the TEXFLAX LINK project had just been approved) but has grown as national and international research funding to improve the supply of sustainable raw materials has become available. Key areas within the production supply chain of natural fibres still need to be addressed which depend upon surface modification of fibres. Use of low-energy and low chemical input approaches based upon modified enzymes and bio-reactor technologies form an important part of future strategies. Alternative methods of fibre modification, exemplified by the novel use of pulsed high-energy ultrasound shock waves, are currently being investigated by TEAM with support from the DTI’s Technology Initiative (TP/3/BIO/6/I/17096) and will play an important role in future research.


1d  Technical and Medical Textiles

The fundamental research on modelling and bio-processing has application in areas where the mechanical/chemical performance of fibres, yarns and fabrics is critical. Technical textiles form an extended family of products whose only common feature is their construction from fibres, yarns or fabrics; technical textiles are often components in the manufacture of other products e.g. composites. 


The potential of this manufacturing sector has led to growth in research activity which was much more significant than expected in 2001. International and local strategies have been targeted at supporting product innovation. Engagement was initially with local companies seeking to expand or enter the technical textiles sector and to do so required access to R&D facilities. Williams joined TEAM in 2003 to coordinate technology transfer and this now features significantly in the TEAM portfolio. 

Projects which include industrial partners from the technical textiles sector have increased significantly and have contributed well over £1m in grant income for TEAM in the last three years.


All members of TEAM are involved in research which supports the ‘technical/medical textile’ field. This area forms a broad but important area for future research. It integrates with the underpinning research discussed under other headings. 



2  Research structure



2a  Introduction

Research on textile production and technology historically formed an important part of DMU activities. Textile-related research remains an integral part of the University’s activities and is of strategic importance to the health of the institution. TEAM was formed as a focus for fundamental and applied textile research and is supported through the Faculty/Department funding system by the maintenance of a “core” of full-time research staff whose undergraduate duties are a relatively small (less than 10%) of their normal activities. 


2b  Promoting Research

 Research staff are supported by Faculty-allocated budgets to assist with establishment and dissemination of research activities.  TEAM is one of a number of De Montfort University research groups provided with dedicated resources as a result of the success of established strategies. TEAM strategy is developed from consultations with leading academics and researchers. The strategy takes account of priorities identified while contributing to national and international committees (e.g. EURATEX, TechniTex Materials KTN, and the Government Industry Forum on Non-food Crops) and through links to the EU Sustainable Chemistry Technology Platform, SusChem.  Strategy and progress is scrutinised by the Faculty’s Research Committee and the University’s Research Committee. 




2c  Infrastructure

Grants totalling £515,000 were awarded by LeicesterShire Economic Partnership for a new laboratory, equipment and staffing to initiate technology transfer in technical textiles (SmarTex project 2003-08). 


SRIF funds have been allocated to support expanding activities. In 2003, £292,000 was awarded to upgrade equipment and accommodation and in 2006 a further £492,000 was obtained towards the relocation of TEAM into improved, purpose-built, laboratories and offices.


2d  Research Students

The multidisciplinary and collaborative nature of projects being undertaken means that research students are offered a stimulating research environment in which to work. All students are supervised by one of the permanent TEAM staff; second supervisors are drawn from other departments or external research groups where this enhances the student experience. Joint supervision leading to extended periods of study in other locations are particularly beneficial; examples include study periods at The Central Science Laboratory (Sand Hutton); UMIST and in St Petersburg. 


The University Research Office provides induction courses and a range of compulsory and optional training courses for all research students. All supervisors are qualified through the University’s Research Student Supervisors training scheme. Student and supervisory progress is rigorously monitored and reviewed at regular recorded meetings. All students are expected to participate in the Faculty research seminar programme and are funded to attend and present papers at conferences, and to disseminate their work through publications. TEAM has been well represented at UKHERD Researcher Development events. Research students make an important contribution, and hence increasing recruitment of post-graduate students is of high priority.


2e  Collaborative Research

Almost all research undertaken within TEAM is multidisciplinary. Inter-departmental collaboration is supported by the university. These links lead to joint proposals for research funding and the maintenance of joint activity e.g. work in the field of effluent treatments which led to Huddersman joining TEAM while still being supported through the School of Pharmacy. 


At the national level, TEAM has active links with the Knot Theory Group at Liverpool University; Grishanov presented a seminar ‘Theoretical Foundations for Textile Engineering’ to the Knot Theory Group in 2005 and a joint EPSRC proposal has been submitted. Collaboration with Leeds University resulted in a joint EPSRC grant for a 3-year project on ‘modelling the colour of melange yarns’ and a second EPSRC research project is being prepared. 


