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UOA 44 - Psychology

Oxford Brookes University

RA5a: Research environment and esteem

Overview
In line with the mission statement of Oxford Brookes University to develop research excellence in all its schools, the department has placed increasing emphasis on research since the last RAE. This has been possible because both the School of Social Science and Law (in which psychology is situated) and the University have supported the development of research through the provision of additional staff, additional space and internally-funded schemes to enable staff to spend more time on research.

The specific research objectives of the department – which have guided the research strategy and will continue to do so over the next five years - are to increase the proportion of research active staff, the amount of research grant funding and the number of full-time PhD students. With these objectives in mind, and following the last RAE, the department took a strategic decision to consolidate its research expertise into two areas in which there were existing strengths. The rationale for this was to provide a critical mass of researchers with overlapping research expertise who could support each other in the development of research grant applications and the supervision of PhD students.

A number of key developments have enabled the department to move towards its objectives:

  • Increase in research active staff from 10 to 15 (one of whom is being returned in the Education UOA), achieved through new appointments to replace non-research active staff who retired, and by the creation of two new research-focused posts (one professorial post and one research fellowship).
  • Targeting of appointments in two key research areas, thus enabling each to attain critical mass.
  • Rewarding success in research with promotion.
  • Increase in teaching support, enabling academic staff to devote more time to research
  • Establishment of a joint MRes programme (2001) which gained ESRC recognition in 2005 for 1+3 studentships with six quota awards being made over two years.
  • Provision of a dedicated research facility housed in the purpose-built University Research building (August, 2005)
  • University schemes that provide additional time for research, including the preparation of research grant proposals (see specific details below).

Research structure
Following its strategic decision to achieve critical mass in specific research areas, the department now has two large research groups whose focus is Developmental Psychology, and Adult Cognition and Neuropsychology. While Developmental Psychology is currently larger, there is considerable symmetry in the structure and operation of the two groups: both comprise senior and junior staff, run an MSc course and supervise MPhil/PhD students. There is also considerable synergy between the two groups as members share a particular interest in abnormal functioning and in the relationship between adult and child cognition. This is exemplified by Davies and Westermann, who are members of both groups, and by the collaboration between Wiggs (Developmental) and Barnes (Cognition).

The Developmental Psychology group is led by Professor Margaret Harris with the support of Professor Peter Bryant and comprises 10 academics (Barnett, Bryant, Connelly, Davies, Harris, Sissons-Joshi, Lawson, Westermann, Wiggs, Wilmut), six full time research students, three of whom are supported by external grants, and four part-time students. The Institute for Research in Child Development, launched in January 2007, acts as focus for the research of this group and for collaborations with other researchers in the Schools of Education and Health & Social Care.

Within the group there has been a growing emphasis on research into aspects of atypical development, reflected in the Institute strapline, ‘Helping children facing challenges’. Much of the research of the developmental group has an impact not only within the discipline but also in practice, as is evident in the staff profiles that follow. Harris’ research on the parental communication with deaf infants (outputs 1 and 3) has been included in the ‘deafness at birth’ website (funded by the RNID and NDCS), providing information to parents of newly-diagnosed deaf infants http://www.deafnessatbirth.org.uk/. Her research into factors that predict reading ability in deaf children has similarly been disseminated to academics and clinicians through, for instance, a workshop, ‘Advances in Speechreading Research’ (University College London, 2006) and a workshop in Bergen sponsored by the Norwegian government (September 2007). Harris has also served on an advisory panel for the National Deaf Children’s Society on the development of a parental observation checklist for deaf children (2003-4) and is a member of the advisory board of the new Deafness, Cognition and Language (DCAL) centre at UCL. She gave a keynote lecture at the BPS developmental section meeting (Royal Holloway, University of London, 2006).

Aspects of language and literacy are also studied by Bryant, Connelly and Davies. (Westermann and Pilling also have overlapping interests; Westermann through his work on verb inflections and Pilling through his on lipreading which connects with Harris’ research. Their research is considered in more detail under the Adult Cognition and Neuropsychology Group). Bryant received a Leverhulme Emeritus Professorship for the period 2004-06 to continue his research on spelling (see e.g. Ouputs 1-4). Recognition of his contribution to the application of psychology in education is reflected in invitations to give lectures both at home and overseas, most recently the annual Vernon-Wall lecture at the BPS Psychology of Education section in November 2007 (and see also esteem). The interests of Davies in literacy span both children and adults. He has researched normal development, the influences on reading performance in adulthood, and both acquired and developmental dyslexia. He recently completed a study of reading difficulties among Spanish children, for which he was co-holder of a Spanish Ministry of Education grant to the University of Orviedo (see Output 3).

