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UOA 36 - Business and Management Studies

London Metropolitan University

RA5a: Research environment and esteem



Prior to November 2007, research pertaining to the Business and Management Unit of Assessment at London Metropolitan University occurred across three academic Departments (i.e., the Departments of Business and Service Sector Management [BSSM]; Accounting, Banking and Financial Systems [ABFS]; and Management and Professional Development [MPD]), plus one University Research Institute: the International Institute for Culture, Tourism and Development (IICTD), led by Professor Michael Hitchcock.  Whereas Research Centres are subject-specific and embedded within Departments, the Research Institute is multidisciplinary and operates at the University level.  A single consolidated London Metropolitan University Business School was created in late 2007 and is now responsible for the management of research across the three abovementioned former Departments.  

The new Business School is committed to research and has formal mechanisms for promoting, recognising and rewarding research excellence.  It has a Centre for Research in Marketing headed by Professor Roger Bennett and a Comparative Organisation and Equality Research Centre (COERC), the Director of which is Professor Stephen Perkins.  Research completed by the staff associated with the two Centres and the Institute is original, significant, rigorous and internationally acknowledged.  The School has acclaimed research expertise, reputation and publication track-records in three main areas: leisure and tourism management, marketing, and management and organisational behaviour.  Most (but not all) of the School’s research active staff fall within these three clusters, as listed below.

1.  Leisure and Tourism
Lez-Rayman Bacchus
Raoul Bianchi
Denise Cole (special circumstances)
David Harrison
Mike Hitchcock
I-Ling Kuo (early career researcher)
Charles Little (cross refer to Sports-related Studies)
Julie Scott
Tom Selwyn (cross refer to Anthropology)
Simone Wesner (early career researcher)

2.  Marketing
Roger Bennett
Niall Caldwell
Ian Combe
John Coshall
Nana-Owusu Frimpong
Helen Gabriel
Graham Hankinson
Rita Kottasz
Ruth Marciniak (special circumstances)

3.  Management and Organisational Behaviour
Yochanan Altman
Dean Bartlett
Mhinder Bhopal
Debbie Holley
George Panagiotou
Stephen Perkins
Frances Tomlinson

Two researchers in the Unit of Assessment are not covered by the above, i.e., Kojo Menyah, who works in the area of accounting and finance, and Roman Matousek who researches and publishes in the field of international business.  Tom Selwyn’s work in leisure and tourism is rooted in social anthropology, in which area Selwyn has a strong background and a well-established reputation.  Hence he is being cross-referred to Panel J42: Anthropology.  The research activities of Charles Little, while heavily connected with leisure and tourism studies, primarily concerns sports-related topics.  Accordingly, Little is being cross-referred to Panel K46: Sports-related Studies.


Staff within the Unit of Assessment have been highly successful in attracting external research income, indicating their substantial international status in the academic research world.  A total of £3,798,184 of external research funding was obtained during the review period; £643,748 was drawn from Research Councils, £356,581 from national and local government, £48,634 from private industry, and £122,000 from charitable sources.  Much of the aggregate external funding is attributable to the International Institute for Culture, Tourism and Development; including £615,941 from Research Councils, £2,285,875 from the European Commission and £306,393 from national and local government.  In 2004, MPD Department obtained a European Social Fund grant of £79,625 to investigate social exclusion in employment.  In December 2006, the sum of £29,000 was obtained under the aegis of COERC to research employee performance management practice in the Independent Police Complaints Commission.

Research Centres
The research centres within the UoA are as follows:

The Centre for Research in Marketing
This has a Director (Professor Roger Bennett) who spends half his time on the Centre’s activities, three full-time Research Assistants and a 0.25 Administrator.  Eight research active members of the teaching staff and two PhD research students are attached to the Centre, which has special interests and a substantial international reputation in the field of nonprofit and public sector marketing.  Recently some of the Centre’s staff have become involved with post-doctoral mentoring under the EU East/West Europe post-doctoral mentoring scheme.  The Centre hosted the Eighth International Conference on Corporate and Marketing Communications (2003), the Second and Fourth International Colloquia on Nonprofit Social and Arts Marketing (2002 and 2004), and the First Joint Workshop of the Non-profit and Arts/Heritage Marketing Special Interest Groups of the Academy of Marketing (2006).  A number of eminent researchers from other countries have spent time (ranging from two weeks to a full semester) as visiting Fellows at the Centre, including Professors from the University of Belgrade, the Australian National University, Griffin and Newcastle Universities in Australia, and Copenhagen Business School and Roskilde University in Denmark.  Collectively the Centre’s staff (including Research Assistants) published more than 100 articles in refereed academic journals over the review period plus a number of book chapters and books.