Collaborative links have been developed with Central Science Laboratory, Sand Hutton, which led to their partnership in the TEAM-led ‘STING’ project and TEAM as a subcontractor on a CSL project (both funded by Defra) and joint supervision of a PhD student.


Established research links exist with many companies not mentioned elsewhere including: 


Quantum Clothing Ltd, UK; 

Stevensons, UK; 

DyStar Textilfarben, Germany; 

BERGHOF Filtrations, Germany; 

Ovis Texla, Netherlands; 

Qualizyme-biotechnology, Austria; 

Alphachem Specialities Ltd, UK.


The University has promoted international collaborative links by the provision of funding to assist with the establishment and maintenance of strong associations.


TEAM has a wide range of established international collaborators e.g.

        Links with St Petersburg State University of Technology and Design were established in 1996 in areas related to textile modelling, chemistry and engineering. Five jointly-supervised post-graduate students have graduated since 2001. Resources to support regular research visits are provided by both universities; over ten research collaboration visits having taken place in both directions during the last five years. Additionally DMU has provided support for over fifteen study visits by Russian post-graduate students. These visits resulted in six journal papers, two patents; and the award of NATO SfP grant (SfP973658, value 287,500€).


        Since 2002 ongoing links with Dr Dan Akin of the US Department of Agriculture in the area of flax fibre bio-chemical and mechanical processing have led to two DMU visits to the USDA in Georgia and three visits by Akin to TEAM.


Approaches from industry often lead to important projects; examples include:

        ‘STING’ LINK project (Mr Graham Berry;;

        ‘BASTEX’ DTI Technology Initiative project (Mr Vyvyan Nusenbaum; );

         Unilever ‘Modelling’ project (Dr Chris Jones;


The “SmarTex Project” (supported by the LeicesterShire Economic Partnership with grants of over £515k) led to improved physical and staffing resources becoming available to support industry. Two further projects “Tektex” funded by HEFCE (£200k) and “Innotex” funded by EU FP6 have extended the technology transfer provision. 


Four KTPs have supported technology transfer: 

        Flexible electronics; Swisstulle UK plc; 01/08/03 to 31/07/05 

        Reusable nappies; Bambino Mio Ltd., 01/11/03 to 31/10/05

        Body armour & high performance clothing; TW Kempton (Corporate Clothing) Ltd., 01/05/06 to 31/04/08

        Multi-axial fabrics for composites; Formax (UK) Ltd., 01/09/06 to 30/08/08


Some 120 companies have joined the SmarTex project, over 30 requiring R&D support for development of new products. A further 40 joined TekTex, 20 requiring deeper interventions.


2f  Commercialisation

DMU provides excellent support for the commercialisation of research ideas, products and processes by means of their business incubation infrastructure for start-up and early stage businesses. Hosted by the Commercial Partnerships unit, spin-out companies and technology start-ups, among other enterprises, are supported and offered building resources in a commercially and academically supportive environment. 

 A spin-off company EFFLOTREAT Ltd. was formed to develop novel effluent treatment catalysts from waste short-fibre wool as a direct result of research by Huddersman.


3  Staffing policy


The annual appraisal process explores career progression, staff development requirements and the role/research focus of individuals.  


All TEAM staff are encouraged and supported to develop their research competencies. Budgets provide for research training, travel, conferences, publications etc, against staff development needs identified through the appraisal scheme. TEAM staff are encouraged to develop strategies to expand their research activities over and above the targets identified via the appraisal scheme.


All six permanent staff have duties which are predominantly associated with research and income generation. Fixed-term research staff are not normally required to undertake undergraduate lecturing duties but are supported to develop skills in this area when this relates to their career aspirations.


Development of young researchers has high priority; new staff are supported to enhance their experience/qualifications by allocations of time and resources to enable independent research. All RAs are supported to publish results, present papers at conferences and contribute to new research proposals with guidance from experienced staff; in the last two years RAs have: presented papers at nine conferences; jointly authored three refereed publications; contributed to research bids (three successful). 


Fixed-term contract staff participate in the university’s programme for Early Career Researchers and develop their research skills supported by experienced staff.  Funding is available through ‘staff development’ budgets and TEAM-generated income. Fixed-term contract staff are usually associated with specific research grants or KTP projects; there is a strong history of fixed-term staff being re-appointed; systems are in place to bridge gaps between contracts. 


All research staff are encouraged and supported to develop ‘their own’ research interests even when they are employed on contracts related to specific funded work.  Such independent work is highly motivating, enhances the research culture and provides an important element of independent enquiry for staff in relatively constrained roles.


Recognition of Grishanov’s contribution to the modelling work led to his appointment as a Reader (2006). Huddersman was promoted to professorial status (2007). In the Autumn of 2006, two new posts were made available to support innovations in modelling (Vassiliev appointed as Research Professor). TEAM staff therefore increased modestly from 4 core staff in 2001 to 6 in 2006. 