Connelly likewise has an interest in dyslexia and in reading and writing problems in general and has worked on an innovative study (funded by the DfES, and based at the Institute of Education) that followed children with specific language impairments into secondary school and identified their special requirements in literacy instruction as well as gaps in provision (Output 2). Connelly’s research links with Barnett’s work on handwriting, through her examination of development in children with Development Coordination Disorder. Together they organised a conference on the Learning and Teaching of writing (see Connelly esteem) which brought together practitioners and researchers to explore a wide range of theoretical and practical issues.

Barnett has recently completed work for Harcourt Assessment, to update an assessment of Developmental Co-ordination Disorder, securing funding of £102480 to do so (July 2005-July 2006). Updated U.K. norms were published in a new edition of the test (Henderson, S.E., Sugden, D.A. & Barnett, A.L. (2007), The Movement Assessment Battery for Children - Second Edition - Movement ABC-2: Examiner's Manual. Harcourt Assessment). This provides researchers and clinicians with a standardised and reliable tool to help identify children with difficulties and plan how best to help them at home and at school. Barnett is also co-author of Handwriting Policy and Practice in English Primary Schools (Institute of Education (London), 2006) and first author of a new handwriting assessment (Barnett, A.L., Henderson, S.E., Scheib, B. & Schultz, J. (2007). The Detailed Assessment of the Speed of Handwriting (DASH), Harcourt Assessment.)

Barnett also links closely with Wilmut, with whom collaborations are planned. Wilmut’s research concerns the role of active gaze during sequential movements that require general spatial organisation and precision in execution. In particular she has focused upon how perception is coupled with action in children with coordination disorders and the perceptual, planning and execution components of naturalistic tasks that present difficulties in these children (see Outputs 1 and 3].

The Developmental Group also has an interest, through Lawson and Wiggs, in Autism. Lawson’s PhD (completed in 2004) contributed to the development of 'The Empathising-Systemising model of Autism Spectrum Conditions' and involved the formulation of Depth Accessibilities Difficulties (DAD) model of Autism (see Outputs 1 and 2). He is currently developing this model further. His work has attracted attention both nationally and internationally. He has presented his research at: International Meetings for Autism Research (2004,05,06); a two day seminar on his work and its relation to treatment (Slovena, 2006) which led to a significant government grant to create the Lawsonov inštitut za raziskavo avtizma (http://www.avtizem.org) which conducts research and offers support and interventions to individuals on the spectrum; and a conference (Cambridge, 2006] which brought together national and international autism researchers and music therapists working with individuals on the spectrum (see esteem).

Wiggs’ research focuses on psychological aspects of sleep and sleeplessness, particularly in children with autism, and she has co-edited an internationally authored book that brings together research and clinical practice (Sleep Disturbance in Children with Developmental Disorders: its Significance and Management – Stores & Wiggs (eds) MacKeith Press - 2001) as a handbook for clinicians and researchers. Wiggs’ research links across the two Psychology groups and she is currently collaborating on a British Academy funded project with Barnes (see below).

A further strength of the Group is represented by Sissons-Joshi’s investigation of children’s safety knowledge and behaviour, with particular reference to road safety. She has developed and evaluated interventions to improve children’s understanding of pedestrian invisibility. This research, funded by the Department for Transport and the Rees Jeffrey Road Fund, developed from an earlier project (with Oxford University], funded by the Department for Health and the Health and Safety Executive (2001-2003) which evaluated the Lifeskills "Learning for Living Project" in Bristol which aims to teach children how to recognise and deal with risk and danger in a variety of settings (see output 3 and esteem]

The Adult Cognition and Neuropsychology group has six academic staff (Barnes, Davies, Gellatly, Pilling, Scarnà and Westermann) and two full-time research students. It is led by Professor Angus Gellatly, appointed in 2007 in recognition that the group lacked senior research leadership. While this Group is smaller than Developmental Psychology, there are synergies between its members which will increase over the next few years. There are also linkages with the Developmental Group which provide considerable opportunity for collaboration.