The Comparative Organisation and Equality Research Centre
Led by Professor Stephen Perkins this highly successful Centre conducts and disseminates interdisciplinary research into employment and work organisation in comparative settings.  An important focus and one for which the Centre has acquired a growing international reputation is the investigation and analysis of issues of equality and diversity in relation to an increasingly diverse labour force and of increasingly complex markets for business, consumers, and other socio-economic groups in an integrated global economy.  External funding has been secured for projects that have practical implications for research users among a range of stakeholders in management, trade unions, state agencies and voluntary organisations.  Examples to date include (i) European Social Fund supported research (£79,625) on “Multiple discrimination social exclusion at work: intersection of gender, race, age and sexual orientation 2004-2006”, (ii) Chartered Institute of Professional Development (CIPD) funded research (£12,000) into employee reward policy and practice trends internationally, and (iii) research into employee performance management funded by the Independent Police Complaints Commission (£29,000).

The Research Institute
The International Institute for Culture, Tourism and Development (IICTD) is an internationally recognised research institute which was established in 2001.  IICTD brings together researchers working locally and globally on a range of pure and applied research, consultancy and commissioned studies which collectively have generated an extensive volume of publications in highly rated leisure and tourism academic journals.  The Institute aims to provide up-to-date analyses of current trends, issues and research in culture, tourism and development, offering an interdisciplinary approach to the assessment, development and management of resources and policy formation in the field.  

The Director of IICTD (Professor Michael Hitchcock) spends 0.75 of his time on the Institute’s activities and is assisted by one full-time Project Director, one part-time Project Director, and one part-time office administrator (all employed on permanent contracts).  In addition there is one permanent part-time Research Assistant.  Research Assistants on short-term contracts are taken on as required.  The Institute co-organised the Third European Association for South East Asian Studies (EUROSEAS) Project with the School of Oriental and African Studies (2001) and hosted the Politics of World Heritage Conference (2002), which was endorsed by UNESCO.  It organised panels on tourism at the Institute at the International Sociological Conference (2003), and hosted international conferences entitled “Tsunami: Re-Building Tourism” (2005) and “The Experience of Integration: 30 Years of the Overseas Vietnamese” (2006).  Over the review period, members of the Institute published ten books and over 60 refereed journal papers plus a large number of book chapters.  Active exchange links with the following universities have taken place since 2001: University of Liege, University of Social Sciences and Humanities in Hanoi, National University of Laos, Udayana University in Indonesia, University of Las Palmas de Grand Canaria, University of the Eastern Mediterranean, University of Malta, University of the Balearics, University of Crete, University of Granada and the University of Ghana.

Operation of Groups
The two Centres are resourced by and operate within the Business School whereas the Research Institute is funded centrally by the University.  As the Research Institute is multi-disciplinary and thus contributes to research work across a number of RAE UoAs, this necessarily creates difficulties of fit with current RAE UoAs, particularly vis à vis the wide scope of the University’s business and management research activities.  The latter embrace, inter alia, tourism management, travel and transport management, environment protection management, arts and heritage marketing and management, trade union studies, management of international development projects, and work concerning women in management.  Additionally, staff undertake research in the “traditional” mainstream areas of human resources management, finance, marketing and business strategy.  It is relevant to note that (i) in the 2001 RAE researchers in the leisure and tourism field submitted separately to the Business and Management Unit of Assessment, obtaining a 3A grade, (ii) the IICTD has generated very large amounts of external research income, demonstrating the critical and growing importance of this subject area, and (iii) many of the outputs to the extensive and rigorous research undertaken by colleagues in the leisure and tourism area are necessarily published in academic tourism journals.  The option of a separate submission is not available for the 2008 RAE so it has been decided to include this group of internationally recognised scholars in Unit 36 as opposed to, say, Unit 43 (Development Studies) or Unit 46 (Sports-related Studies), which do not have appropriate connections with commercial management.