4  Exemplars of TEAM achievements


The work on Invariants by Vassiliev is a major impact on topology research and has applications worldwide. See: 


Two new experimental methods have been developed in the area of bast fibre processing: 

        measurement of single fibre fineness using LaserScan and OFDA instruments; now the industry standard for characterisation of bast fibre quality (“LaserScan Method”); 

        an energy-based method of estimating quality of bast fibre crops; now an important research tool;


These have application in EU-wide agronomic practices for selection of flax varieties.


Modelling the formation process of multi-axial fabrics provided a theoretical underpinning for the development of a new production method within a KTP project with FORMAX (UK) Ltd.


Yarn structure modelling - A new ‘YarnCAD’ system resulting from the EPSRC project (GR/S77325/01) is being exploited by Media Innovations Ltd.


There is a clear effect on quality of life from many projects e.g. 

        the EU DRIFTS (Dynamic Responsive Intervention For Tremor Suppression); 

        SmarTex work in collaboration with Graham Gardiner and Carrington Workwear on MRSA protective clothing, and with the International Biodeterioration Research Group on a new MRSA clothing standard test method;

        the use of enzymes to replace conventional chemical processes and in novel effluent treatment methods.


Harwood has been a member of the Research Strategy Committee of EURATEX ( since 1998. The establishment of sub-committees to prepare the “European Technology Platform for the Future of Textiles and Clothing (December 2004) led to Grishanov, Harwood, Shen and Williams all being significantly active in European research strategy decision-making. 



        “Textile Treatment”, WO 01/53592, Granted July 2001

        “Methods for the Production of Fibrous Catalysts”, GBP 2346569 Granted January 2003

        “Ambulatory Orthosis for Damping Tremor” Spanish Patent 200700356 Granted Feb 2007

        “Methods for the Production of a Wool Catalyst” GB Application No. 0716622.6  filed 25/08/2007

        PCT patent on a Fibrous catalyst published 07/09/2007 as WO 2007/099293.

        Two GB patents filed 25/08/2007 on other aspects of the fibrous catalyst.  Application Nos. 0716620.0 and 0716621.8  


Outputs generated by the core staff:


Refereed Journal Articles                            48

Refereed Conference Papers                     44

Other Conference Papers                            19

Patents                                                           5

Book Chapters                                              5

Other published papers/posters etc           14



Esteem indicators



All TEAM staff are engaged in leading multi-partner projects; over 50% of research income accrues from EU, LINK, DTI and similar sources, national and international collaborations are routine activities. 


Staff regularly referee papers for journals such as J. Textile Institute, Textile Research J; Thermochimica Acta; Industrial Crops and Products; J. Agricultural Science; J. Microelectronics Reliability; J. of Physics;  J. Materials Chemistry; Physical Chemistry; Chemical Physics; J. Physical Chemistry; Topology; Selecta Mathematica; J Chem. Technology & Biotechnology; Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology; Polymer International.


Membership of international conference committees; postgraduate examination; review of grant applications for national and international bodies e.g. EPSRC; DTI; EU; RGCHK; NNFCC are routine activities of all six staff. 


The esteem indicators for individual staff listed below are therefore indicative rather than comprehensive: 




        Invited Member of the European Technology Platform committee (2005 onwards) (

        Expert Evaluation Panel for FP6, 2005 – 2006

        Manager, UNILEVER Project – Investigation of In-Wash Creasing; Unilever Research.

        EPSRC Modelling Melange Yarns GR/S77325/01 (3 partners) 

        Coordinator, NATO Science for Peace - Project No. SfP 973658; (5 FSU partners), 

        Editor of Proc. of International Conference ‘Improving the Performance of Flax Blended Yarns Produced on Cotton and Wool Spinning Systems’, 30 June – 01 July 2004, St Petersburg, Russia, 85 pages. ISBN 1845692950

        Invited contributor: “Advances in Apparel Production”, ISBN 1845692950, and “Modelling and Predicting Textile Behaviour”; both Woodhead Publishing, not yet in print.

        Invited research seminars on “Application of Topology to Textiles” at Liverpool, Sussex and Greenwich Universities 




        Assessor: RGC Hong Kong; EPSRC; SPARC; DTI Technology Programme.

        Management Board: Faraday TechniTex, 2004 – 2006. 

        Member of EURATEX Research Strategy Committee and invited Member of the European Technology Platform committee (2005 onwards) .

        Invited contributor to three Government-Industry Forum on Non-Food Crops reports - ‘Natural Fibres in the Automotive Industry’; Adding Value to Wool; UK Natural Dye Cultivation Potential.

        One of four UK representatives invited to the ERA-NET Sustainable Enterprise (SUSPRISE) Sustainable Industry Strategy Seminar, Hamburg 2006.