Gellatly’s research focuses on visual perception and cognition. His particular interest is in the various forms of attention and their function in visual experience of the world. At one level, his publications are concerned with the way in which attention mediates cultural influences on the perception of colour and other aspects of the visual world and the role of attention in the perception of object motion (e.g. output 2]. At more fine-grained levels of analysis, he publishes on the nature of attentional capture, interactions between spatial and object-based attention, the role of attention in object substitution masking, and attentional readiness in the motor system (e.g. outputs 1, 3 and 4].

Gellatly collaborated with Pilling while in his previous post (see output 1 ] and future collaborations are planned. Pilling’s primary interests are in the mechanisms involved in colour information processing; these include colour categorisation, visual search for colour, and colour memory. Pilling is also interested in speechreading (lipreading) and in the audiovisual integration of speech information, an interest that overlaps with Harris (see above].

Scarnà’s research is concerned with the physiological underpinnings of bipolar disorder especially in relation to attention and memory (outputs 1-4). She is also working on non-drug treatments and neuropsychological aspects of stress and mood disorders in conjunction with colleagues in the School of Life Sciences. Barnes researches the properties of hallucinatory experience in Parkinson's disease (e.g. outputs 2 and 4] and he has recently been awarded a grant of £ 53,138 (with Wiggs – see previous section) from the British Academy to explore the neuropsychology of visual hallucinations. He has also been working with Westermann in developing and sharing their expertise in the use of ERP.

Westermann is a member of both research groups. He is currently a holder of an ESRC First Grant award for £240,184 (January 2007) which continues his work on connectionist modelling of verb inflections, and was also co-applicant with Dr Joseph T Devlin (Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain, Oxford University) on a successful Royal Society grant for £9,300 to use TMS to investigate morphology in Broca's Area [2006-07]. He is co-author (with Mareschal, Sirois and Johnson) of Neurocontructivism (OUP, 2007) which sets  out a new, integrative approach to understanding cognitive development.

Davies who likewise is a member of both groups (see above) is also interested in the neural underpinnings of behaviour, especially the neural substrates of semantic representations and the preservation or impairment of semantics in dementia or following focal brain injury (e.g. output 1).


Collaborations outside the department
Researchers are encouraged to collaborate with other institutions, where appropriate, and there are collaborations with Oxford University (departments of Experimental Psychology, Psychiatry, Education and the Warneford Hospital) which involve Bryant, Scarnà, Westermann and Wiggs and have resulted in joint publications (e.g. Scarnà outputs 1-4, Wiggs outputs 1-4) and the establishment of the Oxford Centre for Connectionist Modelling (Westermann, 2007). Other collaborators include the Institute of Education, London (Barnett with Henderson and Connelly with Dockrell), the Autism Centre, Cambridge (Lawson with Baron-Cohen), the Centre for Brain and Cognitive Development, Birkbeck, London (Westermann), the Cochlear Implant Team in Nottingham (Harris). Outside the UK, Harris has collaborated with Spencer (Texas A&M University), resulting in ’Patterns and effects of language input to deaf infants and toddlers from deaf and hearing mothers’,in Marschark & Spencer (eds.), Sign language development (OUP, 2006] while Davies continues his collaborative links with members of the Marie Curie Research Training Network, based at the University of Orviedo (Spain).

Research Culture
An active research culture is maintained through weekly seminars which bring together all academic staff and postgraduates. There are also more informal meetings of the two research groups at which work in progress can be shared and ideas discussed. The MSc course associated with each of the research groups (Child Development and Learning , Cognitive Neuropsychology) provides the opportunity for research supervision in areas of expertise which has already resulted in publications (Barnes output 1, Connelly output 3). Researchers are also brought together through specific activities, such as the launch of the Institute for Research in Child Development, the organisation of the conference on Learning and Teaching Writing (see above), and the carrying out of a pilot project to examine the effects of school uniform for the National Schoolwear Association (Harris, Barnett and Wiggs) which generated pump-priming funds for the Institute (see below).

Research Infrastructure
The Department’s active research culture is sustained by the research structure at University, School and Department levels. The University manages its research activities through the Research and Knowledge Transfer Committee (RKTC), chaired by the Pro-Vice Chancellor (Research). The School manages its research activity through the School RKTC which includes a Departmental representative, Gellatly.