Mechanisms and Practices in Place to Promote Research
The teaching loads of research active staff are heavily discounted to enable them to concentrate on their research activities.  Reviews of the research performances and outputs of research active staff are conducted annually, and the amounts of teaching relief provided are adjusted accordingly.  Staff are encouraged to disseminate their research outputs at international and national conferences, for which financial support is readily provided.  Departments hold research days during the academic year so that members of staff can present some of their research within a conference style framework.  Research seminars with papers presented by staff and academics from outside the University also take place.  Departments have organised and hosted many external conferences in recent years; e.g.:
Eighth International Conference on Corporate and Marketing Communications, April 2003;
British Accounting Association, South East Regional Conference, September 2003;
International Conference on Corporate Social Responsibility, September 2005;
Academy of Marketing Special Interest Group in Arts and Nonprofit Marketing Conference, March 2006;
British Accounting Association, Accounting Education Special Interest Group Conference, May 2006;
Eighth International Academy of African Business and Development Conference, June 2007.

These conferences have attracted much attention and have been attended by leading scholars from all over the world.  

The IICTD runs a weekly research seminar series in the two teaching semesters and organises one-off seminars and workshops for visiting academics.  Between 2001 and 2004 IICTD ran an internal small grant scheme to provide pump priming for its members to develop research ideas.  The Centre for Research in Marketing and the Comparative Organisation and Equality Research Centre routinely organise research workshops and other events (often involving eminent researchers from other institutions) for members and other interested parties.  COERC runs monthly staff research seminars during each semester.

Currently a “research career pathway” is being devised by the University’s Senior Management.  This will apply within the newly formed London Metropolitan Business School and will provide a systemic mechanism for an individual to progress from roles as Research Students or Research Assistants through to Senior Research Fellowships, Readerships and full Chairs.

Nature and Quality of Research Infrastructure
The University’s research infrastructure comprises a centralised Research and Development Office, Research Centres and Research Institutes.   Individuals who undertake research outside of University Research Institutes (either in Departmental Centres or on an ad hoc basis) receive heavy reductions in their teaching loads.

In addition to Research Centres, Departments may create “Research Units”, which bring together staff who share a common interest in a particular specialism.  The Business School has a highly successful Research Unit, the Business Education Research Group (BERG) chaired by Dr Rita Kottasz.  This has operated for several years and conducts pedagogic and other educational research in the business studies area.  Membership of BERG overlaps with the people included in the present Business and Management submission, so the publications of BERG members do not appear in the RA2 accompanying this document.  Nevertheless it is appropriate to mention that BERG has produced more than 20 publications during the review period, appearing in academic journals such as Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, the International Journal of Educational Management, the Journal of Further and Higher Education, the International Journal of Management Education, the Journal of Business Research, and the Journal of Vocational Education and Training.  In 2007 a “Corporate Governance Research Unit” was established to consolidate the growing volume of research activity that is beginning to emerge within the Business School in relation to this important field.  Further Research Units will be set up shortly.  

Research Students
Individuals from the three Departments and from the Research Institute covered by the present submission are currently supervising 15 part time and 4 full time research students.  Seven students have successfully completed PhD programmes and six students have completed research masters programmes since 1st January 2001.  Three of the completing students worked in the area of leisure and tourism management.  Full-time research students (who represent 33% of the total) share rooms that have desks, filing cabinets, bookcases, PCs, printers and telephones.  Research students receive financial support to attend appropriate conferences.  PhD students are expected to participate in programmes of related study.  One mechanism for enabling students to develop academic research skills and to progress in their research is the Masters in Research (MRES) degree.  Doctoral students who lack relevant research competencies are expected to attend at least three taught modules of the MRES during the first two years of their research work.  

In 2005 a full time academic position was created to facilitate the consolidation and hence the most effective use of taught course resources for PhD students.  This has resulted in the development of a number of dedicated subject specific doctoral research methods training programmes, including programmes that will run within the University’s newly established Business School.  The University operates a research supervision training programme for inexperienced PhD supervisors.  

Relationships with Industry, Commerce, Professional Bodies and Other Users of Research
In 2006 the Centre for Research in Marketing ran a one-day research workshop for two Special Interest Groups of the Academy of Marketing (a leading professional body in the academic marketing field).  This attracted an international audience.  IICTD has well-established and excellent relations with the tourism industry and has worked successfully in partnership with Regent Travel in the Eastern Mediterranean, with Exotissimo in Vietnam and has provided advice for the Bradt Guide to Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Blue Guide to Bali Java and Lombok.  The Institute has assisted the following companies in developing cultural briefing seminars: Communicaid, Language Solutions, Culturewise, Farnham Castle and Culturesmart.  Moreover, IICTD has provided consultancy services for BBC Asia Today, BBC World Service, and has worked in partnership with the London Borough of Hackney, An Viet Foundation, People's Committee of Hai Duong, Bibliotheca Alexandria, Centro per l'Europa, Centre Orienatala Balcania, Limerick City Corporation, Shannon Development, the Ministry of Culture in Vietnam, the Royal Parks Agency, the National Museum in Jakarta, and the Centre for Cultural Heritage Preservation in Bethlehem.   The Institute was a member of the London Development Agency's Tourism Consultancy Panel (2002-2006).