        Project manager/coordinator e.g.

-          TEXFLAX - EPSRC/Defra LINK project GR/R64261/01: Competitive Industrial Materials from Non-Food Crops; (partners: six UK + one Italian).

-          STING - Sustainable Technologies Initiative LINK project LK0820; (six UK partners).

-          BASTEX - DTI Technology Initiative Project No:TP/3/BIO/6/I/17096; (partners: 7UK + 1 Italian).

-          NATO Science for Peace (joint with Grishanov) - Project No. SfP 973658 (5 FSU partners)

        Hon DSc, St Petersburg University of Technology & Design 2003.

        DSc examiner, Queens University, 2003.




        Keynote lectures (5) e.g.: 

-             RSC Conference: “Additives in the Lubricants Industry”, Oxford University, 2001; 

-             Chemical and Biological Decontamination  Workshop, Special projects Division of RSC, 2006, Moreton-in-Marsh; 

-             “Nanotechnology – Products and Processes for Environmental Benefit”, Institute of Nanotechnology, 2007, The Royal Society, London


        DTI Technology Programme: “Novel polymer based catalyst for low cost treatment of industrial effluents”; total value £1,173,100. (6 UK partners). 



        Expert Evaluation Panel for ranking Marie Curie Fellowships, 2006/7.

        EU FP6: Evaluation Panel for Grant Proposals on Integrated Projects, 2004/5/6.

        EPSRC Process Engineering College 1994-7 and 2006/09 


        Royal Society  award £12,500 for post doctoral fellowship, Royal Society UK-India Network award, £4,110

        MD spin-off company: EFFLOTREAT Ltd.  

        3 patent applications made since 2001. 2 granted (GB2346569 & PCT/GB2007/000612)




        Keynote lectures: 3rd & 5th International Conferences: Textile Biotechnology, Austria, 2004 & China, 2007. Member Scientific Committee for the 5th conference 2007; session chairman at 3rd, 4th and 5th conferences (2004/6/7).

        UK representative in EU COST ACTION 847 “Textile Quality and Biotechnology” 2000/04 

        Invited Member of the European Technology Platform committee 

        Leader/coordinator EU FP6 Contract No. COOP-CT-2006-032877; ENZUP (Enzymatic Up-grading of Wool Fibres), 1,900,000€ (11 EU partners) and  EU FP5; Contract No. G1RD-CT-2002-00695; PROTEX (Modification of enzymes for the reduction of felting and shrinkage of wool textiles) 1,800,000€. (partners: 3 UK; 5 EU)

        Member of Consultant Committee of ChinaNational Engineering and Research Centre for Dyeing and Finishing of Textiles since 2002.

        DMU task leader in EU project BIOEFFTEX (G1RD-CT-1999-00064); “biotechnology for textile effluent treatment”; FP5 Competitive and Sustainable Growth programme,  2000/2003; value: 1,600,000€ (partners: 2UK; 9 EU)

        Visiting professor, Jiangnan University, China March 2007.

        Invited author for chapter in “Advances in Wool” edited: N Johnson and I Russell, CSIRO Textile and Fibre Technology, Australia 2007. ISBN-13: 978 1845693329




        Co-director and keynote speaker: NATO Research Workshop on Topological Field Theory, Calgary, August 2001 (

        Workshop on contemporary mathematics, IMPA, Rio de Janeiro, April 2005. (

        Elected Member of Russian Academy of Sciences, 2003; Vice-President of Moscow Mathematical Society, 2004.

        Co-organiser of conferences on Singularity Theory, Oberwolfach; 2001, 2003, 2006.

        Chairman of Moscow Mathematical Olympiad, 2001.

        Member-at-large of Executive Committee of International Mathematical Union, 2004-2006.

        Deputy Chief Editor: “Functional Analysis and its Applications”; editorial board member: “Selecta Mathematica: New series”; “Journal of Knot Theory and its Ramifications”; “Topology and its Applications”; “Moscow Mathematical Journal”; “Izvestiya of Russian Academy of Sciences: Mathematics”.

        Bibliographic database of publications relating to Vassiliev Invariants with over 600 entries has been prepared by key topology researchers: (




        Session chairman: 85th Textile Institute World Conference; 2007.

        Invited contributor to Materials KTN (TechniTex)  Annual Conferences 2005 & 2007

        Editor for “Textiles for cold weather apparel”, Woodhead publishing 2006.   

        Invited Member of the European Technology Platform committees (

        Assessor: RGC Hong Kong.

        Member of East Midland Technical Textiles Group

        Research partner of EU FP5 DRIFTS ( and EU FP6 INNOTEX (

        Project manager, SmarTex and TekTex technology transfer initiatives, see section 2e

        Lead academic 4 KTPs