The provision of a dedicated research facility, housed in the purpose-built University research building (August, 2005) substantially increased the amount of space available for research in the department. New facilities include a state-of-the-art observation laboratory, an ERP laboratory and office space for research staff and postgraduate students. In addition, the research space within the main department has been improved to provide a cognition laboratory.

Research students and Research studentships
Since the last RAE there has been a significant increase in the number of PhD students with three ESRC studentships (one of whom enrolled September 2007), four studentships awarded by the University and one student being funded by her home country. During the period, nine students successfully completed their PhDs (5 with Nunes), one of whom, Diana Burman, was the first recipient of the ESRC Michael Young prize in 2006 for her thesis on deaf children’s literacy. Eight students are currently enrolled as full-time PhD students and six as part-time.

All PhD supervisors are research active. They receive extensive training in supervision and less experienced supervisors are supported by the presence of an experienced supervisor (Bryant, Harris, Gellatly) on the research team. An allowance is given in workload planning for all supervision. The progression of research students is supervised at School level by the Post Graduate Tutor and at University level by the Research Degrees Committee. Additional support for research students is provided by the newly created Graduate School which organises a range of university research training events (e.g. research design, project management, presenting research). PhD students are encouraged to maintain a skills diary and planner. Structures for supporting our students were approved by the QAA in 2006 which also commended areas of best practice..

PhD students make an important contribution to the vibrancy of the department's research culture and attend and contribute to its seminars and discussion groups, as well as the School’s postgraduate symposium.They are also encouraged and funded to attend conferences of relevant academic associations and to present papers when they are sufficiently advanced. PhD students have recently presented at the ESRC Methods Festival (July 2006), BPS Developmental Section Annual Conference (RHUL: September 2006), European Summer School in Visual Neuroscience (Rauischholzhausen castle, Germany: September 2006), Down Syndrome UK Research Forum (Portsmouth, October 2006), European Society for Developmental Psychology (Jena: August 2007) and the World Sleep Congress in Cairns, Australia (September 2007).

Research income
There has been a considerable increase in research income since the last RAE when a total of £335,676 was achieved. Under the leadership of Professor Terezinha Nunes, who was Head of Department until July 2005, income increased to £1,113,760. Since her departure, the department has continued to attract funding. (Westermann, £240184, ESRC; Barnes (with Wiggs) £53138, British Academy).


Several other members of staff who joined the Department in the last three years have also received grants as principal and/or co-applicants in their previous institutions within the RAE period. For example, Harris, £59,329, Nuffield; Gallatly, £85,164, ESRC; Barnett, £51,30, Action Medical Research; Wiggs, £232,821; the Shirley Foundation, the Medical Research Council, National Lottery Charities Board and the Bailey Thomas Charitable Fund; Scarnà, £140,000, Stanley Medical Research Institute; Davies, £41,146, ESRC (co-applicant) and also funded as part of the Marie Curie Research Training Network. These members of the department are contributing to a culture in which it is expected that staff develop a rolling programme of research grant applications.

Supporting research
All staff members have a fully networked office with online access to major databases and key journals, access to a well stocked library and funds are available for individual staff development, including research skills training and conference attendance. The most significant support is the allocation through workload planning of dedicated time for research. This amounts to 30% of a researcher’s workload and there is flexibility to vary teaching over the year to accord with research commitments. The change from 3 terms to 2 semesters in 2004 also reduced the length of the teaching period, producing more research time in the summer.

Time for research activity is further protected by ensuring that major administrative roles are taken by non-research active staff or non-academic staff (e.g. admissions, exams administration). Where administrative roles are undertaken by researchers, they are properly supported with significant teaching relief. There has also been an increase in the level of teaching support with 3 full time demonstrators who assist in the delivery of practical classes and the marking of associated coursework, and funding for postgraduates to assist in marking and small group teaching. The total amount of assessment has also been reduced in line with University policy, significantly freeing up staff time.

Research time is also supplemented by selective funding from the University and School Research Funds, the University sabbatical scheme and the Promising Researcher Fellowships. These provided periods of study leave for Connelly (2004-05), Westermann (2004-05), and Barnes (2006-07), enabling them to complete articles and monographs and apply for research funding. Funding has also been available for recent overseas research trips and invited conference participation (Barnett, Harris, Lawson, Westermann).