Four major projects feature in the outputs from the activities of the Comparative Organisation and Equality Research Centre over the period under consideration.
CIPD-funded research into employee reward policy and practice trends internationally.
Deutsche Bank funded research into current trends in expatriation practice.
European Social Fund (ESF) funded research into lesbian, gay and bisexual workers - equality, diversity and inclusion in the workplace.
Independent Police Complaints Commission funded research into employee performance and development management.
“Voice and Value Debates and Knowledge Dissemination” (a collaborative project with colleagues from the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development and the London School of Economics).

A series of events jointly organised by the Centre and the CIPD were held in December 2005 and June 2006 at which findings from the Centre’s research were disseminated among groups of senior HRM executives.  Each event attracted around 75 delegates.  The Centre’s research also featured at a special session of the Academy of Management Annual meeting in Atlanta in August 2006, won by competitive bid as part of a multi-institution team (other members were from Cranfield, Manchester, Pittsburgh and Strathclyde universities).  Deutsche Bank supported a three-year  research project into “the current state of expatriation: trends in practice” initiated and supervised by Professor Yochanan Altman.  This was completed in 2006 and attracted much international attention.  Dissemination of the ESF research into “lesbian, gay, bisexual and transsexual (LGBT) workers - equality, diversity and inclusion in the workplace” has been achieved through a report published in June 2006.  A conference to launch the report took place at London Metropolitan University on 9th June 2006, with 100 registered delegates.  The event provided a major opportunity for employers, trade unions, LGBT organisations, government and other stakeholders to discuss lessons from the research, share experiences and consider how to develop best practice.

Recruitment, Staff Development and Management Policies in Relation to how these Support the Research Strategy
Research output and potential are regarded as essential criteria when making appointments for new staff whose roles are not mainly concerned with teaching and administration.  Recruits who are finishing PhDs receive £1000 a year towards outstanding fees payable to other universities.  Staff who register for PhDs supervised within London Metropolitan University may complete their studies free of charge, and they receive relief from teaching.  The Business School’s policy is that new or recently appointed academic staff who do not possess a PhD should register for one, unless the person is employed principally as an educational administrator.  Staff development for research active faculty occurs through attendance at national and international academic conferences, internal workshops and research seminars, and through mentoring by more experienced researchers.  The aim is to extend the School’s research ethos and create clusters of research talent around leading researchers in relevant fields.

(a)                          Contents of Current Strategy
The University views research as a vital and necessary part of staff members’ activities that benefits teaching, enhances the University’s profile, and serves to attract and motivate high calibre employees.  A Graduate School has been formed to provide a focus for infrastructure support.  The Graduate School provides members of staff with advice and assistance regarding bids for external funding, including help with costing and the drafting of applications.

Within the new Business School the strategy is to continue to support pre-existing research activities in marketing, leisure and tourism and management and organisational behaviour while simultaneously building high-standard research capacity in other areas.  This has occurred via the establishment of fresh Research Units, such as the Corporate Governance Research Unit mentioned above.  Resourcing for the Research Units has been included in the new Business School’s budget.  The development of these Units is being facilitated by the consolidation of research administration and assistance arrangements under the aegis of an umbrella body covering all the School’s Research Centres and Units plus the IICTD.  This consolidation is providing synergies and economies of scale across the Research Centres and Units and enables support staff (including the Research Assistants internally financed by the Business School) to be redeployed to furnish the help with literature reviews, data collection, interviewing and transcript preparation, software support, data analysis, etc., needed for specific projects.  The umbrella organisation is headed by a Professor who line manages its Research Assistants and auxiliary staff.

The Centre for Research in Marketing will continue its internationally recognised work on nonprofit marketing, focusing on digital and internet aspects of fundraising and on government-nonprofit interactions.  The IICTD is consolidating its strengths on the modification and development of methodologies to evaluate the role of tourism in poverty reduction in developing countries and the use of leisure and events in urban re-generation in the UK.  The Business School’s strategy for developing COERC is to capitalise on its experience in applying evaluation methodologies in relation to employee performance management in “modernising” public sector organisations.  Research will also continue to focus on employment prospects facing disadvantaged and socially marginalised groups.

Concomitantly, less specialised lines of research are being developed in order to provide broadly based theoretical perspectives and underpinnings for the more applied research themes pursued by the Centres, the new Units and the Research Institute.  This is evidenced by recently published or completed work in the fields of technology transfer, emotional intelligence among marketing directors, and on the engagement of higher education institutions in business and the community.  Many papers concerning these topics are currently in review, or have been accepted and are awaiting publication in highly rated journals such as the British Journal of Management, the Journal of Documentation, the International Journal of Public Sector Management, the International Small Business Journal, and the International Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development.

The University has determined that four multi-disciplinary strands of research are to receive particular attention in the future: health, child and family, media and communications, and sustainable development.  The Business School is well-placed to promote fresh research in these areas, given its research strengths in marketing communications (cf. media and communications), nonprofit and public sector marketing and management (cf. health and child and family), and international tourism (cf. sustainable development).  Support for research in the four fields is being provided by the University through the appointment of a Business School Professor in the general area of “sustainability” and through hiring a number (as yet unspecified) of “new generation researchers” in relevant areas, accompanied by research studentships.

The School’s objective is for research to grow rapidly over the next two to five years and for the whole ethos, atmosphere and reputation of the School to involve research.  This is occurring through research-driven new appointments and through non-researchers either moving on, or becoming research-active in order to stand comparison with their colleagues.

(b)                          Mechanisms in Place to Develop and Review the Strategy
The University has a research committee comprising representatives of senior management, Heads of Department, and Directors of Research Institutes.  This committee formulates research strategies at the University level.  The new Business School has a research committee that advises the School’s Deputy Director on matters concerning the allocation of resources for research policies, consultancy, etc.  Within the School there is an Associate Director: Postgraduate Programmes and Research.  Additionally the School has appointed an Associate Director who is specifically responsible for raising Third Stream income.  A proportion of the funds generated by the Associate Director for Third Stream Income has been earmarked to help finance the expansion of the School’s research activities.  In particular, the School’s new consultancy policy requires that at least ten per cent of all surpluses from consultancy activities go into a central fund that will be used to support research.  As the volume of Third Stream income entering the Business School grows it will become possible to invest substantially more than at present in research infrastructure, bursaries for research students, and research assistance for staff.

(c)                          Main Objectives and Planned Activities for the Next Five Years
The formation of the new Business School has created exciting possibilities for the development of business research within the University.  A comprehensive review of the School’s research capacity and potential has been undertaken with the aim of stimulating research and defining a credible five year plan that realistically reflects the School’s research skills and resource position.  Key elements of the Business School’s strategy are the establishment of additional research posts in accounting, marketing and international business, together with the creation of a significant number of PhD bursaries in these areas.  Doctoral colloquia involving external as well as internal PhD students are taking place, addressed by leading academics from other Universities.  An example is the 1st Doctoral Workshop of the Nonprofit, Social, Arts and Heritage Marketing Special Interest Group of the UK Academy of Marketing that will be held at London Metropolitan in January 2008, sponsored by the Academy of Marketing.  

Linkages between Research Centres and Units and the School’s pre-existing contacts with industrial and commercial organisations will be further encouraged and new industry links will be initiated.  London Metropolitan’s international presence is expanding rapidly, particularly vis-à-vis long-term partnerships with foreign Universities (notably in India, Cyprus, France, Cuba and Vietnam).  The School intends that these partnerships be employed as a platform for developing high-quality research collaborations with the institutions concerned.  A research career structure has been constructed at the University level, with systematic progression according to pre-established criteria and the attainment of specified benchmarks.  This will run alongside a Business School based research training and mentoring programme operating at three levels: PhD training; post-doctoral mentoring; and ad hoc advanced training for experienced researchers.  In October 2008 the first of a series of one-day Workshops for “early career researchers” will be held (again under the auspices of the Academy of Marketing) for the benefit of post-doctoral staff from within and outside the University who have completed their PhDs during the previous five years, who have substantial publication records, and who now wish to progress to higher levels within the research community.  Topics covered by the Workshop will include “strategies and tactics for publishing in higher ranked journals”; “integrating research with administrative management responsibilities”, “achieving a suitable work-life balance”, and “mixing research with being a Head of Department”.  Speakers at the event will include individuals who have published in leading US journals, and Deans of Faculty and Heads of Department of UK Universities who have succeeded in balancing personal research with administration.  