A process of research planning and review overseen by the Head of department (Harris) creates opportunities for all researchers to receive support and advice in developing their research. However, support and development of new researchers and early career researchers is given special priority. At the start of their academic careers, staff are provided with teaching relief to enable them to undertake a Research and Research Management Training Course, some elements of which are also available to contract researchers. Davies, Lawson, Wilmut and Westermann have all participated in this training. Early Career staff also benefit from a Research Mentoring Scheme, supported by teaching relief for both mentees and mentors. This encourages the production of research plans for which further support can be sought from the School. These schemes are particularly important to the department, given the number of staff in the early stages of their career, and their positive effects can be seen in Westermann's recent success in securing significant external research funding.

Within the department, the two research groups play a major role in supporting and developing the research activity of colleagues who are new to research. Research group meetings provide a supportive environment for presentation of work in progress and discussion of new research proposals which are also read and commented on by professorial staff. Members of the department (e.g. Westermann, Barnes) have benefited from substantial assistance in making research grant applications. The School’s Research Support Officer, working closely with the University’s Research and Business Development Office, provides support in a number of areas: alerting individuals to research grant opportunities; working out costings; proof-reading and checking applications against the Guidance; and ensuring adherence to application deadlines.

To encourage research grant applications and in the light of full economic costing, the School of Social Science and Law returns 15% of School research overheads to the researchers involved, enabling those with grants to buy out more of their teaching or attend conferences. The University also has an Academic Trust Fund Scheme that enables third stream income obtained by individual members of staff to be used to support research. The Institute for Research in Child Development set up a Trust Fund in 2007 to secure funds for the purchase of equipment and the carrying out of pilot projects. It is also being supported by the University in a campaign to raise funds for PhD studentships and a senior research fellow.

Departure of staff
While some of the funded research projects left Brookes along with Nunes, the research culture that developed as a result of her success has remained and been consolidated by the appointment of the new Head of Department (Harris) and by a second Professor (Gellatly) both of whom are experienced researchers with a strong record of research leadership, including research funding. They are building on the successes of the department and, with the recent appointment of so many new researchers, developing it further. In particular, through the concentration on two research groups, with overlapping interests, the coherence and hence research culture of the department is becoming ever stronger.

Research Strategy
Having undergone a period of considerable change since the last RAE, the department’s research strategy for the next five years is to build on the progress that has been made so far. Key components of the strategy are:

1. Consolidation of the two research groups in Developmental Psychology and Adult Cognition and Neuropsychology through internal collaboration and increased critical mass (research assistants and additional PhD students). This will be achieved through requiring researchers to:

  • explore possible collaborations both within and across groups as part of their research planning;
  • build into their research plans a cycle of research grant applications to fund research assistants and PhD students;
  • contribute to activities associated with fund raising for PhD students and a research fellow for the Institute for Research in Child Development.

2. The further development of research facilities, specifically the purchase of state-of-the-art ERP equipment (to replace equipment that was on loan) and an eye tracker. Both facilities will be suitable for use with adults and children, thereby affording research opportunities to members of both research groups. This will be achieved through requiring researchers to:

  • apply, where appropriate, for external funding for equipment;
  • undertake appropriate consultancy activity to contribute to the Institute’s Trust Fund, established to secure funds to purchase equipment.

3. Raising the research profile of the department. This will be achieved through:

  • conference organisation e.g. the BPS Developmental Section meeting will be held at Oxford Brookes in September 2008 (organised by Connelly). Researchers will be encouraged to include conference organisation in their 5 year research plans;
  • high profile dissemination of research findings- staff will be encouraged to target top journals and key conferences for the dissemination of their work.

Esteem factors

Barnett

  1. Current Chair, steering group, International Society of Research in Developmental Coordination Disorder; Current Co-Vice Chair, executive committee of the National Handwriting Association
  2. Member, editorial board, Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly (Sept, 2005); Co-editor, special issue on Developmental Coordination Disorder Child: Care, Health and Development. 32 (6) (2006)
  3. Invited keynote: 7th International Conference on Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD-VII). (Melbourne, Australia, Feb 2007)
  4. Conference organiser: 6th International Conference on Developmental Coordination Disorder. (Trieste, Italy, May 2005)

Bryant

  1. Editor, Cognitive Development (2000-2007)
  2. Current Member, Editorial Board Reading and Writing and Scientific Studies of Reading
  3. Invited lecture to International Reading Recovery Institute meeting, (Baltimore, MA, July 2007)
  4. Invited lecture to Kobe Institute Conference on Dylexia (Japan, April 2007)

Connelly

  1. Connelly and collaborators’ work used in the Report of the New Zealand Literacy Task Force (Ministry of Education, Wellington, 2000) which shaped the New Zealand Education and Science Parliamentary Select Committee Report on the Teaching of Reading (2001).
  2. Organisation of conference on ‘Learning and Teaching Writing’, sponsored by the British Journal of Educational Psychology (Oxford Brookes, June 2007)
  3. Report of handwriting fluency research on Radio 4 ‘Today’ programme (9th June 2006).