A late-career research rejuvenation programme is being introduced for non-research active staff who are not heavily involved in course administration.  This will involve the appointment of a mentor, collaboration in projects with experienced research staff, conference attendance and the establishment of targets for research outputs (typically conference papers in the first instance).  At an appropriate point in the programme the late career researcher will join one of the School’s established Centres or Units and devote progressively more time to research.  The objective is that, within the next decade all full time members of staff shall be engaged in business research.  Publication is seen as an expected outcome of this objective.  Realistic targets will be set for the types of journals in which relatively inexperienced researchers should initially aim to publish their work, as the publishing skills and techniques they acquire while preparing materials for appropriate (often specialist) journals will build their self-confidence and prepare them for successful submission to more demanding outlets.  Staff will be rewarded and recognised for their contributions to research, in terms of both time and accelerated career progression.  Research ability and potential will figure prominently in all new appointments to academic posts within the School.  The considerable success in winning research funding from prestigious sources such as Research Councils, the
European Commission and the Joseph Rowntree Foundation achieved by the IICTD will be consolidated and developed in the next five years.  Research Centres and Units will also bid assertively for external research funding.  

The development of the international reputations of the School’s Research Centres and of individual researchers will be a major priority over the next five years.   This will be achieved by Centres and individuals continuing to produce excellent published research, by increasing the number of international exchange programmes with scholars from other countries, by the participation of researchers in international projects and events, and by increasing the number of foreign visiting Professors.  Staff will be encouraged to cultivate distinctive areas of expertise that attract international recognition.

(d)                          Current Research Expected to become Significant in the Future but which has yet to Produce Results
IICTD has two major research projects that have just ended and whose results are currently being prepared for publication and which are likely to be significant in the future: research methods in understanding pro-poor tourism, and research and policy in intangible heritage.  It is anticipated that research initiated by the recently formed Unit for Research in Corporate Governance will generate numerous publications over the next two to four years.  The Centre for Research in Marketing has developed substantial research expertise in the area of internet online fundraising and the fruits of this will emerge in the near future.  Already papers on this subject authored by members of the Centre have appeared in journals such as the Journal of Internet Commerce, the Quarterly Journal of Electronic Commerce, the European Journal of Innovation Management, the Journal of Marketing Channels, and the Journal of Website Promotion, and many more will follow as the Centre’s work in this area gathers momentum.

(e)                          Steps taken to Support Early Career Researchers
In addition to financial support for PhD fees and conference attendance, early career researchers receive teaching relief.   In appropriate circumstances they are allocated a mentor with whom they undertake joint research.   Early career researchers are encouraged to associate themselves with a Research Centre or Institute and to interact with the Centre or Institute’s members.  A Business School post-doctoral mentoring and personal development scheme has been devised.  This involves sessions and personal advice on balancing teaching with research, the trade-offs associated with moving into administration, how to make the most of the first five years, bidding for funding, and how to develop new research themes and directions and manage a portfolio of research projects.

(f)                          Evidence of Continuity of Strategy and Comments on Divergences from Plans Set Out in the 2001 Submission
Two collaborative three-year projects mentioned in the 2001 Leisure and Tourism submission developed into several externally funded programmes, i.e.:

2001 – 2004:                “Institution Building in the Field of Tourism and the Cultural Industries in Bosnia-Herzegovina”, funded by the EU Tempus Programme (€491,868).
2002: “Mekong River Tourism Infrastructure Development”, funded by the Asian Development Bank (£6,000).
2002 – 2004: “Economic and Cultural Heritage Development in Hai Duong, Vietnam”, funded by the European Union Asia URBS Programme (€467,257).
2002 – 2005: “Mediterranean Voices:  Oral History and Cultural Practice in Mediterranean Cities”, funded by the European Union Mediterranean Heritage Programme (€2,940,000).
2003 – 2005: “Building Capacity for Pro-Poor Tourism”, funded by the European Commission ASEAN-EU University Network Programme (€200,000).

Papers arising from the project concerning the market orientation and practices of UK seaports noted in the 2001 London Guildhall University submission were published in 2002 and 2003.  As predicted in the 2001 document, the Centre for Research in Marketing has expanded its activities into areas beyond marketing communications.  A number of Arts (and Non-profit) Marketing conferences have been hosted, including the event mentioned in the 2001 document (see above for details).   Two of the research students recruited by the Centre prior to the 2001 submission successfully completed in 2002.


Editorial Positions
The international esteem of several of the staff submitted under this UoA was evidenced during the review period by their involvement with the editing of numerous academic journals, as specified below.

Professor Roger Bennett served on the editorial review boards of the follow journals:
(1)                          1997 – present:                                                 Journal of Marketing Communications
(2)                          2000 – 2005:                                       International Marketing Review
(3)                          2002 – present:                                                 International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector
(4)                          2000 – present:                                                 Corporate Reputation Review
(5)                          2004 – present:                                                 International Review of Public and Nonprofit Marketing
                              (new journal: first issue October 2004)
(6)                          2005 – present:                                                 Euro Mediterranean Journal of Business
                              (new journal, first issue 2005)
(7)                          2007 – present:                                                 Journal of Nonprofit and Public Sector Marketing

Additionally he acted as an ad hoc reviewer for the European Journal of Marketing, Journal of Consumer Research, International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, Urban Studies, Leadership and Organisational Development Journal, Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Regional Studies, Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, Studies in Higher Education, the European Academy of Marketing (EMAC), the (UK) Academy of Marketing, the (US) Academy of Marketing Science, and the ESRC.
Professor Bennett guest edited special issues of a number of academic journals, namely:  

Special Issue on “Nonprofit, Social and Arts Marketing” of the Journal of Business Research, Vol.58, Issue 6, June 2005.

Special Issue on “Image, Identity and Reputation Management of Nonprofit, Arts and Cultural Organisations” of Corporate Reputation Review: An International Journal, Vol.6, Issue 3, October 2003.

Special Issue on “Arts and Cultural Marketing” of the International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, Vol.7, Issue 2, May 2002.

Special Issue on “Advances in Nonprofit Marketing” of the International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, Vol.11, Issue 2, May 2006.

Professor Michael Hitchcock serves on the editorial board of Analisas Pariwisata (Tourism Analysis) and was guest editor for the Special Issues of the following journals:
“ASEAN Business in Crisis”, Asia Pacific Business Review, Vol.13, Issue 8, Winter 2001.
“Tourism and Heritage in Southeast Asia”, Indonesia and the Malay World, Vol.31, Issue 89, 2003.
“The Politics of World Heritage: Negotiating Tourism and Conservation”, Current Issues in Tourism, Vol.7, Issue-4-5, 2004.

In 2006 Professor Hitchcock was appointed co-editor (with V.T. King) of the series “A Modern Anthropology of South East Asia”, to be published by Routledge.

Professor Yochanan Altman continued to edit the Journal of Managerial Psychology (associate editor) and the Journal of Human Resource Planning (International Editor).  He served on the board of the “Yale University Press Book Series in Human Resource Management” and on the board of the European International Human Resources Management practitioner network European HR Forum.  Additionally he was an ad hoc reviewer for journals including the British Journal of Industrial Relations, Economic and Industrial Democracy, Gender, Work and Organisation, Industrial Relations Journal, Journal of Gender Studies and Sociological Review and was a reviewer for book proposals for Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group and the University of Toronto Press.

Dr Kojo Menyah acted as associate editor of the following journals:
2003 – present: African Finance Journal
2005 – present: African Journal of Business and Economics

He was a reviewer for:
Journal of Banking and Finance
Brussels Economic Review
(3)                          Review of Financial Economics
(4)                          Corporate Governance: An International Journal
(5)                          International Review of Economics and Finance
(6)                          Emerging Markets Finance and Trade
(7)                          African Finance Journal
(8)                          African Journal of Economics and Business Research

Additionally he edited a Special Issue of Managerial Finance on “International Cash Management”, Vol. 31, Issue 10, October 2005.

Professor David Harrison served on the editorial boards of the following journals:
1996 – present         Annals of Tourism Research
1998 – present         Current Issues in Tourism
1996 – present         Tourism Review International
1997 – present         Tourism, Culture and Communication
2000 – present         Tourism and Hospitality Planning and Development
2000 – present         Tourism and Hospitality Research
1997 – 2007             Tourism Management
1996 – present         Tourism Review International

He has guest edited Special Issues of:
(1)                          “Tourism in Islands and Microstates”, Tourism Recreation Research, Vol. 26, Issue 3, 2001.
(2)                          “The Politics of World Heritage: Negotiating Tourism and Conservation”, Current Issues in Tourism, Vol. 7, Issue 4-5, 2004.
(3)                          “Tourism in Pacific Islands”, Journal of Pacific Studies, Vol. 26, Issue 1-2, 2004.
(4)                          “Tourism, Leisure and Land Management and Tourism”, Property Management, Vol. 22, Issue 5, 2004.