Davies

  1. Member editorial board Psicologia (the main international journal of experimental psychology in Spanish)

Gellatly

  1. Chair of Association of Heads of Psychology Departments (2003–2006). Deputy Chair (2000 –2003.)
  2. Chair, Advisory Board to the Higher Education Academy Psychology Network (formerly LTSN) (2003–2006), Member, Joint Committee on Resources for Psychology in Higher Education (2003-2006).
  3. Consulting Editor, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance (2001- )
  4. External PhD examiner, Universities of Wales (2003), Surrey (2004), Durham (2005) and Tartu, Estonia (2007)

Harris

  1. Awarded Fellowship of British Psychological Society (2006)
  2. Associate editor First Language (2004-), Associate Editor Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education (2006 -) [first from outside North America) and Founding Editor Mind & Language (1986-)
  3. Convenor: Invited Symposium - The development of cognitive skills in deaf children: Evidence from the primary school years. 10th European Conference on Developmental Psychology. (University of Uppsala, Sweden, August 2001)
  4. Invited speaker at SRCD pre-conference workshop on the future of research on children with cochlear implants (Atlanta, GA, April 2005). Funded by Royal Society travel grant

Lawson

  1. Key note speaker and conference organiser – Disciplines in Dialogue: Psychology, Music Therapy and Autism Spectrum. (Cambridge, May 2006)
  2. Invited speaker, conference on Autism: El Autismoen personas adultas: Nuevas perspectivas de futuro, organised by Asociación Nuevo Horizonte (Madrid, Spain, March 2006)
  3. Invited speaker at INSERM (French Medical Research Council) conference (Paris, October 2006)
  4. Invited to talk to the autism research group in Ljubljana, 5th & 6th September 2006. Received extensive press & TV coverage (http://www.avtizem.org/novice_podrobno.asp?str=24&lang=sl&id=234)

Scarnà

  1. Awarded Royal College of Psychiatrists’ Special Interest Group in Psychopharmacology’ s prize for best journal article (June 2004).
  2. Invited paper to Royal College of Psychiatrists Annual Meeting (July, 2004).
  3. External PhD examiner: University of Barcelona (2005).

Sissons-Joshi

  1. Evaluation of the Lifeskills project at Bristol (promoting road safety in children) used by the Department of Health and the Health and Safety Executive to inform decision on funding similar projects across the UK. Available via HSE website at http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr187.pdf

Westermann

  1. Invited presentation, International Workshop ‘From Fixed Signals to Contextually Free Communication: The Evolution of Complex Communication in Animals and Humans’’ (Konrad Lorenz Institut, Altenburg, Austria, July 2005)
  2. Invited plenary talk, “International Conference on Compositionality, Concepts & Cognition” (University of Düsseldorf, Germany, March 2004)
  3. Invited paper: 25th Annual Conference of the German Linguistics Society (Munich, Germany February 2003)
  4. Conference organisation: International Workshop ‘Developmental Embodied Cognition’ (Edinburgh, July 2001)

Wiggs

  1. Executive Committee member, British Sleep Society (2001-2004) and member Scientific Committee (2001-)
  2. Invited paper: 12th Seminar on Disorders of Development (Coimbra Portugal, 2006)
  3. Invited paper: 24th Annual Sleep Disorders in Infancy and Childhood Annenberg Centre for Health Sciences Conference (Palm Springs, USA, 2006).
  4. Conference organisation: Royal Society of Medicine Learning Disability Forum ‘Sleep Difficulties in People with Learning Disability’ (2001); Royal Society of Medicine Section of Sleep Medicine ‘Paediatric Sleep Disorders: Clinical Issues’ (2004); British Sleep Society Annual Scientific Meeting (2001 to present).