Dr Rita Kottasz was on the editorial board of the Journal of Nonprofit and Public Sector Marketing from 2000 to 2007 and acted as a reviewer for the International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, the Journal of Brand Management, and for papers submitted to the Annual Conference of the Academy of Marketing.

Helen Gabriel has served on the editorial review board of the Journal of Marketing Communications since 1999 and completed ad hoc reviews for the International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, Maritime Policy and Management, and for the Annual Conference of the Academy of Marketing.

Dr John Coshall was the UK Co-ordinating Editor for Annals of Tourism Research (2002 -2007) and is currently the Associate Editor.   He was also on the editorial board of the Journal of Tourism Research (2004 – present).

Professor Stephen Perkins served on the editorial advisory board of the journal Pay and Benefits (2001 – 2007) and acted as an ad hoc reviewer for European Management Review, Personnel Review, Thunderbird International Business Review, and for the Journal of Managerial Psychology, as well as for Oxford University Press and the ESRC Research Grants Panel.  He also served as a reviewer in relation to conference papers submitted to the Academy of Management, and the International Federation of Scholarly Associations.

Conference Chairs
Professor Roger Bennett hosted and chaired four significant academic conferences during the review period, namely:
(1)                          Host and Conference Chair: Second Annual Colloquium on Nonprofit, Social and Arts Marketing, 2002.
(2)                          Host, Conference Chair and Proceedings Editor: Eighth International Conference on Corporate and Marketing Communications, 2003 (ISBN 1-899764-29-1).
(3)                          Host and Conference Chair:  Fourth International Colloquium on Nonprofit, Social and Arts Marketing, 2004.
Host, Conference Chair and Proceedings Editor: First Joint Workshop of the Nonprofit and Arts/Heritage Marketing Special Interest Groups of the Academy of Marketing, 2006 (ISBN 1-899764-57-7).

Dr Kojo Menjah hosted and acted as Conference Chair for the British Accounting Association South East Area Group Annual Conference, September 2003.

Dr Nana Owusu-Frimpong hosted the Eighth International Academy of African Business and Development Conference, June 2007.  This was attended by delegates from 21 countries including four High Commissioners and one Ambassador of African Nations.

Professor Stephen Perkins organised and chaired (together with Professor Paul Gallan of the London School of Economics) the 2007 “Voice and Value” Conference held on 9 March 2007 in partnership with the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development for Professional Development.

Other Esteem Indicators
Professor Roger Bennett was invited by the Australian National University to deliver the opening plenary and keynote address to the inaugural Australasian Nonprofit and Social Marketing Conference in Canberra in September 2004.  Professor Stephen Perkins was an invited speaker at a variety of high level international business practitioner gatherings, e.g., the Saudi Telecom Performance Management Seminar (London, September 2003), Expatriate Technology Forum (Lisbon, September 2003); European Personnel Management Association Biennial Conference (Dublin, May 2005); Statoil International HR Conference (Windsor, October 2005); Baltic Management Institute (Vilnius, March 2006), and the CIPD “Research into Practice” Conference (July 2007).  Professor Michael Hitchcock was the UK elected member for EUROSEAS, a Trustee of the James Henry Green Charitable Trust and was a member of the British Academy’s Committee for Southeast Asian Studies.  Professor Yochanan Altman served as a panel judge of the 2005 Academy of Management “Management Spirituality and Religion” (MSR) division PhD awards and of the 2005 Academy of Management “International Management” division Dexter award.  Dr Nana Owusu-Frimpong became the vice-president of the International Association of African Business and Development.


IICTD has conducted applied and policy related research on behalf of the Department of Culture, Media and Sports (DCMS), Business Links for London,
The Royal Parks Agency and the London Development Agency (LDA), as follows:
2002 Vietnamese Small Businesses in London £8,360 Business Links for London
2002 Sports Scoping Study £5,800 LDA
2002 London’s Turkish Small Businesses £8,415 Business Links for London
2003 The Influence of Culture on Urban Regeneration £23,325 Department for Culture, Media and Sports
2006/2007 Visitors to the Royal Parks: Valid and Reliable Visitor Figures £25,000 The Royal Parks Agency

The Business School’s aim is to encourage and extend policy-based and practice-based research, especially as it connects and interfaces with business consultancy.  In 2007 a self-financing section was established within the School to develop these activities.  This section has a full-time administrator and runs a wide variety of programmes and research projects for clients in the private and public sectors.